# Chapter 4 Practice Test - Lakeland Regional High School

```Chapter 4 Practice Test
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1. For electromagnetic radiation, c (the speed of light) equals
a. frequency minus wavelength.
c. frequency divided by wavelength.
b. frequency plus wavelength.
d. frequency times wavelength.
2. The speed of an electromagnetic wave is equal to the product of its wavelength and its
a. mass.
c. velocity.
b. color.
d. frequency.
3. In SI, the frequency of electromagnetic radiation is measured in
a. nanometers.
c. hertz.
b. quanta.
d. joules.
4. Electromagnetic radiation behaves like a particle when it
a. travels through space.
c. interacts with photons.
b. is absorbed by matter.
5. One of the wave properties of electromagnetic radiation, such as light, is
a. volume.
c. mass.
b. frequency.
d. weight.
6. As it travels through space, electromagnetic radiation
a. exhibits wavelike behavior.
c. varies in speed.
b. loses energy.
d. releases photons.
7. The distance between two successive peaks on a wave is its
a. frequency.
c. quantum number.
b. wavelength.
d. velocity.
8. The wave model of light did not explain
a. the frequency of light.
c. interference.
b. the continuous spectrum.
d. the photoelectric effect.
9. Max Planck proposed that a hot object radiated energy in small, specific amounts called
a. quanta.
c. hertz.
b. waves.
d. electrons.
10. The energy of a photon, or quantum, is related to its
a. mass.
c. frequency.
b. speed.
d. size.
11. In the hydrogen spectrum, the infrared spectral lines of the Paschen series, compared with the visible lines of
the Balmer series, have
a. longer wavelengths and less energy.
c. shorter wavelengths and more energy.
b. longer wavelengths and more energy.
d. shorter wavelengths and less energy.
12. The spectral lines of hydrogen in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum are called
a. principal series.
c. Lyman series.
b. Balmer series.
d. Paschen series.
13. A bright-line spectrum of an atom is caused by the energy released when electrons
b. fall to a lower energy level.
d. absorb energy and fall to a lower energy level.
14. For an electron in an atom to change from the ground state to an excited state,
a. energy must be released.
b. energy must be absorbed.
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d. the electron must make a transition from a higher to a lower energy level.
Bohr's theory helped explain why
a. electrons have negative charge.
b. most of the mass of the atom is in the nucleus.
c. excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light.
d. atoms combine to form molecules.
According to Bohr's theory, an excited atom would
a. collapse.
c. remain stable.
b. absorb photons.
The drop of an electron from a high energy level to the ground state in a hydrogen atom would be most
closely associated with
The electron in a hydrogen atom has its lowest total energy when the electron is in its
a. neutral state.
c. ground state.
b. excited state.
d. quantum state.
The French scientist Louis de Broglie believed
a. electrons could have a dual wave-particle nature.
b. light waves did not have a dual wave-particle nature.
c. the natures of light and quantized electron orbits were not similar.
d. Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom was completely correct.
Louis de Broglie's research suggested that
a. frequencies of electron waves do not correspond to specific energies.
b. electrons usually behave like particles and rarely like waves.
c. electrons should be considered as waves confined to the space around an atomic nucleus.
d. electron waves exist at random frequencies.
The equation E = h helped Louis de Broglie determine
a. how protons and neutrons behave in the nucleus.
b. how electron wave frequencies correspond to specific energies.
c. whether electrons behave as particles.
d. whether electrons exist in a limited number of orbits with different energies.
Which model of the atom explains why excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light?
a. the Bohr model
c. Rutherford's model
b. the quantum model
d. Planck's theory
Which model of the atom explains the orbitals of electrons as waves?
a. the Bohr model
c. Rutherford's model
b. the quantum model
d. Planck's theory
The size and shape of an electron cloud are most closely related to the electron's
a. charge.
c. spin.
b. mass.
d. energy.
The solutions to the Schr&ouml;dinger wave equation are
a. quantum numbers.
c. energy levels.
b. wave functions.
d. orbitals.
Both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Schr&ouml;dinger wave equation
a. are based on Bohr's theory.
c. led to locating an electron in an atom.
b. treat electrons as particles.
d. led to the concept of atomic orbitals.
