[Header: top right; first few words; 5 spaces; page number] Running head: EFFECT OF A GENERAL MOTIVATIONAL PLAN INTERVENTION [50 character max] [Title: centered; avoid unnecessary words; identify variable or issues and relationships] Effects of a General Motivational Intervention on Teachers’ Perceptions of Issues Affecting Morale Your Name Valdosta State University See a sample paper in APA manual starting p. 306. Also consult website for APA: APA Style Essentials: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=796 Effects of a General Motivational Intervention on Teachers’ Perceptions of Issues Affecting Morale Introduction and literature review go here without a heading other than title of the research paper. Definition of Variables Morale. Morale is the extent to which a person’s needs are met. It is also the extent to which the person feels satisfaction in his/her job (Rafferty, 2002). Research Questions Research Question 1. What do teachers identify as the most pressing issues affecting teacher morale? Research Question 2. Can a general intervention like a motivational speaker address these issues? Methods Participants Intervention Data Collection Achievement Test (Appendix A). Participation Checklist (Appendix B). Attitude Survey (Appendix C). Results Discussion References Abedi, J., & Lord, C. (2001). The language factor in Mathematics tests. Applied Measurement in Education, 14(3), 219-234. Retrieved May 24, 2006 from Academic Search Premier. Black, A., & Ammon, P. (1992). A developmental-constructivist approach to teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 43(5), 323-335. Buchanan, K., & Helman, M. (1997). Reforming Mathematics Instruction for ESL Literacy Students. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED414769) Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) (1992). Model standards for beginning teacher licensing and development: A resource for state dialogue. Washington, DC: The Council of Chief State School Officers. Lortie, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2001, April). Effect sizes in qualitative research: A prolegomenon. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), Seattle, WA. Sikula, J., & Guyton, E. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of research on teacher education (2nd ed). New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan. United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.). 1997 sourcebook of federal sentencing statistics. Retrieved December 8, 1999, from http://www.ussc.gov/annrpt/1997/sbtoc97.htm. VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Witcher, A. E., & Travers, P. D. (1999). Witcher-Travers survey of educational beliefs. Retrieved November 11, 2001, from the Allyn and Bacon Web site: http://www.abacon.com/witcher-travers Annotated Bibliography Goldschneider, F. K., Waite, L. J., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51, 541-554. The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. In this empirical study, they analyzed survey responses from 57 male and 63 female college students. They found their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living. Some of the survey items may be useful for my research. Access the following site for Guidelines for Annotated Bibliography: http://www.library.cornell.edu/okuref/research/skill28.htm How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY? An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. ANNOTATIONS VS. ABSTRACTS Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority. THE PROCESS Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research. First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic. Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style. Describe the type of article: (a) empirical studies (either qualitative, quantitative or mixed), (b) review, (c) theoretical, (d) methodological, (e) case study, or (f) meta-analysis. Most of these are described in APA manual section 1.04 (starting p. 7). Describe the scope of the article. For an empirical study, this could include number and grade level, course/content, region/location, contextual factors that are relevant to interpreting the data (SES, LEP, minority, gender, and special needs). For a review/meta-analysis, this would include the range of studies reviewed in the article and/or the range of issues discussed. Write a concise summary of the main findings, conclusions, or central theme of the book or article. Include one or more sentences to demonstrate relevance to your bibliography topic. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, or (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited. Annotated Bibliography Rubric Unacceptable (1 pt) Needs Improvement (2 pts) Acceptable (3 pts) Target (4 pts) Articles (1, 11%) More than one aspect of One aspect of articles does not All articles are appropriate: articles does not satisfy satisfy specified topic, length, topic, length, date of specified topic, length, date of publication. publication. date of publication. Type of Article Type of article is not correctly identified. (1, 11%) Scope (1, 11%) The scope of the study (e.g. number and grade level of subjects; region; contextual factors) is not addressed adequately. Findings (1, Key findings are not identified clearly. 11%) Relevance (1, 11%) Relevance to topic is not addressed clearly. Personal evaluation or critique is not addressed clearly. APA Style (1, Many systematic errors in APA style for 11%) references and narrative. Writing Quality Writing contains more than three errors in (1, 11%) writing mechanics and intended meaning is not evident. Critique (1, 11%) All articles are appropriate: topic, length, date of publication. Articles are obtained from a variety of sources. Type of article is correctly Most articles are correctly All articles are correctly identified but is not identified as empirical identified as empirical study, appropriate for topic. study, review article, review article, theoretical theoretical article, article, methodological article, methodological article, or or case study and is case study and is appropriate for topic. appropriate for topic. The scope of the study (e.g. The scope of the study The scope of the study (e.g. number and grade level of (e.g. number and grade number and grade level of subjects; region; contextual level of subjects; region; subjects; region; contextual factors) is not described contextual factors) is factors) is described clearly for clearly. described clearly for most all articles. articles. Key findings are either Key findings are Key findings are summarized unclear or limited in scope. summarized clearly and clearly and thoroughly for all thoroughly for most articles. articles. Relevance to topic is not Relevance to topic is Relevance to topic is identified identified clearly. identified clearly for most clearly for all articles. articles. Personal evaluation or critique Personal evaluation or Personal evaluation or critique is included but lacks depth of critique demonstrates demonstrates understanding, understanding. understanding or insight. discrimination and insight. 5-10 errors in APA style for 1-5 errors in APA style for No errors in APA style. references and narrative. references and narrative. Writing contains more than three errors in writing mechanics, but is well organized and intended meaning is evident throughout. Narrative for artifact is All four sections of the Narrative narrative are present but may (Description, incomplete. be unclear or incomplete. Rationale, Candidate does not provide Impact, and clear evidence of Reflection) (1, understanding how the 11%) assignment addresses the indicators of the CFS. Writing is well-organized, clearly written without spelling or grammar errors, and demonstrates clear understanding. Writing is well-organized, clearly written without spelling or grammar errors, and demonstrates clear understanding. Narrative for artifact clearly addresses all four sections. Candidate provides some evidence of understanding how the assignment addresses the indicators of the CFS. Narrative for artifact clearly addresses all four sections. Candidate provides clear evidence of understanding how the assignment addresses the indicators of the CFS and contributes to his/her teacher preparation.