Test methods and test equipment for surges and transients
Young, S.N. Source: IEE Colloquium (Digest), n 184, 1998, p 7/1-7/7
Conference: Proceedings of the 1998 IEE Colloquium on Surges, Transients and EMC,
Feb 18 1998, London, UK
Publisher: IEE
Abstract: This paper will look at the surges and transients that are causing increasing
problems for the designers and users of modern electrical and electronic devices. In order
to investigate the effects of transients, and more importantly to verify that protective
measures designed into the devices are adequate, simulation of real world transients is
required. The paper will go on investigate the test equipments required and the test
methods and set-ups used for testing. (4 refs.) (Author abstract)
Characteristics of lightning surges observed at 77 kV substations
Ueda, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co); Yoda, M.; Miyachi, I. Source: Electrical Engineering in
Japan (English translation of Denki Gakkai Ronbunshi), v 124, n 3, Aug, 1998, p 40-48
Publisher: Scripta Technica Inc
Abstract: In order to improve power supply reliability, it is necessary to prevent
lightning faults in transmission lines and substation apparatus. However, faults are caused
occasionally in lower-voltage power systems, particularly at the 77 kV level. The
governing factor for insulation strength of substation apparatus is the lightning impulse
voltage, and it is necessary to know the voltage level and distribution in a substation
caused by lightning surges in order to investigate rational insulation coordination. For
this purpose, the authors measured lightning surges at two 77 kV conventional
substations from 1990 to 1993. In this paper, the characteristics of induced lightning
surges and back flashover lightning surges are described. Comparisons of related surge
voltages at two substations, the power line phases in grounding faults, and the equivalent
capacitance of the substations are also discussed. (12 refs.) (Author abstract)
Modelling of a 500kV transmission tower for lightening surge analysis
Hara, Takehisa (Kyoto Univ); Yamamoto, Osamu; Hayashi, Muneaki Source: Memoirs of the
Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, v 55, n pt 3, Jul, 1993, p 103-115
Abstract: Modeling of transmission towers is an essential part of the traveling analysis
of lightning surges in overhead power transmission lines. In this paper, an equivalent
distributed constant line model of the transmission tower is developed. The model
consists of three parts: main poles, lattices and crossarms. The surge impedance of each
part is expressed by the functions of their dimensions and geometries. This tower model
is applied to the 500kV transmission tower of which surge performance characteristics
are measured. It is found that the tower voltage wave shapes calculated from this model
closely agree with the measured ones. This proves that the authors' proposed tower model
well simulates the surge performances of an actual transmission tower. (12 refs.) (Author
Surge protection and grounding
Goodland, Richard (Quality of Supply Technologies) Source: Vector (Electrical
Engineering), Oct, 1998, 2pp
Publisher: Pulse Publ (Pty) Ltd
Abstract: When lightning strikes, effective surge suppressions is necessary. For really
effective surge suppression, three things should be considered. First, the earth and neutral
must be securely bonded at the entrance to a facility. Second, if the voltage between earth
and neutral approaches 2 V peak-peak, the band must be re-established using an isolating
transformer. Third, a decent surge suppressor must be connected between live and
neutral at the facility entrance. By considering these important points, the user can be
certain that the surge protection system is effective, and that the continued use of the
equipment being protected, is assured.
Surge protection for electronic equipment
Respondek, Peter (Dehn & Sohne); Standler, Ronald B. Source: Compliance Engineering, v 12,
n 6, Sep-Oct, 1995, p 47-52
ISSN: 0898-3577 CODEN: CENGE3
Publisher: Compliance Engineering
Abstract: The Lightning Protection Zone Concept is a new technique which offers a
comprehensive protection against the effects of lightning and other surges. It is a 3-D
planning and construction method that incorporates principles of electromagnetic
compatibility into a simple and easy-to-follow set of rules. In this technique, the interface
between adjacent building zones must encompass both (1) shielding, to attenuate radiated
electromagnetic fields, and (2) appropriate surge-protective devices and electrical filters
on all electrical conductors that connect discrete zones, to attenuate conducted transient
overvoltages and noise. (5 refs.)
Study on increasing the surge capability of a lightning surge protection
semiconductor device
Satoh, Hidetaka (NTT Appl Electron Lab, Musashino-Shi, Tokyo, Japan) Source: IEEE
International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Dec, 1991, p 469-473
Conference: 1991 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility,
Aug 12-16 1991, Cherry Hill, NJ, USA Sponsor: IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility
Soc; IEEE Philadelphia Section, 92050495198
Publisher: Publ by IEEE
Abstract: Design techniques for increasing the surge capability of a bidirectional SCR
(silicon controlled rectifier) lightning surge protection device for communications
equipment are described. The relationships between surge capability and doping profiles
with different p-base widths and n-base impurity concentrations are studied by analyzing
failure modes and surge response characteristics. A narrow p-base width is effective for
increasing surge capability because it can reduce turn-on energy dissipation that leads to
hot-spot failure. Furthermore, reducing the on-state energy dissipation can increase surge
capability without increasing device size. (13 refs.)
Transient voltage surge protection
Shrive, Charles A. Source: Construction Specifier, v 49, n 3, Mar, 1996, p 19-20
Publisher: Construction Specifications Inst Inc
Abstract: Transient voltages inflict damages on sensitive equipments. Such damages can
be prevented or even eliminated. There are two possible ways of achieving this. One is to
consider IEEE Standard 1100 which is considered as an excellent resource for designers
and specifiers attempting to identify and solve problems associated with designing to
minimize transient voltage surges. The other is to install appropriately selected surge
protection devices (SPDs) or transient voltage surge suppressors (TVSS).