A three-dimensional region around a nucleus where an electron may be found is called a(n)
____ 28.
____ 29.
____ 30.
____ 31.
____ 32.
a. spectral line.
c. orbital.
b. electron path.
d. orbit.
The quantum number that indicates the position of an orbital about the three axes in space is the
a. principal quantum number.
c. magnetic quantum number.
b. angular momentum quantum number.
d. spin quantum number.
How many quantum numbers are needed to describe the energy state of an electron in an atom?
a. 1
c. 3
b. 2
d. 4
The main energy levels of an atom are indicated by the
a. orbital quantum numbers.
c. spin quantum numbers.
b. magnetic quantum numbers.
d. principal quantum numbers.
The number of sublevels within each energy level of an atom is equal to the value of the
a. principal quantum number.
c. magnetic quantum number.
b. angular momentum quantum number.
d. spin quantum number.
What values can the angular momentum quantum number have when n = 2?
a.
c. 0, 1, 2
b.
____ 33. The values
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____ 35.
____ 36.
____ 37.
____ 38.
____ 39.
____ 40.
d. 0, 1
and
specify an electron's
a. charge.
c. speed.
b. main energy level.
d. possible state in an orbital.
The spin quantum number of an electron can be thought of as describing
a. the direction of electron spin.
b. whether the electron's charge is positive or negative.
c. the electron's exact location in orbit.
d. the number of revolutions the electron makes about the nucleus per second.
An electron for which n = 4 has more ____ than an electron for which n = 2.
a. spin
c. energy
b. stability
d. wave nature
A spherical electron cloud surrounding an atomic nucleus would best represent
a. an s orbital.
c. a combination of px and py orbitals.
b. a px orbital.
d. a combination of an s and a px orbital.
The major difference between a 1s orbital and a 2s orbital is that
a. the 2s orbital can hold more electrons.
b. the 2s orbital has a slightly different shape.
c. the 2s orbital is at a higher energy level.
d. the 1s orbital can have only one electron.
The p orbitals are shaped like
a. electrons.
c. dumbbells.
b. circles.
d. spheres.
The letter designations for the first four sublevels with the number of electrons that can be accommodated in
each sublevel are
a. s:1, p:3, d:10, and f:14.
c. s:2, p:6, d:10, and f:14.
b. s:1, p:3, d:5, and f:7.
d. s:1, p:2, d:3, and f:4.
The number of possible orbital shapes for the third energy level is
a. 1.
c. 3.
b. 2.
d. 4.
____ 41. For n = 4, the number of possible orbital shapes is
a. 1.
c. 16.
b. 4.
d. 32.
____ 42. For the f sublevel, the number of orbitals is
a. 5.
c. 9.
b. 7.
d. 18.
____ 43. How many orientations can an s orbital have about the nucleus?
a. 1
c. 3
b. 2
d. 5
____ 44. How many orbitals can exist at the third main energy level?
a. 3
c. 9
b. 6
d. 18
____ 45. How many electrons are needed to completely fill the fourth energy level?
a. 8
c. 32
b. 18
d. 40
____ 46. How many electrons are needed to fill the third main energy level if it already contains 8 electrons?
a. 0
c. 10
b. 8
d. 22
____ 47. At n = 1, the total number of electrons that could be found is
a. 1.
c. 6.
b. 2.
d. 18.
____ 48. If the third main energy level contains 15 electrons, how many more could it possibly hold?
a. 0
c. 3
b. 1
d. 17
____ 49. A single orbital in the 3d level can hold ____ electrons.
a. 10
c. 3
b. 2
d. 6
____ 50. &quot;Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any is occupied by a second electron, and
all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin&quot; is a statement of
a. the Pauli exclusion principle.
c. the quantum effect.
b. the Aufbau principle.
d. Hund's rule.
____ 51. The statement that no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers is
a. the Pauli exclusion principle.
c. Bohr's law.
b. Hund's rule.
d. the Aufbau principle.
____ 52. The sequence in which energy sublevels are filled is specified by
a. the Pauli exclusion principle.
c. Lyman's series.
b. the orbital rule.
d. the Aufbau principle.
____ 53. The Pauli exclusion principle states that no two electrons in the same atom can
a. occupy the same orbital.
c. have the same set of quantum numbers.
b. have the same spin quantum numbers.
d. be at the same main energy level.
