Referencing - The University of Waikato

There are a number of different referencing styles used around the university. This section
outlines the strict guidelines of the three most commonly used referencing styles in FASS.
Referencing is the process of acknowledging someone else’s work within another document. All
University essays and reports are required to have a consistent referencing style or format. While
drafting your essays, you will use many library books & journals. Once you find a useful idea to
support your argument, you must provide a reference to the source of that idea. A reason why we
require a consistent reference style is so that your readers will find it easy to retrieve the original
information that you have used to support your essay.
This section is divided into three sub-sections, each representing one of the three main referencing
styles used within the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences; APA; MHRA; and Harvard. The style
you should use will depend on the Department you are studying within. If you are unsure about
what referencing style to adopt, just ask your lecturer or tutor. The main thing about referencing is
that you are consistent, and follow the same style write throughout the whole essay or report.
Because this chapter contains such a large amount of information, it is recommended that you go
straight to the sub-section on the reference style that you will be required to use in your papers.
Leave the other two for now. You can always refer back to this booklet if you have to switch styles.
FASS Subjects and their corresponding referencing style:
Art History
East Asian Studies
APA recommended, however other styles are accepted
provided students are consistent
European Languages
No set style
General and Applied Linguistics
APA recommended
Geography, Tourism and Environmental Planning
No set style as long as students are consistent
Philosophy and Religious Studies
No set style as long as students are consistent
Screen and Media Studies
Sociology and Social Policy
Theatre Studies
If your unsure about the referencing style to use ask your lecturer 
The APA Referencing Style
What is the APA referencing style?
The APA reference style is the American Psychology Association style for formatting text citations
and bibliographic references. Within the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, the Departments of
Sociology and Social Policy, Linguistics, and Psychology all use the APA style.
Step 1: In-text citations in APA style
Whether paraphrasing or quoting an author directly, you must credit the source.
When using APA style, instead of footnotes or endnotes, parenthetical references are used for
formatting citations in text. Parenthetical references are bits of information located between the (
and ) symbols (known as parentheses). These ‘in-text citations’ always include the Author's name
and year of publication within a parenthesis to acknowledge each citation. Therefore, APA style is
known as an Author-Date citation system.
e.g. 1
Samovar & Porter (1997) point out that "language involves attaching meaning to
world symbols" (p. 286).
e.g. 2
The origin of language is historically considered as symbols (Samovar & Porter,
1997; Anderson, 2000).
e.g. 3
Samovar & Porter (as cited in Peterson, 2002, para. 3) discuss that language must
be first understood as symbols.
Parenthetical references are brief, but should include enough information (page numbers) to
enable your reader to find full citations in the reference list. Use a paragraph number (abbreviation
para. ?) for electronic sources that have no page numbers (as in example 3).
1: Direct quotations (e.g. 1)
Use double quotation marks to enclose another author's words. A location reference
(page numbers or paragraph numbers) must be provided. If your direct quotation is more
than 40 words, indent the quoted section without quotation marks.
2: Indirect quotations (e.g. 2)
If you paraphrase quotations, you need to integrate them as part of your text with own
words. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are not
required to provide a location reference.
3: Citations from a secondary source (e.g. 3)
If you want to use an idea from an author cited by another author, use "as cited in." In the
reference list at the end of your essay, list only the secondary source (in this example, it
would be Peterson that you would list on your reference page).
Step 2: Creating your Reference List in APA style
Once references are cited in text, you need to append a list of references to acknowledge the cited
materials. All references cited in the text must appear in the list. The reference list provides the
information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Our purpose of listing references is to
enable readers to retrieve and use the sources - reference data must be correct and complete.
However, your reference list does not require library call numbers.
Basic bibliographic data that are usually included in each citation are:
1. Author's or Editor's Name(s)
2. Publication Date
3. Title of Item (must be italicised)
4. Publication Information
- Publication Place: Publisher's Name (Books, Videos, CD-ROMs etc.)
- Issue Number & Page Numbers (Periodicals - journals, magazines, newspapers etc.)
- Full Web Address - URL (Electronic sources)
(1) Author's Name
Invert all authors' name - give surnames and initials. For editors, use (Ed.) or (Eds.) after
initials of editor(s).
In works that have no author's name such as newspaper articles, "title of item" should appear
in place of "author" before "publication date.
For electronic sources, wherever possible, identify the authors of documents. Be mindful of the
quality of online documents.
Example 1:
White, R.
Dryden, G., & Vos, J.
