Functional Behavior Assessment Student: Ricky di DOB: 4-17-95 Report Date: May 5, 2006 Background Information Ricky is an eleven-year old boy who attends 5th grade at Little Elementary School. He currently has an Individualized Education Plan for reading and receives instruction for reading with Cheryl Hershey in a group of four students in the special education classroom. Ricky is placed at the beginning of the curriculum in Reading Mastery Plus level 4, which places him almost two years behind in reading when compared to the placement of typical peers. His general education teacher, Christina Carson, identified Ricky for functional assessment concerning his disruptive behavior in the classroom, which she noted have been a problem throughout the year. Amber Molten, the special education teacher, was also concerned about his lack of progress in reading, which she felt may be related to his off task behavior during reading group. Functional Assessment The purpose of the functional assessment was to operationally define behaviors of concern, identify events that may trigger or maintain these behaviors, learn about attempted interventions, and identify strengths and skills that Ricky possesses. The functional assessment consisted of interviews with Ricky’s special education teacher, general education teacher, and reading group instructor, direct observations during reading instruction and during participation in the general classroom, and an interview with Ricky. This report includes the details of the functional assessment and a behavior support plan. Functional Assessment Interview On April 20, 2006, Amber Molten, Christina Carson, and Cheryl Hershey were interviewed using a modified version of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS). The purpose of the interview was to note Ricky’s strengths, identify behaviors of concern, and better understand the environmental variables that Ricky’s teachers believed could be predicting or maintaining his inappropriate behaviors, and create a summary statement about the behavior that could be used to build a plan of behavior support. Amber Molten, Christina Carson, and Cheryl Hershey stated that Ricky’s academic strengths are in math and reading fluency (when reading material within his reading group). They also stated that Ricky loves anything related to skateboarding and likes to be accepted by peers. The following summary statement was developed: When Ricky is in a group setting with peers and is expected to transition or is given independent work, he talks out and is off task, which appears to be maintained by attention, particularly from peers. Although the behaviors occur throughout the day, Amber Molten, Christina Carson, and Cheryl Hershey noted the talking out and off task behaviors occur more frequently and for longer time periods after Ricky has participated in a stimulating activity such as recess and toward the end of long instructional periods. Cheryl Hershey stated that she has tried seating Ricky in a different chair and desk during reading and currently is giving “K-bucks” (school-wide contingency) more frequently. Christina Carson has recently started a point chart and sends frequent notes back and forth to mom. She stated Ricky has not been very successful with the point chart, and Ricky often forgets to bring the notebook back and forth. Behaviors of Concern Based on information from the interview with Amber Molten, Christina Carson, and Cheryl Hershey on April 20, 2006, the target responses chosen were talking out, non-compliance, and off task. Talking out was chosen because it occurs frequently and is disruptive to the teachers and the other students. Talking out was defined as any vocalizations that are not teacher initiated and are disruptive to others, out of turn, or unrelated to academic context. Non-compliance was defined as not following directions within 5 seconds and included arguing with the teacher’s instructions. Ricky’s teachers also stated he exhibits several off task behaviors (such as getting out of seat, staring) that are likely interfering with the amount of time he spends actively engaged in academic work. Therefore, off task was also determined to be a behavior of concern. Off task was defined as the student is not engaged physically/ verbally with materials, is not looking at the board/overhead /teacher/seatwork, is not contributing to or writing/reading the assigned task, is not following along and on the correct page during reading, and is not quiet when the expectation is to work independently. Functional Assessment Direct Observation Seven direct observations were conducted using an ABC (antecedent behavior consequence) functional assessment on April 12 through April 28. Problem behaviors were recorded across tensecond intervals using partial interval recording. In other words, the occurrence of a target behavior was recorded once in each interval that it was observed. All observations were 20 minutes and took place during times Ricky’s teachers had previously identified as difficult for him (i.e. small group reading and language arts/math just after morning recess). Throughout the observation, the ongoing activities and events were coded in each ten-second interval. Typical events recorded for Ricky were independent work, large group instruction, small group instruction, and transitions. If a problem behavior occurred, the event following the problem behavior was also coded. Possible events included teacher