Information Literacy: A Review of Literature - SLA

ICoASL 2011: Branding & Marketing, &Strategic Direction, Best Practices & Performance Evaluation
of Special Library Services
Information Literacy Models and Competencies Development
Initiatives in India
R K Bhatt
Associate Professor and Head,
Department of Library and Information Science,
University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007.
Present society is the information society in which the information and information literacy
plays a very crucial role in our day to day life to perform the task of decision making. The
present paper deals with the concept of information literacy and its needs. Further this
paper explores about the information literacy models, information literacy standards,
information literacy programmes and initiatives taken in India.
Design/methodology/approach – This is a general review and survey of current
organization of Information Literacy Programme in the Indian Universities and Libraries.
Findings – Study reveals that the information explosion has made it imperative to Indian
Universities to develop the new methods for transforming the Information into knowledge
to support the new modes of education and services. The study highlights the increased use
of Information Literacy models and standards designed by various agencies to support
increased information demands with greater emphasis on ICT applications in the libraries.
But there are still some challenges which need to be explored for effective and efficient
Originality/value – Outlining the dynamic changes that are taking place in the Indian
Universities and Libraries after implementation of Information Literacy models and
Purpose – The use of ICT technologies has changes the way of information generation,
organization, storage, retrieval and dissemination. The Libraries are now-a-days more
concerned with identifying the increasing information needs of its users and provide them
the latest information resources to meet analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate
the resulting knowledge. The present paper deals with the current Information Literacy
initiatives of the Indian Universities and libraries and highlights the need to undertake a
unified Information Literacy programme with adequate facilities for learners. The
information professionals need to possess the right skills in appropriate areas, as well as
having a wide range of knowledge of various sources of information and teaching skills.
Keywords: Information Literacy, IL Models, IL Standards and IL Programs
1. Introduction
In recent times, Information Communication Technology (ICT) has made its effective
presence in Libraries and Information Centers. It has drastically transformed the way for
collection, processing, storage, retrieval and communication of information and also
helping the library and information professionals to perform their task much more
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accurately, efficiently and effectively. In fact, from leaf to clay tablets, from manuscripts
to microfilms, from printed documents to CD-ROMS and online electronic resources,
Libraries and Information Centers have always been in the business of facilitating
information to its diversified categories of users and presently the e-learning tools and
information literacy tools are helping them to facilitate content-based information to its end
users so that their information hunger is met. Information Literacy is a set of competencies
that help the citizen of an information society to participate actively and intelligently in the
decision making process concerning to his/her tasks. The information literates know
techniques and skills for utilizing the wide range of information tools as well as primary
sources in molding information solutions to their problems.
2. What is information literacy?
According to the Association of College and Research Libraries 1 information literacy is
a set of abilities requiring individuals to “recognize when information is needed and have
the ability to locate, evaluate and use effectively the needed information”. Doyle 2 opined
that an information literate person is one who: (i).