Robbins, S. P., Bergman, R., & Stagg, I.
Duncan, G. M. (Ed.).
Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.).
[One author]
[Two authors]
[Three and more (up to six) authors]
[One editor]
[Two editors]
(2) Publication Date
References always need a publication date. Finish the element with a period after closing
parenthesis (or brackets).
For electronic sources, the date should be either the date of publication or update or date of
retrieval. Ideally provide the date you retrieved your document.
Example 2:
Stevenson, F. N., & Henry, W. (2002).
[Journals, Books, Audiovisual medias]
[Meetings, monthly magazines, newsletters
[Dailies & weeklies]
[Work with no date available]
Creswell, J. W. (1993, June).
Smith, A. (1994, September 28).
McKenzie, R. (n.d.).
(3) Title of Item
The title of the item must be italicised because this is the first access point for library catalogue
Enclose additional information (edition numbers etc.) after the title with parentheses. Use
brackets to specify a type of items if necessary. e.g. [CD-Rom] / [Electronic version] etc.
For Non-Periodicals (Books, CD-ROMs, DVDs etc.)
 Capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle.
Example 3: A book.
Samovar, L. A., & Porter, R. E. (Eds.) (1997). Intercultural communication: A reader. (8th
ed.). New York, Wadsworth Publication Company.
Example 4: An article (chapter) in a book - no quotation marks for article (chapter) titles.
Gannon, M. J. (1997). Irish conversations. In L. A. Samovar, & R. E. Porter (Eds.),
Intercultural communication: A reader. (8th ed.). (pp. 125-133). New York,
Wadsworth Publication Company.
For Periodicals (Journal, Magazine & Newspapers articles etc.)
 For an article title, capitalise only the first word of the title and of the subtitle.
 For a periodical title, write the title in full, capitalising the first letter of each word
(except words such as ‘and’, ‘in’, ‘of,’ etc).
 Italicise the name of periodicals and volume numbers. A volume number is a part of a
Title. Do not include the abbreviation ‘Vol.’ before the number.
 A document title of online sources must be identified.
Example 5: A journal article - no quotation marks for article titles.
Deutsche, F. (1993). Husbands at home: Predictors of paternal participation in childcare
and housework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1154-1166.
Example 6: A magazine article.
Henry, W. A. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time. 135, 28 - 31.
Example 7: A newspaper article.
Gill, M. A. (2001, December 13). Ringing endorsement. Waikato Times. Edition 2, p. 15.
Drivers reject fuel prices driven by war threat. (2003, March 7). THE TIMARU HERALD. p.1
(4) Publication Information
If two or more publisher locations are given, give the location listed first in the book.
Well-known publication places such as Tokyo and New York do not need states or country
Provide an internet address (URL) of specific documents rather than home or menu page direct readers as close as possible to the information being cited!
Example 8: A well known publication place - omit states and country name.
Creswell, J. W., (1994), Research design: Qualitative & quantitative approaches, London:
Saga Publication.
Example 9: Other publication places including New Zealand cities. (e.g. Hamilton: New
Robbins, S. P., Bergman, R., & Stagg, I. (1997). Management. Maryborough, Victoria,
Australia: Prentice Hall.
Example 10: Journal Articles - issue numbers in a parenthesis & page numbers.
Zhang, Z. (1988). A discussion of communicative culture. Journal of Chinese Language
Teacher Association, 23 (2), 107-112.
Example 11: Online articles from a database - provide a database name. No URLs is
Adderly, B. (2001). Mother nature's medicine chest. Better Nutrition, 63 (8), 30-32.
Retrieved from ProQuest database.
Example 12: An articles in an internet only journal or websites.
Jean & Charles Schulz Information Center, Sonoma State University (2001, August 14).
Citation styles & formats. Retrieved May 6, 2002, from
Example 13: Websites (multiple documents).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). APA style homepage. Retrieved May 2, 2002,
Step 3: Formatting your reference page in APA style
When you type up your reference page, make sure you list all your references alphabetically. If
no author is known, the entry should start with its title. Double check the punctuation of your
reference list (e.g., is it a comma or full stop?).
Once you complete your reference list, make sure that:
 each entry has four basic elements and finishes with a period. (Exception: URLs do not
need a period.)
 each entry referenced appears in both the text and the list.
 the in-text citation and reference list entry are identical in spelling and year.
 the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented.
 all entries are double-spaced
Step 4: Formatting your essay with APA style
You should type your essay.