____ 54. Both copper (atomic number 29) and chromium (atomic number 24) appear to break the pattern in the order
of filling the 3d and 4s orbitals. This change in pattern is expressed by
a. an increase in the number of electrons in both the 3d and 4s orbitals.
b. a reduction in the number of electrons in both the 3d and 4s orbitals.
c. a reduction in the number of electrons in the 3d orbital and an increase in the 4s orbital.
d. a reduction in the number of electrons in the 4s orbital and an increase in the 3d orbital.
____ 55. In the ground state, the 3d and 4s sublevels of the chromium atom (atomic number 24) may be represented as
a. 3d6 4s1.
c. 3d5 4s1.
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____ 58.
____ 59.
____ 60.
b. 3d4 4s2.
d. 4s2 3d4.
The element with electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 is
a. Mg (Z = 12).
c. S (Z = 16).
b. C (Z = 6).
d. Si (Z = 14).
The electron configuration for the carbon atom (C) is 1s2 2s2 2p2. The atomic number of carbon is
a. 3.
c. 11.
b. 6.
d. 12.
The electron notation for aluminum (atomic number 13) is
a. 1s2 2s2 2p3 3s2 3p3 3d1.
c. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1.
2
2
6
2
1
b. 1s 2s 2p 3s 2d .
d. 1s2 2s2 2p9.
If the s and p sublevels of the highest main energy level of an atom are filled, how many electrons are in the
main energy level?
a. 2
c. 16
b. 8
d. 32
If an element has an octet of electrons in its highest main energy level, there are ____ electrons in this level.
a. 2
c. 10
b. 8
d. 32
61. Explain Louis de Broglie's contribution to the quantum model of the atom.
62. What do quantum numbers describe?
63. Use the electron configuration for nitrogen, 1s2 2s2 2p3, to state how many electrons are in each main energy
level.
64. Write the electron configuration for beryllium, atomic number 4.
65. Write the electron configuration for argon, atomic number 18.
66. Use the figure above. Which element has the following electron configuration: [Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p5?
67. Use the figure above. Which element has the following electron configuration: [Kr] 5s2 4d10 5p3?
68. Use the figure above and the symbols for the noble gases to write the electron configuration for strontium.
69. Refer to the figure above and draw the orbital diagram for calcium.
70. Refer to the figure above and draw the orbital diagram for carbon.
71. Write the electron configuration of the figure above.
72. What element's orbital diagram is shown in the figure above?
73. Why does the last electron of potassium enter the 4s level rather than the 3d level?
Chapter 4 Practice Test
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4-1.1
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4-2.1
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ANS: C
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.1
ANS: C
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.1
ANS: B
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.1
ANS: C
DIF: III
OBJ: 4-3.1
ANS: B
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.1
ANS: D
DIF: I
OBJ: 4-3.2
ANS: A
DIF: I
OBJ: 4-3.2
ANS: D
DIF: I
OBJ: 4-3.2
ANS: C
DIF: I
OBJ: 4-3.2
ANS: D
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.3
ANS: C
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.3
ANS: D
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.3
ANS: B
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.3
ANS: C
DIF: II
OBJ: 4-3.3
ANS: B
DIF: I
OBJ: 4-3.3
ANS: B
DIF: I
OBJ: 4-3.3
If light has a particle nature, de Broglie reasoned, could particles have a wave nature? He compared the
behavior of Bohr's quantized electron orbits to the known behavior of waves. Finally, he hypothesized that
electrons are confined to the space around an atomic nucleus and that electron waves exist only at specific
energies
OBJ:
4-2.1
Three of the quantum numbers describe the location of an electron, and the fourth gives its spin.
OBJ:
4-2.4
The principal quantum number n describes the energy level that an electron occupies. In a nitrogen atom, n =
1 for two electrons and n = 2 for five electrons.
OBJ:
4-3.3
1s2 2s2
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1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
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4-3.3
bromine
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4-3.3
antimony
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4-3.3
2
[Kr] 5s
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4-3.3
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4-3.3
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1s2 2s2 2p5
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4-3.3
fluorine
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4-3.3
The 4s level fills first because it is in a lower energy state than 3d.
OBJ: 4-3.2
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