attention, peer attention, or escape. For operational definitions, see Table 1 below. The purpose of the observations was to better understand the events that precede and follow Ricky’s disruptive, off-task and non-compliant behaviors. The observations were also used to confirm the previously developed hypothesis statement concerning Ricky’s behaviors. Problem behaviors were recorded across ten-second intervals using partial interval recording. Teachers confirmed the observations were representative of typical activities and behavior in the classroom. Table 1 Ongoing events/ Events occurring prior to problem behavior (Antecedents) Large group instruction Teacher is instructing 8 or more students Small group instruction Teacher is instructing 2-7 students Independent work Students are to engage in work without teacher or peer guidance/interaction Transition Teacher is changing activities Events following problem behavior (Consequences) Teacher Teacher verbally or physically responds to the student, can be positive or attention negative but does not include restated the direction or instruction (e.g. “stop that,” “good job,” “shh,” teacher shakes head as if saying no or yes to student) Peer attention Peer verbally or physically responds to the student, can be positive or negative (e.g. laughing at student, smirking, talking to student) Escape Student is not completing required task (e.g. is off task, out of seat) or student is no longer required to complete task Instruction: During the observations, Ricky exhibited problem behavior in approximately 37% of the intervals in which instruction (either small or large group) was taking place. Approximately 63% of Ricky’s off task and disruptive behaviors during instruction were followed by escape, while 41% were followed by peer attention, 15% were followed by teacher attention, and 23% were followed by peer attention and escape (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It appeared that much of Ricky’s off task behavior during instruction was working on other (usually forthcoming) work when the expectation was to be seated at a clean desk and have eyes on the teacher. This resulted in a new hypothesis: During instruction, Ricky is off task and disruptive, which appears to be maintained by escaping the instruction and receiving attention from peers. Figure 1 Escape Proportion of behaviors followed by consequence Instruction 1.00 0.80 Teacher Attn 0.60 Peer Attn 0.40 PA & Escape 0.20 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Observation Average proportion Figure 2 Instruction: Avg. Proportion of Problem Behavior followed by Event 1.00 Escape Teacher Attn 0.80 Peer Attention 0.60 Escape & PA 0.40 0.20 0.00 1 Consequence Independent work: During the observations, Ricky exhibited problem behavior in approximately 35% of the intervals in which independent work took place. Approximately 71% of Ricky’s off task and disruptive behaviors during independent work were followed by attention from peers, 28% were followed by teacher attention, 25% were followed by escape, and 19% were followed by peer attention and escape (see Figure 3 and Figure 4). Only 6% of Ricky’s off task and disruptive behaviors were followed by escape alone during independent work, which resulted in a new hypothesis for independent work: During independent work, Ricky is off task and disruptive, which appears to be maintained by receiving teacher and peer attention and escaping work. Figure 3 Independent Work Proportion 1.00 0.80 Escape 0.60 TA 0.40 PA 0.20 PA & E 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 Observation Figure 4 Independent work average proportion 1.00 0.80 Escape 0.60 Teacher Attn 0.40 Peer Attention Escape & PA 0.20 0.00 1 consequence Transitions: During the observations, Ricky exhibited problem behavior approximately 40% of the intervals in which transitions took place. All (100%) of Ricky’s off task and disruptive behaviors during transitions were followed by attention. Peer attention followed Ricky’s problem behavior during transitions 89% of the time and teacher attention followed the remaining 11% (see figure 5). This resulted in a new hypothesis: During transitions, Ricky is off task and disruptive, which appears to be maintained by receiving attention from peers and teacher. Figure 5 Competing Behaviors Pathway for Instruction & Independent Work: Desired Behavior More work, earns points toward free time with peers Participates by having appropriate materials out, following directions, and working quietly on independent work Setting Events Triggers Instruction, Independent work Problem Behavior Disruptive, Off Task Consequenc es Peer attention, teacher attention, avoids work Function Get peer attention, escape work Earns short breaks w/peers Replacement Behavior Competing Behaviors Pathway for Transitions: Desired Behavior More work, earns points toward free time with peers Begins transition within 5 seconds of request and completes transition quietly Setting Events Triggers Transition Problem Behavior Disruptive, Not following directions Conseque nces Peer attention, teacher attention Completes transition within 10 sec. of last peer Replacement Behavior Function Get peer or teacher attention Summary and Recommendations Ricky is an 11 year-old boy who attends 5th grade at Little Elementary School. His general education teacher, Christina Carson, identified Ricky for functional assessment concerning his disruptive behaviors in the classroom, which she