Double-spacing must be used for your essay in APA reference style. In Microsoft Word, click
on "Paragraph" in the "Format" menu to change line spacing.
Indent the first line of every paragraph. For consistency, use the tab key.
Use 12-point Times New Roman.
Append a reference list to the end of your essay. Start the reference list on a new page. Type
the word, References (Reference, if there is only one), centred, at the top of the page.
This guide is based on The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,
5th edition, and is only intended to help students understand the basic rules of the APA reference
style. Please refer to the actual Manual for more detailed information and examples using APA
reference style. (Quick Reference & Desk Copies of the manual are available on Level 2 of the
Central Library with the Call number: BF11.A69 2001).
Extra Library Tutorials on APA referencing
A tutorial for "APA Reference Style for University Assignments" (45 minutes long) is offered by
Liaison & Information Literacy Team of the Library regularly throughout the academic year.
Please check the library tutorial timetable at the Library Homepage. For more information, please
contact Takashi Uchibayashi, Social Sciences Librarian at the Information desk on Level 2 of the
Central Library or Email: / Telephone: 07-8384466 ext.6224.
Modern Humanities Research Association
Referencing Style (MHRA)
What is the MHRA referencing style?
MHRA is a method of referencing that utilises footnotes or endnotes within an essay. For example,
notes may be given at the foot of each page (footnotes) or collected together at the end of the
assignment (endnotes) to indicate precisely the sources of information used for quotations,
arguments, statistics and so forth throughout the text. They are numbered consecutively
throughout the assignment, and should be inserted at the end of a quotation, or the end of the
sentence, or (as appropriate) at the end of a paragraph. These references are the means by which
other readers can follow up on the resources that you have used. Similar to APA, you will complete
your essay by appending a reference list, or bibliography, on the last page.
Step 1: Formatting your footnotes or endnotes in MHRA style
First reference to a book:
Buddy Mikaere, Te Maiharoa and the Promised Land (Auckland: Heinemann, 1988),
p. 54.
The first reference to a book lists the details in the following order:
Author (initials or first name as given on title page, then surname)
Title italicised or underlined
Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication, all three within ( )
Page reference/s, using p. if only one page is cited, pp. for two or more pages
Second and subsequent references to a book, essay or article for which you have
already given a full reference:
Gibbons, p.35.
Normally, the author surname and page number/s are all that you need. Include a short
title for the article, e.g. Gibbons, ‘Non-fiction’, p. 88, only if you have used other publications
by the same author while preparing your assignment and you therefore need to avoid
potential confusion with those other sources.
If you have a series of footnotes/endnotes in succession to one particular work, just use the
author’s surname and the relevant page number/s, e.g. Gibbons, p. 110; Gibbons, p. 118,
unless your assignment instructions specifically request the use of the Latin abbreviations,
ibid. (in the same place) and op.cit. (in the work mentioned).
Reference to a number of separate pages within a particular work:
Raymond Richards, Closing the Door to Destitution (Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania
State University Press, 1994), pp. 45, 53.
The comma between the numbers indicates that the references are to two separate pages,
not a reference to all pages between those listed (which would have taken the form, pp. 4553).
Reference to an essay or a chapter in an edited publication:
Cathy O'Shea-Miles, 'Irishtown Hamilton East 1864 – 1940’, in The Irish in New
Zealand: Historical Contexts & Perspectives, edited by Brad Patterson (Wellington:
Stout Research Centre for New Zealand Studies, 2002), pp. 131-52.
The essay title is placed in 'quote marks': the book title is italicised (or underlined if you do
not have access to a word processor). If more than one publisher and/or organisation is
involved with the actual publication, you need to give full acknowledgement in the first
First reference to an article published in a journal:
The volume number is given in Arabic, followed by the year in parentheses, and then the
page reference. No issue number is necessary if there is sequential numbering of the
various issues produced during the year. The fourth issue of Chiron, for example, begins its
page numbering at the point where the third issue stops.
Cathy Coleborne, 'A Closed World: The Asylum System in Victoria, 1848 to 1920',
Chiron: Journal of the University of Melbourne Medical Society, 4 (1999), p. 680.
However, when each issue of a journal is paginated from page 1, the volume number (if
there is one) is followed by the issue number. The month and year of issue are then given
in parentheses, followed by the particular pages that you wish to cite, as in the example
below. The abbreviation 'vol.' is not used in either case and should always be omitted.
