Names ____________________________ School ____________________ Team # ________ Science Olympiad Invitational 2009 Meteorology Event - Climate Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds, and cloud in an area are known as its a. climate. b. weather. c. global warming. d. seasons. 2. The farther you live from an ocean, the more likely your climate will be a a. marine climate. b. tropical climate. c. continental climate. d. subtropical climate. 3. Summers are caused by a. a combination of longer days and more direct rays from the sun. b. less direct rays from the sun. c. longer days and longer nights. d. Earth in its orbit moving closer to the sun. 4. The seasons are caused by a. Earth’s varying distance from the sun. b. Earth’s changing rate of rotation. c. the tilt of Earth’s axis as Earth revolves around the sun. d. shifting climates on Earth’s surface. 5. Climates are classified according to two major factors: a. elevation and precipitation. b. latitude and temperature. c. elevation and latitude. d. precipitation and temperature. 6. In addition to temperature and precipitation, Köppen’s climate system classified climates by a region’s a. microclimates. b. vegetation. c. seasonal winds. d. air masses. 7. Clues to what ancient climates were like come from all of the following EXCEPT a. fossil trees. b. very old weather records. c. fossil tree rings. d. ancient plant pollens. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 8. An important principle scientists follow to determine ancient climates is: a. Larger plants and animals require warmer climates. b. If an organism today needs certain conditions to live, then a similar organism that lived in the past needed similar conditions. c. Earth was warmer long ago, so the climates were too. d. Climatic changes today occur faster than in ancient times. 9. The most recent major ice age in North America extended as far south as a. northern Minnesota and Wisconsin. b. Nebraska and Iowa. c. New Mexico and Oklahoma. d. southern Texas and Florida. 10. During an ice age, Earth’s sea level a. rises. b. lowers. c. remains unchanged. d. rises and lowers rhythmically. 11. Which of the following do scientists think will probably cause Earth’s next ice age? a. an increase in sun spots b. several major volcanic eruptions c. changes in Earth’s orbit and the tilt of its axis d. continental drift 12. Some scientists theorize that continental movements may cause climate changes by a. changing patterns of winds and ocean currents. b. shifting the equatorial and temperate zones. c. altering the makeup of the troposphere. d. redistributing Earth’s vegetation. 13. Over the past 200 years, the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has a. decreased slightly. b. increased until recently, and then decreased. c. increased steadily. d. stayed about the same. 14. Increased carbon dioxide may cause global warming by a. allowing more sunlight into the atmosphere. b. reflecting more sunlight from clouds. c. reducing the amount of oxygen in the air. d. trapping more heat in the atmosphere. 15. Earth’s ozone layer a. has been thickening over the past several years. b. filters harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. c. exists only over Antarctica. d. traps carbon dioxide in the stratosphere. 16. Chlorine atoms in the stratosphere a. break down ozone into oxygen atoms. b. increase the amount of ozone. c. combine with oxygen to form poisonous gases. d. prevent light from passing through the ozone layer. ____ 17. The sun’s rays are least direct a. near the poles. b. near the equator. c. at high altitudes. d. far from the ocean. ____ 18. Scientists predict that banning the use of chlorofluorocarbons will a. have no effect on the ozone layer. b. gradually restore the ozone layer. c. increase ultraviolet light reaching Earth. d. increase the rate of ozone depletion. ____ 19. The climate on the leeward side of a mountain differs from that on the windward side mostly in a. the strength of the winds. b. the direction of the winds. c. the angle of sunlight. d. the amount of rainfall. ____ 20. Sea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the season are called a. savannas. b. prevailing westerlies. c. monsoons. d. doldrum winds. ____ 21. Near the end of both March and September, a. spring begins in both hemispheres. b. the sun’s rays strike Earth with the same intensity everywhere. c. Earth’s axis is no longer pointing at the North Star. d. neither end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun. ____ 22. El Niño is a weather pattern that forms