DEBATE TERMINOLOGY Affirmative - the debaters who are arguing in favor of adopting the resolution. Argument - A way of presenting persuasive information in a structured form Attitudinal Inherency - Attitudes within the status quo preventing attainment of advantages within the present system. Bright Line Standard - A topicality argument that suggests the affirmative should define a clearly identifiable boundary between topical and non-topical cases Burden of Proof - The affirmative’s responsibility to prove a need for adoption of the resolution. Clash - To provide direct opposition or argument Constructive Speech - The first speech given by each debater in a round. Contention - The rationale for a need for change. (A harm in the present system is expressed as a contention). Cost-Benefit Analysis - A broad policy analysis measuring the benefits of the policy versus the cost. Counterplan - A non-topical solution to the affirmative case presented by the negative team in conjunction with accepting the affirmative rationale for change. Criteria - Standards or objectives that form the basis for establishing or evaluating policy. In L-D debate, a criterion is a standard by which a statement may be judged. Cross-Apply - Arguments applied to more than one area Cross-examination Debate - A debate format having a questioning period between the constructive speeches. Disadvantage - A harm resulting from the adoption of the affirmative plan Disadvantage Shell - The outline of a disadvantage given by the first negative and developed by the second negative. Elimination Rounds - Debates involving the top teams (determined by the preliminary rounds). Elimination rounds usually involve quarter-finals, semi-finals, and finals. The winner of each successive round advances; the loser is eliminated from the tournament. Evidence - All printed material used as reference and support material in a debate. This includes statistics, quotations, facts or examples, and expert testimony or opinion. Extemporaneous Speaking - Speaking without the benefit of a prepared manuscript Extra-topicality - Gaining the affirmative rationale through mechanisms other than those required by the resolution. Fallacy - A false or mistaken idea Fiat - The affirmative right to state that the affirmative plan will come into existence for the purposes of debating its workability and potential disadvantages. Flip - Using an opponent’s position to prove the opposite Framer’s Intent - The types of cases the author(s) of a resolution envisioned on a topic. Generic Arguments - Attacks that are relevant on a variety of topics. Harms - Needs or contentions presented by the affirmative team as rationale for change. Inherency - The barrier that keeps the status quo from achieving the affirmative case rationale. Limiting the topic - This refers to the affirmative’s right to select the issue to be discussed in a debate. It is impossible to cover all aspects of a given problem. The affirmative singles out, with the case, which problems will be discussed. Lincoln-Douglas Debate - A debate with a single debater on each side using a proposition of value. Negative - The debaters arguing against the adoption of the resolution. Negative Presumption - The concept that the status quo is effective and beneficial until proven otherwise by the affirmative. Novice - A first-year debater Overtime - Speaking beyond the allotted time Overview - Arguments not directly refuting case arguments which are given before or after specific case arguments. Plan - The affirmative’s proposed method of implementing the resolution Policy Debate - A debate, usually with two-person teams, on a policy topic. Prima Facie Case - The concept that the affirmative must present sufficient evidence and analysis to warrant acceptance of the resolution prior to counter arguments. Proposition of Fact - A debate topic that calls for a determination of facts. Proposition of Policy - A debate topic that argues for or against a particular course of action. Proposition of Value - A debate topic that centers on a values conflict. Qualitative Significance - Significance which is not necessarily measurable, but which will improve the quality of a system. Quantitative Significance - A measurable, numerical form of significance. Rationale - The reasons for adopting the resolution Rebuttal Speeches - The second speech given by each speaker in a debate round. Refutation - Evidence and argumentation that deny the validity of the opponent’s position. Round - One complete debate Secondary Source - A source which reprints previously published material. “Should” - Ought to but not necessarily will be done. Significance - The importance or scope of an issue Solvency - The ability of the affirmative plan to solve the needs or gain the advantages Speaker Ranking - Points on a debate ballot that are awarded to each speaker on a comparative basis with the performance of the other speakers. The best speaker receives a 1, etc. Specialized Dictionary - Dictionaries that index only those words related to a specific field such as law, medicine, political science, or economics. Status Quo - The present system of programs, laws, and policies. Topic - The subject for debate Topicality - The concept that the affirmative case and plan must deal with the subject for debate and prove why the topic should be adopted. Uniqueness - The term for inherency in a comparative advantage case. The status quo must not be capable of obtaining the advantages; they must be unique to adoption of the topic. Utilitarianism - A doctrine that what is useful is good Value - A concept or ideal which makes some judgement. Voting Issues - The reasons why a judge decides to give the decision to one team instead of the other team Workability - The ability of the affirmative plan to function.