noted have been a problem throughout the year. Amber Molten, the special education teacher, was also concerned about his lack of progress in reading, which she felt may be related to his off task behavior during reading group. The target responses chosen were talking out, non-compliance, and off task. Talking out was defined as any vocalizations that are not teacher initiated and are disruptive to others, out of turn, or unrelated to academic context. Non-compliance was defined as not following directions within 5 seconds and included arguing with the teacher’s instructions. Off task was defined as the student is not engaged physically/ verbally with materials, is not looking at the board/overhead/ teacher/seatwork, is not contributing to or writing/reading the assigned task, is not following along and on the correct page during reading, and is not quiet when the expectation is to work independently. The results of the functional assessment suggest that off task and talking out is triggered when Ricky is in a group setting during instruction or independent work. Talking out and off task during instruction and independent work appears to be maintained by peer attention, escaping the work, and possibly teacher attention as well. The results also suggested that transitions trigger disruptive and noncompliant behaviors, which appear to be maintained by attention, primarily from peers. The following hypotheses statements were developed: During instruction and independent work, Ricky is off task and disruptive, which appears to be maintained by escaping the instruction and receiving attention from teacher and peers. During transitions, Ricky is off task, disruptive and noncompliant, which appears to be maintained by receiving teacher and peer attention. Previous interventions have included changing Ricky’s seating during small group instruction and a point card used in his general education classroom. However, during a brief interview with Bod , he stated that he felt it was taking too long to earn the candy bar (almost a month), and that he’d rather earn rewards more often. When asked what he’d like to work toward, Ricky suggested a classroom snack time at the end of each day and a Dr. Pepper at the end of the week. After reviewing the functional assessment, possible intervention strategies were identified based on the results of the functional assessment. This involved developing a competing behavior pathway (see Figure 4) depicting the results of the functional assessment and alternate behaviors that Ricky might engage that would be more acceptable than talking out and being off task. Using the competing behavior pathway, replacement behaviors (responses that were not ideal but were more appropriate than talking out) and desired behaviors (what Ricky should be doing) were identified. This information was used to develop a behavior support plan. Based on the results of the current assessment and a collaborative meeting with Christina Carson, the following are specific recommendations for improving Ricky’s talking out, off task, and noncompliant behaviors. Behavior Support Strategies Student: Ricky Implementers: Christina Carson & Cheryl Hershey Date: May 12, 2006 Preventative (antecedent) Strategies: The purpose of these strategies is to address events that predict or evoke problem behavior to minimize the likelihood of the problem behavior (talking out) occurring. Pre-correcting: Prior to instruction and independent work, Ricky should be reminded what he should do (not just that he should not talk out or work ahead on assignments). Because Ricky’s behavior may be maintained by peer attention, it is important that the other peer(s) in the group are given pre-corrections concerning the rules and how to help Ricky exhibit appropriate behavior (by not responding to his talk outs). For example, just before group instruction begins, the teacher can review the expectations (and can involve the class by asking them to produce the rules, give examples, etc.) with the group. The expectations should include being respectful (e.g. talking only when it is your turn). It may also be important to remind the group of the rewards (e.g. “K bucks,” points toward popcorn party, free time with peers or teacher) that can be earned for successful rule following during group instruction. Post assignments after instruction: Because Ricky has often been off task and working ahead on assignments during instruction, he often misses important information about how to complete assignments and makes mistakes or elicits teacher help for questions he should have answered during large group instruction. One way to prevent Ricky from working ahead is to make sure upcoming assignments are not posted ahead of time and that upcoming assignments are not always the same (e.g. always doing odd-numbered problems in the math text). Other strategies may include keeping his reading workbook or other independent workbooks until instruction is finished and independent work begins. Consequence Strategies: The purpose of these strategies is to increase occurrence of desired behavior (appropriate academic engagement) and decrease the occurrence of problem behavior (talking out, off task, non-compliance). Point Card: Because Christina Carson has experience with using a point card system, she decided that she would be willing to re-implement the card with Ricky. We discussed how to modify the system so that the reward is more reinforcing to Ricky (based on the