in the a. polar Pacific Ocean. b. tropical Pacific Ocean. c. tropical Atlantic Ocean. d. polar Atlantic Ocean. ____ 23. Day and night are caused by a. the tilt of Earth’s axis. b. Earth’s revolution around the sun. c. eclipses. d. Earth’s rotation on its axis. ____ 24. One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about a. one rotation. b. one season. c. one year. d. one eclipse. ____ 25. When the north end of Earth’s axis is tilted toward the sun, North America will experience a. more indirect rays and shorter days. b. more indirect rays and longer days. c. more direct rays and shorter days. d. more direct rays and longer days. ____ 26. Which of the following is true of El Niño? a. Scientists fully understand the conditions that create El Niño. b. El Niño affects only the ocean, not the land. c. El Niño can cause severe storms and can prevent upwelling in certain areas. d. El Niño usually occurs twice a year. ____ 27. The two most abundant gases in the atmosphere are a. carbon dioxide and oxygen. b. carbon dioxide and nitrogen. c. nitrogen and oxygen. d. nitrogen and hydrogen. ____ 28. Ozone is a. a form of oxygen with three oxygen atoms in each molecule. b. a form of nitrogen with three nitrogen atoms in each molecule. c. a form of oxygen with two oxygen atoms in each molecule. d. a form of nitrogen with two nitrogen atoms in each molecule. ____ 29. The ozone layer is found in the a. troposphere. b. stratosphere. c. mesosphere. d. thermosphere. ____ 30. The ozone layer protects living things on Earth from a. visible light. b. infrared rays. c. ultraviolet radiation. d. carbon dioxide. ____ 31. Earth has seasons because a. it rotates on its axis. b. the distance between Earth and the sun changes. c. its axis is tilted as it moves around the sun. d. the temperature of the sun changes. _____ 1. Normally _______________ trade winds push warm surface water to the western Pacific Ocean. A. easterly B. westerly C. northerly D. southerly _____ 2. Normally warm water is pushed toward A. The United States B. Australia and Asia C. South America D. Antarctica _____ 3. Where there is warm water there are usually A. winter storms B. clouds and rain C. droughts D. tornadoes _____ 4. Since warm water is usually pushed to the west, ________ usually occurs near Peru A. downwelling C. swimming B. flooding D. upwelling _____ 1. Ozone depletion refers to the B. warming of Earth by certain gases C. cooling of Earth by certain gases D. destruction of the ozone layer E. warming of the Earth by aerosols and CFC’s _____ 2. The ozone layer is being destroyed by A. aerosols and CFC’s B. burning fossil fuels C. carbon dioxide D. Ultraviolet rays _____ 3. One result of ozone depletion is A. cooler temperatures C. skin cancer B. warmer temperatures D. allergies _____ 1. A square meter of which of these surfaces would absorb the most energy on a clear day? A. freshly fallen snow B. a dark-green forest C. a beach with white sand D. a snow covered field ___ 7. Which of the following can cause global cooling? A. Ash from volcanic eruptions B. Increasing CO2 C. Decreasing clouds D. Ozone depletion Short Answer Use the diagram to answer each question. 23. Which zones are polar zones? 24. Which zone is the tropical zone? 25. Which zones are temperate zones? 26. Which continent lies almost completely within a polar zone? 27. Give the names of the zones in which South America lies. Essay 28. Prevailing winds blow from the Pacific Ocean toward two cities separated by mountains. City A is on the leeward side of the mountains and city B is on the windward side. Which city is likely to have a wetter climate? Explain your answer. 29. Explain why one hemisphere has spring at the same time the other hemisphere has autumn. 30. Briefly describe two hypotheses for the cause of global warming. 31. Briefly describe three theories scientists have proposed to explain natural climate changes. 32. Explain how the ozone layer has changed and why this is dangerous to humans. 33. Define upwelling and explain its importance. 34. Describe two ways in which natural processes add harmful particles to the air. 35. How might humans evolve or adapt to adjust to a permanently thinner ozone layer? 36. In your own words and/or labeled diagram(s), describe how the Greenhouse effect is warming the Earth. 37. Use the diagram to answer the question below. 36. If the current trend of rising temperatures continues for another 1000 years in the United States, explain two ways in which the distribution of climate zones shown on the above graphic is likely to change. 37. 38. 39.