Guided Notes on Vocative Case and Imperative Mood Vocative Case Besides the five major cases of Latin nouns (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative), there are two minor cases that are only used occasionally. The first of these is the vocative case, which is used when directly speaking to someone. Usually, the vocative case form of a noun is no different than its nominative case form. Example: Vocative of Julia = Julia Example: Vocative of pater = pater Example: Vocative of puellae = puellae However, there are two key exceptions: 1. When a noun ends in us in the nominative singular, we change the us to an e. Example: Vocative of Marcus = Marce 2. What a noun ends in ius in the nominative singular, we drop the us. Example: Vocative of Julius = Juli Practice Give the Latin for the name or noun that completes the sentence. 1. Sextus, where is your pencil? _______________, ubi est stylus? 2. Tell me a story, Metella. Narra mihi fabulam, ________________. 3. Come in, boys, and wash. Intrate, ______________, et lavate. 4. Hello, Caecilius! Salve, ________________. Imperative Mood Mood – this is a verb trait that tells what kind of information the verb is giving. There are three moods in Latin. The first is the indicative mood, which gives a fact. This is the mood we’ve been using since the beginning of Latin I. Example: Sol lucet. – The sun is shining. The second is the imperative mood, which gives a command. Example: Narra mihi fabulam. – Tell me a story. The third is the subjunctive mood, which can be used to gives a possibility. Example: Plueret – It might rain. Practice Tell whether the following would be indicative, imperative or subjunctive. 1. Give me a sign. __________________ 2. I like pie. ______________________ 3. We may stay. ___________________ 4. The girls are small. ___________________ 5. They might want it. ________________ 6. Buy us some candy. __________________ How to Make the Imperative Mood in Latin There are four imperative forms: positive singular, positive plural, negative singular, and negative plural. Positive Singular – this is for when you want to tell one person to do something. All you need to do is take the infinitive of the verb and remove the –re. Example: Intrare – re = intra, “Enter” Positive Plural – this is for when you want to tell two or more people to do something. Take the positive singular and add te. Example: Intra + te = intrate, “Enter” NB: If the imperative comes from a 3rd or 3rd –io verb, before adding the te the stem vowel changes to an i. Example: Ponere – re = pone, “Put”. Pone – e = pon + i = poni + te = ponite, “Put” Negative Singular – this is for when you want to tell one person not to do something. Use the word noli and the infinitive of the action you want to tell the person not to do. Example: Noli intrare = “Don’t enter” Negative Plural – this is for when you want to tell multiple people not to do something. Use the word nolite and the infinitive of the action you want to tell the people not to do. Example: Nolite intrare = “Don’t enter” The vocative case of nouns is often used in conjunction with the imperative mood. Example: Come in, boys, and wash. = Intrate, pueri, et lavate. Hello (Salve, Salvete) and goodbye (Vale, Valete) are also commands that we have seen. Practice Form the imperatives of the following verbs. Timeo, timēre – to fear. Positive Singular ___________________ Positive Plural __________________ Negative Singular ___________________ Negative Plural __________________ Ago, agere – to drive Positive Singular ___________________ Positive Plural ___________________ Negative Singular __________________ Negative Plural ___________________ So What Did We Learn? 1. The vocative case of nouns is used when we __________________________________. 2. Usually, the vocative case of a noun looks exactly like its ________________ case form. This is true for all nouns of 1st and 3rd declensions, as well as the plural forms of all nouns. 3. The only time the vocative case affects the ending of a noun is when the noun normally ends in ___________ or _____________ in the nominative singular. 4. The mood of a verb tells us ______________________________________________. 5. The indicative mood gives ______________________. 6. The imperative mood gives ______________________. 7. The subjunctive mood gives ______________________. 8. The positive imperatives are formed from the _________ principle part of the verb. 9. To make an imperative plural, add ___________. 10. To make a negative imperative, use __________ (singular) or ____________ (plural) along with the ________ principle part of the verb.