When you are giving the volume number for a journal, though, always use Arabic
numerals (2,3,4) even if the journal itself uses the roman (II,III,IV).
Anna Green with Matt Andrew, Chanel Clarke, Sue Garmonsway and Jane Moodie,
'Love, Labour and Legend: Memories of a New Zealand Railway Town', History
Now, 8, 2 (May 1997), pp. 22-27.
To save frustration, confusion and inconsistency, use p. or pp. (but never pg) before the
page numbers in your footnotes/endnotes. Conventions vary where articles are concerned
and some publishers give the first and last page numbers of the article cited, without the
'pp.', and then use 'p.' to indicate the particular page to which a reference is made. Just use
p. when you are referring to one page and pp. when you are referring to several, whether
your reference is to a book, journal, newspaper, thesis, official report or an unpublished
Reference to an edition later than the first:
Peter Gibbons, 'Non-fiction', in The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature in
English, ed. by Terry Sturm, 2nd edition (Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1998 ),
pp. 33-118.
Cite the specific edition used to avoid difficulty for a reader wishing to follow up some of your page
references. Note that examples 4 and 5 show that the reference to editor/s can be abbreviated to
ed./eds but do not use (parentheses) around ed./eds.
Reference to an edited diary or journal:
Sergeant, Sinner, Saint, and Spy: the Taranaki War Diary of Sergeant William
Majouram, R.A., edited by Laurie Barber, Garry Clayton and John Tonkin-Covell
(Auckland: Random Century, 1990), pp. 32-35.
i.e. give the book title first and then follow with the name/s of the editor/s and the usual
publication details.
Reference to a book review:
Kathleen Troup, review of Darrel W. Amundsen, Medicine, Society and Faith in the
Ancient Worlds (Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 1996),
Parergon, 16,1 (1998), pp. 113-115.
i.e. the name of reviewer , followed by author/title/publication details of the work reviewed,
and then the relevant information about the publication in which the review has appeared.
Reference to a thesis:
Rowland Weston, ' "A Disembodied Spirit" : William Godwin's History of Autonomy'
(unpublished PhD thesis, James Cook University, 2000), p.54.
The title is in quote marks and not italicised or underlined because the thesis is
unpublished. The use of parentheses around the (qualification, university and date) is
optional. You will need a comma after the end of the thesis title if you do not use (
Reference to a conference or seminar paper or public address:
If the paper is an unpublished one, give the author, then the title of the paper within quote
marks, followed by the name, venue and date/s of the conference/seminar, and finally the
page number/s.
Philip Hart, 'Self-Confidence and Self-Promotion: a case study of a saviour who
failed', Australian Mining History Association Conference, Brisbane, 4 July 2002,
For a published conference or seminar paper, follow the same basic pattern but italicise
the name of the conference publication.
Bronwyn Labrum, 'A Woman's World in a Male Universe: treatment and
rehabilitation at the Auckland Lunatic Asylum, 1870 - 1910', in New Countries and
Old Medicine: Proceedings of an International Conference on the History of
Medicine and Health, edited by Linda Bryder and Derek Dow, (Auckland: Auckland
Medical Society, 1995), pp. 196 -203.
Reference to a source within a multi-volume collection of documents:
Give all essential identifying details for the document that you are citing - author/ recipient/
date - and then include the usual publication details for an edited volume - title in italics/
editor/ number of volumes followed by place, publisher and date of publication.
Colonial Secretary, Sydney, to Superintendent of Police, 13 April 1831, Historical
Records of New Zealand, edited by Robert McNab, two volumes (Wellington:
Government Printer, 1908-1914), II, p. 591.
The number of the volume to which you are referring is given in small capital roman
numerals, (II, II or IV, for example) followed by the page number.
Reference to a source quoted by another author when you have not used the original
Always cite the actual source from which you have taken the reference.
J.C. Richmond to C.W. Richmond, 24 June 1865, cited in Jeanine Graham,
Frederick Weld (Auckland: Auckland University Press/Oxford University Press,
1983), p.100.
Reference to an oral interview:
Give information in this order: interviewee, date of interview, position on tape or page of
transcript, location of recording.
Paora Delamere, 15 December 1971, tape 1, side 1, Radio New Zealand Sound Archives.
Reference to a newspaper:
Include the abbreviation in the first footnote/endnote only if you are going to have one or
more additional references to the paper.
Otago Daily Times (ODT), 28 Nov 1936, p. 17.
Subsequently: ODT, 5 Dec 1936, p.25.
