ESC110 Chapter 8 Questions 1. Many argue that the book Silent Spring by author __________ serves as the foundation for the modern environmental movement. A. Harriet Beecher Stowe B. Charles Darwin C. Rachel Carson D. Mary Ann Cunningham 3. The __________ defines __________ as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. A. World Health Organization (WHO); disease B. World Trade Organization (WTO); illness C. World Health Organization (WHO); health D. World Bank; wealth 5. __________ is the presence of illness in a population and __________ is the occurrence of death in a population. A. Mortality; morbidity B. Morbidity; mortality C. Morbidity; malnourishment D. Mutualism; mutation 7. The leading cause of death worldwide, __________ comprises nearly 20% of the total number of deaths per year. A. HIV/AIDS B. diarrhea C. automobile accidents D. cardiovascular disease 9. Death rates are an accurate measure of the burden of disease in a population. A. True B. False 11. __________ measures the combined effects of premature death and loss of a healthy life as a result of illness or disability. A. Morbility B. DALY (Disability-Adjusted Life Year) C. Mortality D. Carrying Capacity 13. The Ebola virus is an example of a(n) __________ disease, one never known before or one that has been absent for at least 20 years. A. emergent B. insurgent C. eminent D. divergent 15. __________ is a predominate factor contributing to the spread of disease. A. Increasing population density B. Modern travel practices C. Contracting population size D. A and B only E. A, B and C 17. __________, or substances that activate the immune system, can act directly as __________ which serve to stimulate the production of specific antibodies. A. Antigens; allergens B. Allergens; toxins C. Toxins; hazards D. Allergens; antigens 19. Radiation or certain chemicals may act as __________, serving to damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells. A. allergens B. carcinogens C. mutagens D. teratogens 21. Carcinogens, or cancer causing substances, can cause: A. fetal alcohol syndrome B. allergic reactions C. malignant tumors from out-of-control cell growth D. None of the above E. All of the above 23. Although the incidence of most major cancers has stabilized or even begun to decrease over the last 50 years in the US, __________ has continued to increase and kills more people per year than any other cancer. A. lung B. colon C. breast D. prostate 25. Chemicals can easily be divided into two major groups based on their ability to dissolve into __________ or __________. A. water; air B. oil; air C. water; oil D. None of the above 27. Which of the following can be possible routes of exposure for toxic and hazardous environmental factors to enter the human body: A. Water B. Medicinal Drugs C. Food D. A & C only E. All of the above 29. Even rather dilute toxins present in the environment can reach dangerous levels inside cells and tissues of living organisms through a process known as __________. A. bioaccumulation B. biocentrism C. bioremediation D. biodegradation 31. Some people are much more sensitive to toxins than others. Factors which effect our ability to deactivate toxins are: A. age B. sex C. body weight D. All of the above 33. A reaction in which some chemicals interfere with the effects of others in the environment is known as __________, conversely, __________ describes the interaction of chemicals in which one substance multiplies the effects of another. A. additive; persistent B. antagonistic; additive C. synergistic; degradation D. antagonistic; synergism 35. In 1540, Swiss scientist Paracelsus said, “The dose makes the poison.” By this he meant that: A. the LD50 is the lethal dosage for any organism. B. almost anything is toxic at some level. C. all toxins are identical. D. mechanisms for DNA repair are only effective if the toxin is present under certain doses. 37. In humans, most of the enzymes responsible for reducing the toxicity of poisons are located in the __________. A. kidneys B. liver C. pancrease D. gall bladder 39. Toxicological studies are either __________ in which a group of people previously exposed to a risk factor are compared to a group that has not been exposed to the same factor, or __________ in which the study and control group are identified in advance and observed over time. A. retrospective; prospective B. variable; controlled C. prospective; retrospective D. variable; prospective 41. A dose-response curve shaped like a “J” indicates: A. some environmental factors must be involved. B. there is no relationship between dose and response. C. some threshold must be passed before and response will be noticed. D. the LD50 of a given population. 43. The increasing prevalence in which toxic substances are found in our environment is most likely due to what factor? A. The fact that we have never looked for them before. B. The realization that any amount of dangerous material is unacceptable. C. The disappearance of “full service” gas stations. D. The ability to detect even smaller amounts of substances with sophisticated analytical equipment. 45. If the probability of getting wet when going outside in Seattle is 50% (1 rainstorm / 2 trips outside), and you have not been rained on the last 10 times you went outside, the chance of getting wet when you go outside tomorrow will be… A. 0 B. 5% C. 50% D. 100% 47. __________ is the combination of principles of environmental health and toxicology with regulatory decisions based on socioeconomic, technical and political considerations. A. Risk management B. Public policy C. Risk assessment D. Toxicity Rating 49. Which of the following does NOT need to be considered when setting standards for environmental toxins? A. The combined effects of exposure to different sources. B. The public perception of the toxin. C. The different sensitivities of members of the population. D. The effects of chronic and acute exposures.