Exercise Chapter 1 What Is Human Geography Objectives After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand how the discipline of geography evolved and who were the key players in its evolution. 2. Enumerate the specialized interests and their characteristics in the field of human geography. 3. Determine the realm of the “geographers’ space” and how location, direction and distance identify our “place.” 4. Understand how the concepts of size and scale can affect our interpretation of geographic phenomena. 5. Distinguish between the physical and cultural landscapes and how humans can change the attributes of a place. 6. Know what is meant by accessibility and connectivity when concerned with the interaction among places. 7. Understand the difference between arithmetic and physiological population density. 8. Classify region descriptions as being “formal,” “functional,” or “perceptual.” 9. Understand the concept of a “mental map.” 10. Determine the type of map, cartogram, or model that would most effectively display the spatial distribution of phenomena, if given a set of data for points or areas. Matching Questions 1. Match the following terms with their correct definitions. ____ Absolute Direction a. the cardinal points of north, south, east and west ____ Absolute Distance b. the transformation of linear measurements into meaningful units ____ Absolute Location c. relationship between the size of an area on a mapand the surface of the earth ____ Relative Distance d. the physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of a place itself ____ Relative Direction e. the identification of a place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates ____ Relative Location f. the spatial separation between two points on the earth’s surface ____ Scale g. the position of a place in relation to that of ____ Site ____ Situation h. other places or activities the relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question i. “out west,” “back east,” “down south” 2. Identify the following as being either a formal, functional, or perceptual region. a. Central Business District __________________ b. Mountain Range __________________ c. the Sunbelt __________________ d. Tropical Rain Forest __________________ e. Your University’s Campus __________________ f. Regional Office of a Company __________________ g. Salesperson’s Territory __________________ h. Chinatown __________________ i. the “Nation’s Capital” __________________ Fill In the Blanks Complete the following by supplying the required answers. 1. According to the regional concept, there are four common characteristics associated with all regions. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. There are three key reference locations (point or line) in the global grid system. Two are given in nature and the third is a mutually agreed-upon reference location. Indicate the three locations and state whether each is a given or artificial reference location. 1. 2. 3. 3. What were the original contributions of the Greek geographers? 1. 2. 3. Multiple Choice Questions Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given. 1. Which of the following statements concerning spatial systems is not correct? a. Maps cannot be used to measure and analyze systems, only models can. b. The analysis of the role of each component helps reveal the operation of the entire system. c. They function as units because their component parts are interdependent. d. Spatial systems may be the basis for regional identification. 2. The essential perspective used by geographers in forming their concepts is: a. absolute. b. human. c. relative. d. spatial. 3. Arithmetic density: a. cannot be used to compare regions. b. is an absolute relationship such as population per square kilometer. c. is more meaningful than physiological density. d. refers to the number of persons per unit of arable land. 4. Site refers to the: a. external features of a place. b. precise location of the center of a city. c. proximity to natural resources or transportation routes. d. internal locational attributes of a place. 5. Regional boundaries are marked by: a. arbitrary decisions based upon the scale of the map. b. dramatic changes in the region’s unifying characteristic. c. spatial reality. d. the boundaries of a city or incorporated political unit. 6. The statement that “the journey to work is 15 minutes by bus” is an example of: a. absolute direction. b. absolute distance. c. relative direction. d. relative distance. 7. Which of the following is not considered a geographic pattern? a. centralized b. distributive c. linear d. random 8. Perceptual regions: a. are more vigorously structured than formal or functional regions. b. are not considered of any importance to geographers. c. define areas only as far as the eye can see. d. reflect feelings and images rather than objective data. 9. In describing the patterns and processes of spatial interaction, geographers are most concerned with: a. accessibility and connectivity. b. density and dispersion. c. diffusion and pattern. d. pedestrian cities. 10. By the end of the 18th century, regional geographic investigation was strengthened by: a. Roger’s book. b. the development of national censuses. c. the processes of the physical landscape. d. the rapid development of geology, botany, zoology, and other natural sciences. 11. The map type best used to record not only the presence of a phenomenon but to suggest its spatial pattern, distribution, or dispersion is: a. dot. b. choropleth. c. isoline. d. statiscal. 12. Which of the following statements concerning the globe grid is not correct? a. Lines of latitude are always parallel to the equator. b. Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles. c. The equator is one-half the length of a meridian. d. The scale on the surface of the globe is everywhere the same in every direction. 