perceived functions of his behaviors and an interview with him) and so that he receives access to the reward more often. o Rationale: The goals of this program are to (a) increase the amount of time that Ricky spends actively engaged with academic tasks, (b) make it more likely that he will follow teacher instructions in a timely manner and (c) decrease Ricky’s disruptive behaviors. To accomplish these goals, we need to make sure that Ricky gains access to valued items or activities when he works on tasks quietly, pays attention during instruction, and follows directions. It is also important that he receives access to the items/activities regularly. o Overview of Program A point card will be used to track Ricky’s appropriate engagement and direction following. This will ensure that (a) incentives are linked directly to appropriate behavior and (b) we have a way of tracking whether he is successful. The school day will be broken into 4 sessions, which are natural transitions throughout the day: reading (until 9:35), language arts (until 11:30), math/science (until 1:15), and end of day activities (until 2:05). Because Christina Carson was concerned about forgetting to check in with Ricky, we decided that he can be responsible for the check in with her and Christina Carson (reading). Responsible check-ins will also be reinforced with a point (for a total of 5 each day). Ricky can also earn up to 10 points until 9:35, 10 points until 11:30, 10 points until 1:15 and 10 points until 2:05 for a total of 45 points per day. Trading points 1. If Ricky earns all 2s during a time period, he will receive a short (2 minute) break with peers. 2. If Ricky earns 30/45 points throughout the day, he will earn class snack time for the last ten minutes of the day (2:05-2:15). 3. If Ricky earns 200/225 points for the week, he can earn a Dr. Pepper during “Friday Celebration” time at the end of the week. 4. Options were identified from talking to Ricky, and he can choose to work toward the same or different rewards each week. Christina Carson will retain copies of Ricky’s point cards in a file folder at her desk. Billie Jo will review the cards each week and provide a graph of Ricky’s points earned and direct observation data to Christina Carson weekly. Christina Carson & Cheryl Hershey will review Ricky’s progress every two weeks and make adjustments as needed. If there are 3 consecutive days where Ricky does not meet his daily goal, the program will be evaluated to determine causes. Before Beginning: Christina Carson & Billie Jo will explain the program to Ricky by telling him: o What the expectations are (for each setting), modeling appropriate behavior, giving him examples and non-examples, and practicing. o How the point card system will work at school. Explain how the card works, his options for rewards, and how he will trade the points. o Teach Ricky that he will be responsible for remembering to check in with both Christina Carson & Cheryl Hershey, and he will earn points toward his goal for remembering to do so independently. Ricky’s Expectations Ricky will earn points for meeting the following expectations: Be responsible o Check in with teachers. Ricky will remember get his card from Christina Carson during morning roll call and take it to reading. He will check in with Cheryl Hershey by showing her the card, remind her to check out with him, and then will show his card to Christina Carson at 11:30, 1:15, and 2:15. o Following directions within 10 seconds (by the time Christina Carson gets to 0 on her countdown). This includes all teacher-initiated instructions. Ricky must either complete the instruction within 10 seconds (if it is a simple task) or begin working on completion within 10 seconds (if it is a longer task, such as completing an assignment). o Wait until direction is given to begin independent work. Ricky will start assignments after instruction is completed and Christina Carson or Cheryl Hershey has instructed the class to begin independent work. Be respectful o Only materials related to the subject are on the desk or on his person. Ricky will have available only items directly related to the subject currently being taught. o Pay attention. Ricky will face forward, have his eyes on the speaker, listen quietly, and be ready to answer questions when called on. o Work quietly. Ricky will complete independent work without talking. If he completes his work before his work group, the “Bad Boys,” he will choose an appropriate task to work on quietly and independently until all four members of his work group have completed assignment. Long-Term Plan The initial goal is to develop a program within which Ricky will work for incentives. If the program is effective we will: 1) Gradually increase the requirements for earning rewards 2) Add a home-school component 3) Talk to 6th grade teacher about implementing next fall to ensure Ricky starts off the year successfully. Ricky’s Point Card Date:_______________ Scores: 0 = not meeting, 1 = mostly meeting, 2 = always meeting 30/45 points= snack time at 2:05 200/225 points by Friday= Dr. Pepper 8:25 Responsible: Check in Y N Responsible: Follow directions by time Ms. Carson gets to 0 (or within 10 seconds during reading). Responsible: Wait until teacher gives direction to begin independent work before starting assignments. Respectful: Only materials needed for task on desk or person. Respectful: Pay attention by facing forward, eyes on speaker, listening, and being ready to answer questions. Respectful: Working quietly until all “Bad Boys” are finished. 