4. a. 2 Verbs (helping, action, transitive& intransitive, linking, irregular)
4.a.2 Nouns direct objects, indirect objects, predicate nominatives
4.a.3 Verb Tense (including purpose) present, past, future, present perfect,
past perfect, future perfect
4.a.4 Subject-verb agreement in sentences containing indefinite pronouns,
compound subjects, and prepositional phrases separating subject and
verb agreement
Verbs Video
2 Main kinds of Verbs (Review Skill)
There are two main kinds of verbs: Action verbs and linking verbs. It may
contain more than one word.
Action verbs- tell what action the subject is doing. It can show physical or
mental action.
Physical action- The boys played football in the rain.
Mental action- I forgot to lock the door last night.
Ex. Jay has visited Africa. Sightseers paid the fee.
Practice( BW, CW, HW): Pink Book p. 142-143, 174, handouts: Reteaching
wb p 29, WB plus P. 45, Red Book p. 98, 118
Direct Objects ( New Skill will have to review and practice Daily)
In many sentences that you write, you add words after the verb to complete
the action of the verb. A direct object- receives the action of the verb.
It answers the question whom? Or what? After the action verb.
When labeling a sentence follow this order:
 Put prepositional phrase in parenthesis if the sentence has one.
 Then find and label the subject(s).
 Next find and label the verb(s).
 Find who or what receives the action. (direct object)
Ellen called Miki.
(Whom or what did Ellen call?)
Label this sentence.
Miki answered the phone.
The easiest way to find a direct object is to LABEL THE
Practice Blue book p, 334, handouts, Red Book p. 99 (use for direct
object only)
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs ( New Skill will have to review and
practice Daily)
Not all actions verbs take direct objects. Transitive verbs have direct
objects. Intransitive verbs do not have direct objects.
When labeling a sentence follow this order:
 Put prepositional phrase in parenthesis if the sentence has one.
 Then find and label the subject(s).
 Next find and label the verb(s).
 Find who or what receives the action. (direct object) If it has a
direct object it is transitive. If it does not it is intransitive.
Label these sentences then tell if the sentence is transitive or
Liz bought a bike.
Liz laughed.
Frank arrived on time.
( Do not try to do all these at one time. Use as BW, CW, HW and
Grades. Use as practice each day.)
Practice Pink book p. 148-149, 177, Red Book p.99, handouts:
Transitive Verbs p. 43, Intransitive Verbs p. 44, Transitive verbs p.
48, Transitive verbs p. 49, intransitive verbs p. 50, Intransitive verbs
p. 51, Reteaching WB, p. 36, Wb plus P 59, Transitive and Intransitive
verbs p. 56
Indirect objects ( New Skill will have to review and practice Daily)
An action verb may also have an indirect object. Indirect object – answers
the question to whom? for whom? the action is done. Indirect objects only
appear in sentences that have direct objects. It always comes before the
direct object and if you add to or for in front of the indirect object in the
sentence still makes sense.
 Put prepositional phrase in parenthesis if the sentence has one.
 Then find and label the subject(s).
 Next find and label the verb(s).
 Find who or what receives the action. (direct object)
 Then look in front of the direct object and find the word that
answers the question to whom or for whom? (indirect object)
Sightseers paid the guides fees.
Who or what did the sightseers pay? Direct object
To whom or for whom did they pay the fees? Indirect object
Label this sentence.
Rachel bought her friends postcards.
Practice Blue book p. 336
Blue Book p. 336, Pink Book p 146-147, 176, handouts: “The Indirect
Object Handout (use this one whole group to teach how to label IO in the
sentences), Reateching WB p. 37, WB plus p. 61, Red book p. 101
Linking verbs, Predicate Nominatives and Predicate Adjectives ( Review Skill)
A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence with a noun or an adjective in
the predicate. A predicate nominative (noun) follows a linking verb and tells
what the subject is or renames it. A predicate adjective is an adjective that
follows a linking verb and describes the subject or tell what it is like.
Zambia is a country.
Zambia is scenic.
Practice: Linking Verbs P. 47, Reteaching WB p.38, WB Plus p. 63,
Main and Helping verbs ( Review Skill )
Sometimes a verb is made up of several words. A verb that contains more
than one word is called a verb phrase. The last word in the verb phrase is
called the main verb. All other words in the verb phrase are helping verbs.
