Minerals – naturally occurring inorganic

Minerals – naturally occurring inorganic
crystalline solid, with definite structure
 Identified by physical properties like:
inorganic – not living
color – least reliable method of mineral
luster – the way light is reflected by a
mineral, metallic – shiny like a metal
streak – color of the mineral in the powdered
form, tested with a streak plate
crystal – regular shaped solid
hardness – the resistance to scratching of a
mineral, Moh’s scale of hardness, test
with a glass plate
cleavage – the regular breakage of a mineral
fracture – irregular breakage
specific gravity – ratio of the density of the
substance to the density of water
rock - solid made of minerals
igneous – rock that cooled from a melt
sedimentary – rock made from pieces of
other rocks or chemical or biologic
metamorphic – rock formed from heat and
or pressure
crystallization – liquid turning into solid
felsic – light colored, igneous, silica-rich,
aluminum-rich, low density
mafic – dark colored, igneous, iron +
magnesium-rich, high density
fragmental – pieces of rock
organic – made from once living things
fossil – evidence of former life
evaporite – sedimentary rock formed from
the evaporation of seawater
foliation – banding in metamorphic rocks,
alternating light and dark colors
texture – crystal and/ or grain size in a rock
rock cycle – shows the origin and formation
of the classes of rocks
natural resources – substances that come
from Earth
renewable – resources that can be replaced
nonrenewable – resources that can not be
replaced on Earth
fossil fuels – coal, oil, natural gas, peat,
alternatives energy sources – solar, wind,
hydro, geothermal, anything other
than using fossil fuels