Use the first three letters of the month. The abbreviated form does not need a full stop.
Cite the caption, photographer if known, collection, accession number if known, repository.
'Takaka Royal Artillery: Peace Celebrations 1902', Tyree Collection, T6x8 54,
Nelson Provincial Museum.
Title. [descriptor]. scale. series and number. edition. place: publisher, date.
Hamilton. [map]. 1:50,000. NZMS 260 series, S14. 3rd ed. Wellington: Terralink,
Citing Internet sources:
Follow the same general procedures as for printed material but include information on the
nature of the source and how it can be accessed electronically. Use square brackets [ ] to
indicate that the document is available online.
Art Deco Trust, 7 April 1995, Art Deco Napier [online], available URL:
i.e. Author, date, title of item, [on-line] URL details
Conventions for citing Internet sources are still evolving and are a matter of discussion and
some disagreement. The following guidelines may be useful for more detailed referencing.
Just be consistent throughout your assignment in using whichever style that you adopt.
a. World Wide Web:
To cite files which can be viewed/downloaded via the WWW by means of a web browser,
the following guidelines can be applied:
Author name (if known)
Full title of the document in quotation marks
Title of the complete work (if applicable) in italics
Date of publication or last revision (if available)
The full http address (URL) enclosed within <angle brackets>
Date of visit (in parentheses)
b. Listserv messages:
Author/s name/s (if known)
Author’s e-mail address, enclosed in <angle brackets>
The subject line from the posting ‘in quotation marks’
Date of publication
Address of the listserv, enclosed in <angle brackets>
Date of access (in parentheses) Recommended text: F. S. Kleiner and C. J. Mamiya
(Eds.) (2001) Gardner's Art Through The Ages 11th edition (Harcourt College
c. E-mail messages:
Author’s name
Author’s e-mail address, enclosed in <angle brackets>
Subject line from the posting ‘in quotation marks’
Date of publication
Reference to the kind of communication (e.g. personal e-mail; distribution list; official
Date of access (in parentheses)
d. Newsgroup (USENET) messages:
Author’s name (if known)
Author’s e-mail address <enclosed in angle brackets>
Subject line from the posting ‘in quotation marks’
Date of publication
Name of the newsgroup, <enclosed in angle brackets>
Date of access (in parentheses)
Students undertaking assignments which are to be published in electronic format will have
the relevant advice given in the specific Paper Outlines.
Citing items from a booklet of readings
Where readings are fully referenced and include original page numbers, use those details
for your own references, unless otherwise instructed in your course outline or the specific
assignment details.
REMEMBER: All footnotes and endnotes finish with a full stop.
Step 2: Creating your Bibliography in MHRA style
The List of Sources (i.e. the reference materials upon which you have drawn while working on the
assignment) is arranged alphabetically by author surname. In general, follow the style for
footnotes/endnotes but note these key differences:
the surname of the author precedes the first name or initials
the terms edition or edited are usually abbreviated to ed.
(iii) page references are only given for the full span of an article
(iv) there is no full stop at the end of each entry
Originally the term bibliography meant a list of all sources relating to a particular subject.
Publishers now generally regard the word as meaning a list containing sources used in the
publication together with other sources that the author considers would be useful or interesting to
the reader. A List of Sources is therefore the more accurate way of describing most undergraduate
practice, but use whichever expression (Bibliography/ List of Sources/ Select Bibliography/
Reading List/ Reference List) that is noted in the actual assignment instructions when
completing this section of your assignment.
Green, Anna, British Capital, Antipodean Labour: Working the NZ Waterfront, 1915 - 1951
(Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 2001)
Capitalise main words in both the title and subtitle.
Two or more works by a single author
Galbreath, Ross, Walter Buller: the Reluctant Conservationist (Wellington: G. P. Books,
Working for Wildlife: a History of the Wildlife Service (Wellington: Bridget Williams
Books, 1993)
DSIR: Making Science Work for New Zealand (Wellington: Victoria University Press
in association with Historical Branch, Dept of Internal Affairs, 1998)
Scholars & Gentlemen Both: G.M. & Allan Thomson in New Zealand Science &
Education (Wellington: Royal Society of New Zealand, 2002)
Multiple works are listed in order of date of publication/presentation.
Book with more than one author or editor:
Dalley, Bronwyn, and Bronwyn Labrum, eds, Fragments: New Zealand Social & Cultural
History (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2000)
The surname for the second author/editor is not reversed and eds is not enclosed in ( ).