13. Which of the following is not one of the dominating interests in geography? a. areal variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth and their interrelationships b. the development of overlapping perceptual regions c. regional analysis d. spatial systems linking areas of physical phenomena and human activities together 14. Using any map projection, there will always be some distortion because: a. a map has to depict the curved surface of the three-dimensional earth on a twodimensional sheet of paper. b. equivalent projections must be distinguished from conformal ones. c. some spatial phenomena are not tangible or visible. d. the map scale is changed. 15. The visible imprint of human activity is known as: a. spatial interaction. b. the attributes of the setting. c. the cultural landscape. d. the natural landscape. 16. Idrisi’s prime objective was to: a. collect all known geographical information and assemble it on a truly accurate representation of the world. b. divide the inhabited earth into seven climatic regions. c. spread the works of Ptolemy throughout the Greek and Muslim cultures of Europe, the Near East, and North Africa. d. write Roger’s book. 17. Which of the following statements is correct? a. The larger the scale of the map, the larger the area it covers. b. The larger the scale of the map, the more generalized are the data it portrays. c. The smaller the scale of the map, the larger the area it covers. d. The smaller the scale of the map, the more accurately can its content be displayed. 18. The early Greeks: a. hired Muslims to describe and analyze their known world. b. lost a great deal of their geographic knowledge during the Middle Ages. c. observed how humans lived in various areas against the backdrop of the earth’s physical features. d. were not interested in geography. 19. Which of the following is not a subfield of human geography? a. atmosphere b. behavioral c. economic d. political 20. Which of the following statements concerning longitude is not correct? a. Longitude is depicted by north-south lines called meridians. b. Longitude is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian. c. Meridians are parallel to the equator. d. Meridians converge at the poles. 21. Modern geography traces its origins to the: a. 17th century. b. 18th century. c. 19th century. d. 20th century. 22. The characteristics of places today are the result of: a. current inhabitants. b. constantly changing past and present conditions. c. Technology. d. level of education. 23. The “turfs” of the urban clubs or gangs is an example of which type of region? a. formal b. functional c. nodal d. perceptual 24. The distance between the North and South Poles is: a. 0 degrees. b. 90 degrees. c. 180 degrees. d. 360 degrees. 25. Which of the following is not true with respect to “places”? a. They cannot interact with other places. b. They have location. c. They may be large or small. d. They have both physical and cultural characteristics. ANSWER SECTION Matching Questions 1. Absolute Direction – a 2. a. functional Absolute Distance –f b. Absolute Location – e c. perceptual Relative Distance – b d. formal Relative Direction – i e. functional f. functional Relative Location – g Scale – c g. formal functional Site – d h. perceptual Situation – h i. formal Fill In the Blanks 1. 2. 3. 1. Regions have location. 3. Regions have boundaries. 2. 4. Regions have spatial extent. Regions are hierarchically arranged. North and South Poles – given Equator – given Prime Meridian – artificial 1. They measured the earth. 2. They devised a global grid of latitude and longitude in order to draw sophisticated maps. 3. They discussed the patterns and processes of climates, vegetation, landforms, and their areal variations. Multiple Choice Questions 1.A 2.D 3.B 4.D 5.B 6.D 7.B 8.D 9.A 10.D 11.A 12.C 13.B 14.A 15.C 16.A 17.C 18.C 19.A 20.C 21.A 22.B 23.D 24.C 25.A Human Geography Chapter 1 Quiz DCBDB ADDEBD Question 1: The Greeks defined the following concepts of scale, which describe the relationship between locations and the interconnectedness of places: a) chorography, cosmography, teleology b) geography, chorography, teleology c) chorography, geography, topography d) cosmography, chorography, topography Question 2:The concept of latitude and longitude, which describe the grids in maps, were developed by ________. a) European civilization b) Islamic civilization c) Greek civilization Question 3:What was one serious difficulty early mapmakers encountered in drawing accurate maps? a) The lack of a printing press b) How to represent a sphere on a flat surface c) Describing the relationship between humans and their physical surroundings d) All of the above. Question 4:Geography is the study of ________. a) human activities as they relate to their physical environment b) the influence of the physical environment on humans c) the human landscape d) All of the above. Question 5:The first formalized definition of geography was developed in the seventeenth century by ________. a) Gerardus Mercator b) Bernhardus Varenius c) Alexander von Humboldt d) Friedrich Ratzel Question 6:Three main approaches in contemporary human geography include: a) regional studies, spatial analysis, and a landscape approach b) spatial analysis, physical geography, landscape approach c) chorology, regional studies, and the landscape approach d) regional studies, chorology and spatial analysis Question 7:Geography has contributed to ________. a) exploration b) facilitation of political expansion c) an understanding that human activities are connected to their environment d) All of the above. Question 8:Contemporary regional geography ________. a) is a concern with regions as settings or locales for human activity b) explains the location of geographic facts c) explains the ways in which regions reflect the characteristics of the occupying society d) Both a and c. Question 9:What is the cause of the radical change from geographers being concerned with exploration, mapping, and description towards a concern with creating an understanding of the ways humans and nature relate? a) The writings of Immanuel Kant b) The establishment of geography as an academic discipline c) The writings of Humboldt and Ritter d) The ability to project a sphere onto a flat surface e) Both b and c. Question 10:Contemporary spatial geography incorporates ________. a) Humanist and Marxist perspectives c) possibilism b) quantitative approaches and techniques d) environmental determinism Question 11: The first geography department was established in ________. a) France b) Australia c) Canada d) Prussia Research Questions 1. Describe the different traditions of geography as they arose from different civilizations of the world, namely, Greece, China, the 2. 