Copy the common Helping Verbs Cart in the pink book on p. 144 below.
Common Helping Verbs
EX. Buffalo Bill had many great skills as a scout.
Buffalo Bill had gained fame as a scout.
Verb phrase
Practice: Pink book p. 114-145,175, Blue book p. 342, handouts:
Reteaching WB Verb Phrases p. 30, WB plus p. 47
Verb Tense ( Simple Tenses –review skill, Perfect Tenses- new skill)
Simple Forms
Present Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or
reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a
widespread truth. It’s happening now.
The mountains are tall and Unchanging
Every year, the school
council elects new
Pb is the chemical symbol Widespread
for lead.
Past Tense Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and
finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs
have special past tense forms which must be memorized. It has already
W.W.II ended in 1945.
Regular -ed
Ernest Hemmingway wrote
"The Old Man and the Sea." form
Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur
in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form
of the verb. It’s going to happen.
The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998.
The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to.
The surgeon is going to perform the first bypass in Minnesota.
We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase
to show future time.
The president speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.)
Practice: Pink book p. 152-153, Blue Book p. 340, handout s:
Reteaching WB p. 31, Wb Plus p. 49
Perfect Forms
Each perfect tense verb has helping verbs that help you figure out which
tense it is.
Present Perfect Tense Present perfect tense describes an action that
happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and
continues in the present. This tense is formed by using has/have with the
past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs
have special past participles that must be memorized. Started in the past
but still going on.
The researchers have traveled to
many countries in order to collect
more significant data.
At an
Women have voted in presidential
elections since 1921.
Continues in
the present
Past Perfect Tense Past perfect tense describes an action that took place
in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had
with the past participle of the verb. Started and stopped in the past
By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended.
Future Perfect Tense Future perfect tense describes an action that will
occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using
will have with the past participle of the verb. Will happen in the future
before something else happens
By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent
several weeks waiting.
Practice: past perfect p. 30& 32, present perfect p. 31, 33, 34,
future perfect p. 35, 36 Verb Tense Review p 37 & 38, Simple Verb
Tenses handout
Irregular Verbs ( review skill)
Regular verbs add -d or –ed to form the past and the past participle but with
irregular verbs the spelling changes am you simply have to memorize them.
Copy the two charts in the blue book on pages 349 and 351.
Practice: Blue book p. 348 & 350, Pink Book p. 156-159 handouts: WB
plus p. 53 & 55
Subject Verb Agreement ( Review & new Skill)
The subject and verb must agree in number. A singular subject takes
a singular for of a verb. A plural subject takes a plural form of a verb. In
the pretense , the singular form usually ends in -s or – es.
A mountain rises sharply to the sky.
A naturalist teaches us about nature
Mountains rise sharply to the sky.
Naturalists teach us about nature.
If the subject does not end -s
the verb must.( must be only one)
If the subject ends in –s the
verb can not.
(must be more than one)
Practice: Blue book p. 440, Pink book p. 160-162, 183, handouts:
Reteaching WB p. 40WB Plus p. 67, Pink WB p. 38
Problems locating the subject (new skill)
Sometimes prepositional phrases come between the subject and the
verb. When this happens make sure the verb agrees with the subject of the
sentence not the object of the preposition. First find every prepositional
phrase in the sentence and put it parentheses. Once it is in parentheses it
can not be the subject of the sentence. Then find the subject and make
it agree with the verb.
Sub prep phrase
A park (in the island) contains a volcano.
p. p.
The parks (of Hawaii) contain volcanoes.
Practice : Blue book p. 442, handouts: Reteaching WB p. 41, WB plus
p. 69
Agreement with Compound Subjects
A compound subject contains two or more subjects with the same verb. You
can tell whether the subject takes a singular or plural verb by looking at the
way they are joined.
1. When two or more subjects are joined by and or by both ….and the
verb is plural.
Ex. Both a grizzly bear and bobcat live near here.
Mary and Maria are twins.
2. When two or more subjects are joined by or, nor, or either …or, or
neither…nor the verb must agree in number with the subject
closest to it.
Ex . An eagle or a hawk soars in the sky.
Either the loon or its chicks swim nearby.
Neither the bears nor the bobcat crosses our path.
Practice: Blue book p. 444, Pink book p. 162-163, Pink WB p. 39