Chapter or essay from an edited book:
Graham, Jeanine, 'Children and the New Zealand Wars: An Exploration', in Children and
War: A Historical Anthology, edited by James Marten (New York: New York University
Press, 2002), pp. 216 - 226
In examples 4 and 5, the page numbers refer to the full text of the chapter/essay/paper.
Paper from a collection of published essay:
Simes, D.G.S., 'A Long and Difficult Association: The Ultra Tories and "the Great Apostate"
', in Wellington Studies III, ed. by C.M.Woolgar (Southampton: Hartley Institute, University
of Southampton, 1999), pp. 56 - 87
Even when you are using both single and double quote marks within an article title, the
comma is still positioned after the close of the quotation marks.
New edition of a previously unpublished work:
Gorst, John Eldon The Maori King (London: Macmillan, 1864), edited with an introduction
by K.O.Arvidson (Auckland: Reed, 2001)
Journal article when pagination is consecutive throughout the volume:
Avery, Margaret E., ‘The History of the Equitable Jurisdiction of Chancery before 1460',
Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 42 (1969), pp. 129-44
There is no reference within the brackets to the season/month/part number of the volume
because the page numbering of each issue of the journal for that year was numbered
consecutively i.e. the first issue was pp. 1-100; the second, pp. 101-200.
Journal article when pagination is begun anew for each issue:
McEwan, Ann, ‘Learning By Example: Architectural Education in New Zealand Before
1940', Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and
New Zealand, 9, (May 1999), 1-16
In this example the volume number is followed by a reference to the season of publication
because the page numbering of each issue of this particular journal commences with p.1.
The use of pp. or p. before the page numbers is optional when you are citing journal
articles. Just be consistent in both the endnotes and List of Sources in whichever style you
adopt. The page numbering given in the List of Sources denotes the full length of the
article: it is not a reference to a particular page.
Unpublished seminar or conference paper:
Gibbons, Peter, 'Imaginative Characterisations: Teaching World History to First Year
University Students', Tenth International Conference of the World History Association, Salt
Lake City, 28 June - 1 July 2001
Give the speaker's name, title of the paper, name, location and date of the conference or
Book Review:
Roa, Tom, review of Te Tangata: the Human Person by Michael Shirres
(Auckland: Accent Publications, 1997) in New Zealand Herald, 29 Nov 1997, p.6
McClean, Rosalind, review of A Distant Shore: Irish Migration and New Zealand
Settlement edited by Lyndon Fraser (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 2000) in
History Now, 9, 1 (2003), pp. 31-32
No part number would be given if the four issues of the Volume were paginated
Electronic Media:
Writer of review, author/title/publication details of work reviewed, name of electronic
publication or discussion list, internet address, date of posting.
Exhibition review in newspaper:
McEwan, Ann, 'Recent Histories by Barry Drabb', Waikato Times, 20 Oct 1999, p. 20
i.e. reviewer, name of exhibition/artist, title of newspaper, issue date, page
12. Newspaper or magazine article:
Philippe, Natalie, 'Young Men Answer the Call', in 'Our Story: A History of the Waikato',
Supplement in Waikato Times, 9 Dec 1999, p. 20
i.e. author, heading of article, name of newspaper, date of publication, page
Films, video recordings, television and radio programmes:
Since these resources are regarded as joint enterprises, list them alphabetically under title.
Forgotten Silver, motion picture, directed by Peter Jackson, Camperdown Studios,
Wellington, 1996
Someone Else’s Country?, videotape, directed by Alister Barry, Vanguard Films, Auckland,
'The Death of Carmen', episode of television series, Shortland Street, Television New
Zealand, Auckland, first broadcast on Television Two, 23 Dec 1995
Mana Tangata, radio programme, episode broadcast on National Radio, New Zealand, 25
Jan 2000
Jackson, Penny, 'Daisy Osborne (1888 - 1957): An Artist of Note', (MA thesis, University of
Auckland, 2002)
Oral history interviews:
When listing in the bibliography, give as much as you can of the following details: full name
of interviewee, date, location of interview, identity of interviewer, any other relevant
information relating to the interview, place where tape/transcript is kept (indicate personal
possession if that is the location).
Clark, Dolly, 15 April 1989, Christchurch, interview with Sally MacLean for the Colonial
Childhoods Oral History Project, tape held at Waikato University History Department
Checklist of common errors
The following are correct and incorrect forms of citing page numbers:
pp. 17-18
pp. 99-101
pp. 100-05
pp. 278-332
p. 17-8
p. 100-105
pgs 278f. or 278 et seq.