3. 4. 5. Islamic world, and Europe. Outline some of the major differences and similarities. What has been the relationship of the development of scientific knowledge and scientific and mathematical instruments to the development of geographic thought, tools and techniques? What is the importance of the teachings of Immanuel Kant, Alexander von Humboldt, Carl Ritter, and Paul Vidal to the development of geographic thought? How are their teachings and writings incorporated into contemporary geographical methods and subjects of analysis? How did institutionalization of geography as an academic discipline change the organization of the knowledge held by geographers and their subsequent studies? Describe the contemporary geography approaches of regional studies and spatial analysis. What are the core differences in these approaches and subjects of study? Describe any similarities between them. Chapter 2: Studying Human Geography Research questions 1. How is the social theory of Marxism applied by human geographers? What are some common contemporary subjects or contexts this area of thought is applied to? 2. What are some major similarities and differences between humanist and Marxist geographies and how they are applied? 3. What are some contemporary techniques and applications of remote sensing? How has remote sensing contributed to advancing knowledge about the state of the environment? 4. Globalization integrates concepts of space, location, place, region, and distance. What are some human processes or issues positively and negatively affected by globalization and how? 5. What are some contemporary techniques and applications of geographic information systems? How has the use of GIS advanced knowledge in an increasingly complex world? Chapter 3: A Fragile Home Research Questions 1. Examine the fuel mix for energy supply in your region and your regions’ energy plans. Are they sustainable? If not, how could they be improved for sustainability? 2. Describe how sustainable development policy differs from economic policy and illustrate your case with examples. 3. Do scientists agree about whether humans have passed the point of no return concerning environmental degradation? Consider climate change, water use, and biodiversity loss. 4. How has human activity affected the global water cycle? Using specific case studies, discuss how our impacts on water quality and quantity have been felt in different regions of the world. What is systems thinking, and what is its importance to environmental knowledge? Chapter 4: A Crowded Home Research Questions 1. Whether or not population will encounter limits to resources has been debated since Malthus perceived this issue. Is there merit to this argument today? Give some examples of resource problems which enhance or dispel Malthus’ argument, making use of current facts and the arguments of other thinkers who contributed to this debate. 2. What is the current thinking on fertility policies? Does government intervention work as expected? Support your discussion with empirical examples. 3. What are some of the issues that arise when a population is aging? What measures are governments taking when they encounter this issue and are they successful? 4. What have been some of the responses from governments and other political or religious bodies in addressing the AIDS pandemic? Where has there been successes, and where could there be improvement in responses and why? 5. Describe what is learned about women and gender issues from regions and states which are experiencing declining fertility rates. How has this affected academic study and thinking on government policy? Chapter 5: An Unequal Home Research Questions 1. How do governments respond to migration? Consider situations of forced, mass, primitive, and free migration. 2. What is the relevance of world systems theory? How is this theory typically applied to the study of development? Give examples. 3. Good governance is associated with improved living conditions in many less-developed countries. Should good governance be a core policy goal of international aid? Illustrate your argument with examples. 4. Some scholars say that food shortage and famine are associated with a lack of good governance. To what extent is this accurate? Are there other underlying factors influencing food shortage and famine? 5. Why are developing countries vulnerable to disaster and diseases? Illustrate your argument with examples and case studies. Chapter 6: Cultural Identities and Landscapes Research Questions 1. What is the cultural landscape where you live? Research and describe the history of language and religious beliefs where you are. 2. Do human geographers view cultural globalization as a positive or negative phenomenon in the world? 3. How does language relate to culture? Can cultures exist without language? Does culture change when new languages appear in a region? 4. When religion views space as sacred there can be both positive and negative outcomes. What are these? Use examples to support your discussion. 5. Describe the relationship of language to landscape. How is landscape understood through language? Chapter 7: Social Identities and Landscapes Research Questions 1. Drawing from examples, discuss the history of the concept of ‘genocide’. Discuss which international bodies are concerned with it and why it is difficult to define and identify its occurrence. 2. Drawing from examples, describe the factors that facilitated the rise of mass tourism. Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of this form of economic development in locales. 3. Discuss how feminist geographers study gender and landscape and, drawing from examples, describe the importance of this type of study. 4. Examine how human geographers study regions and sense of place. What are the features of the regions they select to study? What are their methods of analysis? 5. How is Marxist theory relevant to the study of social identities and landscapes? Drawing from examples, describe the relevance of Marxist theory to contemporary human geography. Chapter 8: Political Identities and Landscapes Research Questions 1. Discuss the extent to which theories of state creation are most accurate and why. 2. Have there been successful cases of the devolution of power in multinational states? Give examples in your discussion. 3. Discuss the importance of examining space and voting patterns. 4. Discuss the factors which contribute to a failed state. Consider history, geopolitics, and internal processes in your answer. 5. Is the world closer now to democracy and perpetual peace? Why or why not? Chapter 9: A Globalizing World Research Questions 1. Research and explain the differences of opinion between pro- and anti-globalization advocates. 2. What is the role of networks in globalization processes? Describe how changes in networks have created conditions for increased globalization. 3. Describe how the evolution of the transport system has led to increased trade and globalization. 4. What are the key events and agreements in history which have affected trade relationships? How have these led to current states of trade and globalization? Describe the process of fair trade as an alternative to free trade. Describe and discuss the effectiveness of this movement. Chapter 10: Agricultural Lives and Landscapes Research Questions 1. Vandana Shiva is a leading voice in a movement opposing the green revolution and biotechnology. Evaluate her arguments against these agricultural methods. 2. Describe and discuss the factors related to the increasing homogenization of food preferences on a global scale. 3. Select a type of local food production. Describe how it relates to the local culture, religion, economy, climate, and physical features—space and place. 4. Discuss the implications of Europe’s opposition to the import of genetically modified products. How has this affected the agricultural system and consumption patterns inside and outside of Europe? 5. What are the Marxist, feminist, and/or postmodern perspectives on the current dominant agricultural system? How is the current agricultural system implicated in the replication of inequalities? What are its impacts on culture? Chapter 11: Settlement Patterns Research Questions 1. Research and discuss the value of central place theory. To what extent is it useful? Are there major criticisms or factors it neglects? 2. What is the history of development of the region you live in? How has this affected local culture, economic development, and ways of life? 3. Is the definition of a world city universally agreed upon? What are some of the debates surrounding the definition and classification of world cities? 4. What research exists to date comparing rural and urban ways of life? 5. The number of mega-cities has grown over the past few decades and their relationships to each other and the regions they occupy are changing. Research and discuss the emergence and growth of megacities and how these cities alter the relationship of their populations to the surrounding areas and to other cities. Chapter 12: Urban Form and Governance Research Questions 1.Planning is one of the ways that particular values are imposed on landscapes. Describe the planning processes where you live—identify how your area is designed spatially, which land uses it is occupied by, and how this reflects which values are most important in the city. 2 What has been the value of Marxist and postmodern thought on analyzing cities? How has this altered the way we view cities and how they are planned? 3 Describe the rise of the New Urbanism model of planning. What was this model a reaction to? Has it been implemented successfully and should it become a dominant form of planning? 4 What was Le Corbusier’s vision of a city? Describe where it has been implemented, whether or not it achieved its original goals, and its degree of success in other factors. 5 Historically, how has the Chicago school influenced planning theory and practice? Chapter 13: Living and Working in Cities Research Questions 6. Where are some countries where housing is a right? What are the effects of these types of laws on land use, homelessness, cities, culture, and economic development? 7. Discuss the various explanations of poverty. Which ones might help to implement solutions? 8. Research and discuss the value of the ethnic segregation of neighbourhoods. Which ways of promoting multiculturalism are found to be of value? 9. Select a neighbourhood undergoing gentrification and explain how this process is occurring, debates surrounding the change, and the local impacts of the change. 10. Are cities still a main site for manufacturing? Describe how industrial space in cities has changed over time. Chapter 14: Industrial Lives and Landscapes Research Questions 11. Discuss the factors which influenced an increase in industrialization in newly industrializing countries. Make sure to consider the merits of the various strategies used by these countries. 12. Discuss the relationship between post-Fordism and industrial restructuring. What have been the outcomes of industrial restructuring? 13. Research and describe how transnational corporations have altered industrial location decisions. What impacts have these decisions had? 14. What are the factors that have encouraged an increase in women working in industrial settings? What are the impacts caused by this increase? Are they all positive? 15. Discuss the theories and findings related to uneven development. Is it inevitable?