Noteform 3-2: Properties of Magma (pages 87 – 90) Name: ____________________________________ Section: _____ 1. The Big Island of Hawaii is the largest mountain on Earth. Lava from Mount Kilauea in Hawaii reached temperatures of around 1,000 degrees Celsius, yet most of the time the lava moves slower than a person can walk, about ______ km/hr. 2. An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. A compound is a substance made of two or more elements that have been chemically combines. Give an example of an element and compound. Element:____________________ Compound: _____________________ 3. A physical property is any characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance. Which one of the following examples of properties is NOT a physical property? (Circle it.) A) the hardness of the substance B) the melting point of the substance C) ability to react with oxygen D) whether a substance is magnetic or not 4. A chemical property is any property that produces a change in the composition of matter. Which one of the following examples of properties is NOT a chemical property? (Circle it.) A) the substance’s ability to burn B) the substance’s ability to react with other substances C) the density of the substance 5. Particles (atoms) in a ____________________ are free to move around one another and can flow from place to place. 6. The resistance of a liquid to flow is called: _____________________________. 7. ______________is a thick, stick liquid with a high viscosity, therefore is should flow slowly. 8. Water, ________________________ and _____________________ are thin, runny liquids with low viscosity, therefore they should flow quickly. 9. Why do liquids have different viscosities? Because of having a greater degree of: ______________________________ 10. Read “Math: Analyzing Data” at the top of page 89. Study both graphs. Notice that there are two types of magma: Basalt-Forming and Rhyolite-Forming. What three types of materials make up both types of magma? _______________________________________________________________ 11. Which type of magma has more silica? _________________________________ 12. About how much silica does this type of magma contain? __________________ 13. A third type of magma has a silica content that is halfway between that of the other two types. About how much silica does this magma contain?___________ 14. At the extremely high __________________ and _____________________ inside Earth, mantle rock sometimes melts to form magma. 15. The viscosity of magma depends upon its silica content and___________________. 16. Silica contains oxygen and silicon. It is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust. The silica content of magma ranges from about __________ to _________ percent. 17. Magma that is high in silica content produces lava that is ___________ in color and very sticky, or viscous and slow-moving. It forms the rock called: Rhyolite. 18. Magma that is lower in silica content produces lava that is ______________ in color, has a lower viscosity and is faster-moving. It forms a rock called: Basalt. 19. Examine Figure 7 on page 90. Which kind of lava has a rippled surface and looks like a wrinkled, coiled rope? Which kind of lava has a jagged surface and looks like rough chunks? Coiled rope: __________________ Rough chunks: __________________ 20. Background: Viscosity increases as temperature decreases. For example, on a hot day, honey pours easily. But if you put honey in a refrigerator, its viscosity increases. The temperature of magma ranges from 750 to 1,175 degrees Celsius. Question: Aa lava has a cooler temperature and is more viscous than Pahoehoe lava, so therefore: A) Aa lava moves slower than Pahoehoe lava. B) Aa lava moves faster than Pahoehoe lava.