(ii) Dates of years should normally be written in their shortest meaningful form, e.g.1880-90,
1903-4, 1930-45. Be consistent in the style that you adopt.
(iii) Decades do not take apostrophes, e.g.1930s, not 1930's.
(iv) With the exception of The Times of London, do not italicise the definite article when referring
to a newspaper.
The Harvard Referencing Style
What is the Harvard referencing style?
When preparing an assignment or research paper, it is vital that you acknowledge the resources
you have used, because:
- failure to do so constitutes plagiarism.
- readers need to be able to retrieve the source information you have used.
Your sources must be cited
a) in the text of your assignment or research paper (in-text citations) where you have
referred to information obtained from a particular source, and
b) in the list of references at the end of your assignment or research paper.
Step 1: In-Text Citations
Short citations included in the text of a research paper or assignment will enable your readers to
find the full details of the source in the reference list.
When citing references within the text of an assignment:
- citations must be in parentheses (brackets), or included as part of a statement.
- citations must be in the form (author/s, date) to enable your reader to find the full details of
the source in the reference list e.g. (Smith, 1998). If there are two authors for a
particular reference, cite the names in the order in which they appear e.g. (Smith &
Green, 1998). If there are more than two authors of a cited reference, use et al. e.g.
(Platt et al., 2004).
- page numbers may or may not be included, depending on the specificity of the reference
e.g. (Jones, 1995, p.82) to indicate a specific page or (Green et al. pp. 34-40) to
indicate a range of pages.
If you are using electronic sources that have no page numbers, you may use a paragraph number
(abbreviation para.) to indicate to which part of the document you are referring.
When referring to two or more texts by different authors, separate them with a semicolon (;) e.g.
(Smith, 1995; Green, 1992).
Direct quotations:
Use double quotation marks to enclose another author’s words. A location reference (page
numbers or paragraph numbers) must be provided. If your direct quotation is more than 40 words,
indent the quoted section without quotation marks.
According to Sharpe and Rosell (2003), the dominant behaviours of the beavers were
“travelling, foraging and being in the lodge” (p.1063).
Indirect quotations:
If you paraphrase another author’s ideas or research findings, integrate them as part of your text in
your own words. When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, you are not
required to provide a location reference (page number), but may do so if appropriate. Make it very
clear where their ideas end and yours begin.
Soils across the Iron Cove catchment area are enriched in these minerals (Snowdon &
Birch, 2004).
Snowdon and Birch (2004) suggested that the catchment area is enriched in these
minerals, but I think that …..
Citations from a secondary source:
If you use an idea from an author cited by another author, use “cited in”. In the reference list at the
end of your paper, list only the secondary source.
Wheatley (cited in Sharpe & Rosell, 2003, p.1065) stated that males may travel outside
their territorial boundaries during summer.
Males may travel outside their territorial boundaries during summer (Wheatley, cited in
Sharpe & Rosell, 2003, p.1065).
Citations for works with no author or anonymous author/s:
When a work has no author, or if the author is anonymous, the in-text citation consists of the first
few words of the title (italicised), followed by the year and page number.
This was apparently not the case in other catchment areas (Mineral deposition in
catchment areas, 1999, p.34).
Step 2: Creating your reference list/bibliography
The list of references or bibliography will be at the end of your assignment/research paper, and will
usually have the heading References or Bibliography. References must be listed in alphabetical
Note: Ensure that each citation in the text of your assignment also appears on your reference list,
and that they are identical in spelling and year.
The following elements must be included in a reference:
1. Author’s or editor’s name/s.
2. Publication date.
3. Title of the item.
4. Publication information:
 for books, give the publisher’s name and place of publication – if two or more
publisher locations are given, give the location listed first in the book.
 for journals, give volume, issue number and page numbers.
for websites, give the full Web address (URL).
Works by the same author and published in the same year are distinguished by letters appended
to the year. Example: If you are using two references by R.M Smith, and both were published in
1998, one will bear the date 1998a and the other 1998b, and in-text citations will reflect this.
Use web sites mainly to find references in the primary literature, not as sources in themselves
(because they are not peer-reviewed and not permanent).
1. Whole book:
Author/s (surname then initials, commas between multiple authors, use & between two
authors). Year, Title, Publisher, Place of publication.
(a) Authored book:
Coates, G. 2002, The rise and fall of the Southern Alps, Canterbury University Press,
Christchurch, N.Z.