9:35 Y N 11:30 Y N 1:15 Y N 2:05 Y N TOTAL /5 /8 /8 /8 /8 /8 Consequence Strategies to Decrease Problem Behavior: These strategies are designed to limit the amount of reinforcement that follows problem behavior (particularly talking out). However, because Ricky’s behavior is maintained by adult and peer attention, these strategies alone will not be enough. Therefore, they must also be used in conjunction with the previously stated strategies to increase appropriate behavior. 1. Removal of Attention Following Inappropriate Behaviors (talking out): When Ricky talks out, adults and peers should ignore the behavior. Ignoring the talk outs must be consistent. Ignoring the behavior may be especially challenging for peers. Therefore, it is important that the peers are rewarded for their ignoring of Ricky’s behavior. This can be done both by immediately reinforcing the peer’s ignoring and by incorporating the peer’s behavior into the group reinforcement system. (Christina Carson already has a point system in place where the entire class is working toward a popcorn party at the end of the year). Therefore, she can use this system to ensure peers are ignoring talk outs by specifically stating the expectations to earn the points. (e.g. “For the next 15 minutes, you should all be working quietly and independently. If I do not hear any talking during this time, the class will receive a point for the popcorn party.”) Evaluation of Behavior Support Plan Efficacy of plan: Teachers will keep a copy of Ricky’s point cards, which will show how often Ricky reaches his goal in each setting, how often he meets his daily goals, and total points earned each week. This will allow us to see which expectations Ricky is consistently meeting and which expectations he may be struggling to meet. Direct observations (like those conducted during assessment) will also be continued once to twice a week to assess Ricky’s appropriate academic engagement, disruptive, and non-compliant behaviors. The behaviors will continue to be graphed and reviewed with the teacher to determine success of the plan. In addition, peer comparison data will be collected during each observation to determine how Ricky’s behavior compares to that of his peers. This will be done by observing a random peer in the classroom once every 7 of the 10-second intervals. Integrity of Implementation: Teachers will fill out a self-assessment concerning implementation of the plan elements (see below). Social Validity: Teachers will report if they believe the plan is working and if they feel it is worth continuing its use. Ricky will also be asked if he likes the point card system. Billie Jo Rodriguez will conduct this short interview in approximately three weeks (June 5, 2006). Teacher Interview Questions: 1. Have you seen an increase in Ricky’s appropriate behaviors (e.g. paying attention, working quietly, following directions)? 2. Have you seen a decrease in Ricky’s disruptive, off task, and non-compliant behaviors? 3. Is the point card difficult to use? 4. What do you like/dislike about the card? 5. Were you able to implement the point card program with consistency? 6. Has the intervention been worth the effort? 7. Would you consider this type of intervention again? Generalization and Maintenance: Is the plan being used across settings? Is Ricky reaching his goals consistently? Are Ricky’s goals being systematically increased? Can the system be faded into a selfmonitoring system? Evaluating Data & Modifying Plan: Christina Carson, Cheryl Hershey, and Billie Jo will use the teacher checklist logs, the point cards, and direct observations of Ricky and peer behavior to determine if Ricky has (a) increased the amount of time that he spends actively engaged with academic tasks(b) become more likely that he will follow teacher instructions in a timely manner, and (c) decreased the number of disruptive behaviors. If Ricky fails to receive his daily reward for 3 consecutive days, the program will be re-evaluated to determine his lack of success. The integrity of implementation forms will first be assessed to determine if fidelity is the problem. If fidelity is not the problem, we will further investigate and monitor the plan to make goals and rewards more accessible to Ricky. Outcome and Recommendations of Behavior Support Plan Student: Ricky Date: June 5, 2006 Efficacy of plan: The following outcomes and recommendations are based on a review of Ricky’s completed point cards, which show how often Ricky reaches his goal in each setting, how often he meets his daily goals, and total points earned each week, direct observations (like those conducted during assessment) with peer comparison data (randomly selected peer observed every 7th 10 second interval), observations and self-reports of teacher fidelity, as well as a interview to determine contextual fit. Direct Observation: Direct observation of Ricky’s disruptive, off-task, and non-compliant behaviors has revealed a decrease in problem behaviors since beginning the intervention. The figure below shows Ricky’s disruptive, non-compliant, and off-task behaviors have decreased from an average of 42% to 13% during language arts instruction. Ricky’s average percent of problem behaviors is actually lower than his peers, which have shown problem behavior in 25% of observation intervals. Proportion of intervals Bodi's problem behavior Point Card Baseline 