Prevention and Detection For Men: Monthly testicular self-examination Annual clinical testicular or prostate exam by a healthcare professional: ages 20 to 40 for testicular cancer; age 40 and above for prostate cancer Annual PSA blood test for prostate cancer, beginning at age 50 (earlier for AfricanAmericans or if symptoms exist) For Women: Monthly breast self-examination Clinical breast exam by a healthcare professional: ages 20 to 40, every 3 years; age 40 and above, every year Annual mammogram beginning at age 40 Annual pelvic examination, beginning at age 18 PAP test beginning at age 18 until age 70, should be done: o Every three years after three normal annual exams, o Every five years after hysterectomy (unless hysterectomy done for cancer), or o Every year if history of abnormal PAP tests or cervical cancer. Frequency of PAP test sampling varies for specific patient groups depending upon prior results and hysterectomy history For Everyone: DON’T SMOKE OR CHEW TOBACCO! Use sunscreen and avoid excessive sun exposure and burning. Check moles and warts monthly for changes in size, color or texture. Eat a balanced diet with 5 to 10 servings per day of fruits and vegetables. Increase fiber and reduce fat, especially red meat. Annual rectal exam after age 40. Beginning at age 50, men and women should follow one of these colorectal cancer screening schedules: o Yearly hemoccult test for hidden blood, plus flexible sigmoidoscopy (1) every five years (this combination is preferred) o Flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, or o Double-contrast barium enema every five years, or o Colonoscopy (2) every 10 years. Annual cancer check-up by a healthcare professional: over 20 years, every three years; over 40 years, every year For additional information about any of the above strategies or to schedule an examination, contact the Columbus Cancer Clinic at 614-263-5006. ____________________________________________________________________________ (1) SIGMOIDOSCOPY is the inspection of the lower colon with a fiberoptic light. A flexible tube with a light is inserted into the rectum and then advanced throughout the colon. The physician views the inner lining of the bowel and obtains a biopsy if indicated. This procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. It requires bowel preparation beforehand so the physician can clearly see the bowel lining. The patient remains awake during the procedure. (2) Colonoscopy is the inspection of the entire colon with a fiberoptic light. A flexible tube with a light is inserted into the rectum and then gently advanced. The physician views the inner lining of the bowel and obtains a biopsy if indicated. This procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. The patient receives some sedation and pain relieving medication through an intravenous catheter prior to the procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is required prior to the procedure for the physician to clearly see the bowel lining.