Basher, L. R., Lynn, I. H. & Whitehouse, I. E. 1995, Geomorphology of the Wairau Plains:
implications for floodplain management planning, Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln,
Note: If there are more than three authors, include all of the authors in the reference at the end of
your assignment.
(b) Edited book:
Soons, J. M. & Selby, M. J. (eds), 1992, Landforms of New Zealand, Longman Paul,
Auckland, N.Z.
2. An article (chapter) in an edited book:
Author of article/chapter. Year, ‘Title of article/chapter’, in Names of editor/s (ed/s), Title of
book, Publisher, Place of publication, pagination.
Jeanne, R. L. 1991, ‘Polyethism’, in K.G. Ross & R.W. Matthews (eds), The Social Biology
of Wasps, Cornell University Press, New York, pp.389-425.
Keller, L. & Reeve, H. K. 1999, ‘Dynamics of conflicts within insect societies’, in L. Keller
(ed), Levels of Selection in Evolution, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New
Jersey, pp.153-175.
Journal articles:
Author/s, Year, ‘Article title’, Journal title, vol. no and issue number, pagination.
Basher, L. R., Ross, C. W. & Dando, J. 2004, ‘Effects of carrot growing on volcanic ash
soils in the Ohakune area, New Zealand’, Australian Journal of Soil Research, vol.
42, no. 3, pp.259-272.
Henshaw, M. J., Strassmann, J. E., Quach, S. Q. & Queller, D. C. 2000, ‘Male production in
Parachartergus colobopterus, a neotropical, swarm-founding wasp’, Ethology,
Ecology and Evolution, vol. 12, pp.161-174.
Conference papers:
Trump, A. 1986, 'Power play', Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference, International
Society of Power Engineers, Houston Texas, pp. 40-51.
Author/s or corporate author. Year of publication/latest update, Title of web page.
Retrieved: Date of retrieval, from Web page address/URL.
If a year of publication does not appear on the web page, use n.d. in place of the year.
Snowdon, C. T. 1997, Significance of Animal Behaviour Research. Retrieved: February 20,
2004, from
Trinity College of Western Australia, 2003, Animal Classification. Retrieved: February 18,
2004, from
Websites with no author:
Mariner 2002: Undergraduate student information, 2002, Retrieved: April 3, 2002, from
Websites with no date:
Central South Island Glacial Geomorphology, (n.d.), Retrieved: August 3, 2004, from
Author. Year, Title, Type of thesis, University.
Matheson, S. G. 1981, The volcanic geology of the Mt Karioi region, M.Sc. Thesis,
University of Waikato.
Freedberg, S. 2003, Natal homing in a freshwater turtle demonstrated through
mitochondrial sequencing and mark-recapture data, Ph.D.Thesis, Indiana
Author(s) of report. Year of publication, Title of report, Report series code and number,
Sponsoring body or body issuing report series, Publisher (if different from
sponsoring body), City.
Kogan, P., Moses, I. & El-Khawas, E. H. 1994, Staffing higher education : meeting new
challenges : report of the IMHE project on policies for academic staffing in higher
education, Higher education policy series, no. 27, Jessica Kingsley Publishers,
May, T. W. & Avram, J. 1997, The conservation status and distribution of macrofungi in
Victoria. A report prepared for the Australian Heritage Commission, Royal Botanic
Gardens, Melbourne.
Pamphlets often have no specific author.
Example: Pamphlet where the author is also the publisher.
Wellington Regional Council [1995], Facing the future: a ten year plan for the Wellington
Regional Council, Author, [Wellington, N.Z.].
In the above example, the pamphlet is produced and published by the Wellington Regional
Council, hence the word “Author” in the publisher field of the reference. The square
brackets around the date and place of publication indicate that these are assumed (from
information appearing in the pamphlet).
When there is no date of publication (and no indication of it within the pamphlet), the
reference will appear as follows:
Wellington Regional Council (n.d.), Facing the future: a ten year plan for the Wellington
Regional Council, Author, [Wellington, N.Z.].
The (n.d.) stands for “no date”.
Parliamentary acts or legislation:
Government acts are produced and published by the government, thus the author and
publisher are the same.
New Zealand Government 1991, Resource Management Act, Author, Wellington, N.Z.
In text citations would appear as follows:
Waste materials may be dumped only if resource consent has been obtained (New Zealand
Government, 1991, s. 15, ss.15A).