1.00 Bodi Peers 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Observation Points Earned Toward Goal: Since direct observations have consistently occurred during language arts, which is in the morning, and Ricky’s point-card is meant to improve his behavior across the day, it is also important to review his daily points earned toward his goal. The following figure shows the proportion of points Ricky earned on a daily basis. Overall, Ricky has earned 64% of his total points (ranging from 49% to 80%), which is just under the 67% expectation set by his teachers. However, Ricky has not experienced 3 consecutive days of failure to meet his goal, meaning modifications may not be necessary at this point but that the plan should be evaluated and closely monitored. Proportion of points earned Bodi's Points Earned Toward Goal 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 Daily Goal 0 1 2 3 4 5 Day 6 7 8 9 10 Integrity of Implementation: Teachers filled out a daily self-report concerning their implementation of critical features of the intervention. Christina Carson rated all components of the intervention as being implemented daily, except the initial check-in to receive point card. Christina Carson noted that Ricky sometimes arrives at school late and goes directly to reading group without checking in with her. Other days she noted that she was busy, and the student did not remind her about the card. Because of this Cheryl Hershey (the reading teacher) was given some extra cards in case Ricky arrived to reading without a card. Cheryl Hershey rated all components of the intervention as being implemented daily. Direct observation of teacher integrity of implementation revealed both teachers were implementing the behavior plan with at least 90% fidelity. However, neither of the teachers was observed pre-correcting during instruction or independent work by reminding either Ricky individually or the entire class specific expectations for the time. Social Validity: Teachers reported if they believed the plan is working and if they feel it is worth continuing its use. Ricky was also asked if he likes the point card system. Billie Jo Rodriguez conducted this short interview on May 31, 2006. During the interviews with Christina Carson & Cheryl Hershey both strongly agreed that they had the knowledge and skills to implement the plan and that it was consistent with their values. Both moderately agreed that the school had enough resources and administrative support available to implement the plan. Both moderately agreed that the behavior support plan is effective and strongly agreed it is in the best interest of the student. Christina Carson believed the behavior support plan was slightly stressful to implement but strongly agreed the amount of time, energy, and resources needed to implement the plan was reasonable. Cheryl Hershey believed the behavior support plan was not stressful to implement and that the resources needed to implement were reasonable. Ricky stated he likes to point card system and the goals he is working toward. He (and Christina Carson) stated he has more difficulty meeting the goals in the afternoon. Generalization and Maintenance: Is the plan being used across settings? Yes. Both of Ricky’s teachers have implemented and are consistently using the point card. Is Ricky reaching his goals consistently? Sometimes. Ricky has met his daily goal 5 of 9 days but has not experienced 3 consecutive days of failure to meet his goal. Christina Carson has noted that Ricky has experienced more difficulty earning points in the afternoon, which may be due to activities becoming more unstructured. Until Ricky meets daily points more consistently, the goals will not be increased. As Ricky experiences success with the point card, it may be phased into a self-monitoring card. When it is time for Ricky to receive points, Christina Carson reviews the card with him and asks Ricky how many points he believes he’s earned in each category. Christina Carson stated Ricky usually suggests points that are appropriate, showing signs that this system may be eventually phased into a self-monitoring card. Summary and Recommendations: Overall the behavior support plan shows a high level of contextual fit and teacher integrity of implementation with success in decreasing problem behavior during the morning. However, Christina Carson, Ricky, and a review of completed point cards, suggest that Ricky is still struggling to meet behavioral expectations in the afternoon. Christina Carson has stated she believes this struggle is partly due to the end of the year’s unstructured afternoon activities. Since Ricky is experiencing success in the mornings and struggling in the afternoon, Christina Carson may find it beneficial to divide Ricky’s rewards into a morning and afternoon reward, allowing him to reach his goals more consistently. It is also important that both Christina Carson and Cheryl Hershey explicitly review expectations for success during the start of instruction and independent work so that Ricky knows exactly how to earn points and to minimize the peer attention he receives for inappropriate behavior. The review of the outcome data suggests this plan may work effectively for Ricky, particularly if he begins 6th grade using the point card right away and experiences success in the new setting. Starting the program in the fall will also allow for increased maintenance and potential generalization into a self-monitoring system.