information; (ii) appreciates the importance of accurate and complete information to make
intelligent decisions; (iii) formulates questions based on information needs; (iv) identifies
potential sources of information; (v) develops appropriate search strategies; (vi) accesses
sources of information including computer-based and other technologies; (vii) evaluates
information; (viii) organises information for practical application; (ix) integrates new
information into an existing body of knowledge; and (x) uses information in critical
thinking and problem solving. Bruce3 defines information literacy as a systematic
information behaviour that involves: (i) task definition; (ii) the development of
information-seeking strategies; (iii) locating and accessing information; (iv) using
information; and (v) synthesizing and evaluating information. Barefoot4 opines that to
solve information-related problems, one needs to be information literate and to be
information literate, one needs to learn a new set of skills, which include how to locate and
use the information needed for problem solving and decision-making efficiently and
effectively. American Library Association5 stated that “to be information literate a person
must be able to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate,
evaluate, and use effectively the information obtained and developed nine information
literacy standards for student learning which are: (i) accesses information efficiently and
effectively; (ii) evaluates information critically and competently; (iii) uses information
accurately and creatively; (iv) pursues information related to personal interests; (v)
appreciates literature and other creative expressions of information; (vi) strives for
excellence in information seeking and knowledge generation; (vii) recognizes the
importance of information to a democratic society; (vii) practices ethical behaviour in
regard to information and information technology; (viii) participates effectively in groups
to pursue and generate information. In fact there are several definitions given by the
scholars in one context or the other but one thing seems to be quiet clear that information
literacy is not only knowing how to use computers and access information but also
evaluating the nature and impact of information in relation to its technical infrastructure
and its social, cultural and philosophical context. Shapiro and Hughes6 have identified
seven self-explanatory dimensions of information literacy such as: (i) tool literacy; (ii)
resource literacy; (iii) social-structural literacy; (iv) research literacy; (v) publishing
literacy; (vi) emerging technology literacy; and (vii) critical literacy. However, according
to Martin and Rader7 information literacy includes: (i) library literacy; (ii) media literacy;
(iii) computer literacy; (iv) internet literacy; (v) research literacy; and (vi) critical thinking
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2.1. Need of information literacy
Today libraries are functioning in hybrid environment. Most of the libraries are
providing traditional as well as ICT based services. Libraries acquire, process, organize,
circulate and disseminate huge information resources they have bought by spending crores
and crores of rupees. In addition, the ICT has opened the path for creating and putting
information in the forms of books and journals in the public domain. This information is
equally useful and needed by users for their research and development activities.
Information available in electronic format such as e-journals, e-books, CD-ROM and other
databases need to be brought to the notice of the users and they need to be made trained in
making use of such a vital information. Also, they need to be aware of the role of eportals, information gateways and need special skills to be developed for making use of
such facilities with maximum benefit. Thus, for maximum utilization of such a vast and
huge information resources the Information Literacy Programme (ILP) is the need of the
hour. It makes the end users competent enough for retrieving precise and relevant
information as per their need.
3. Literature review
There are many studies and reports on information literacy, lists of competencies, and
descriptions of information literacy programmes and courses. However, there is a paucity
of actual assessment tools that measure student competencies rather than evaluate library
instruction. Betsy Barefoot8 discusses the perception of first year college students that
campus libraries are largely irrelevant to their lives. Suggest ways to make library
instructions an integral part of the courses. Karen Brodsky9 describes a model designed to
facilitate integration of information competence into the curriculum of a freshman seminar.
The model focuses on collaboration among librarians, faculty, peer mentors and students.
Mary Ann Fitzgerald10 summarizes three studies about information literacy skills of firstyear college students.
As far as information literacy teaching and learning is concerned Sonia Bodi 11 suggests
several guiding questions for students to ask during their research, e.g. what are the parts of
my topic? What examples and evidence do I need? How can I contribute something
meaningful and new? Linda Carder et al12 describes using focused mini-cases to allow
students to demonstrate their abilities and to guide them in identifying their information
needs. Myron H Dembo13 discusses reasons why some students resist changing their
academic behaviours, the dichotomy between knowing what to do and actually doing it.
Ameet Doshi14 advocates integrating a gaming element into library skills instruction as a
way to improve learning and portray libraries in a less boring light. Helen Foster’s 15 study
focuses on the embedded tasks of information retrieval and how instructors can use
reflection, pre-selected sources, and internet-connected classrooms to support teaching
these tasks. In a study of Debra Gilchrist16 students in English, History, and Education
classes apply an inquiry-based approach to better understand the research process. Jill D
Jenson17 points to teachers' assumptions about their students' "computer literacy," as well
as to the students' lack of hands-on experience in an actual library, as potential sources of
the problem. Provide suggestions for overcoming these obstacles. Thomas P Mackey18
introduces three scalable models for teaching information literacy that work in general
education as well as upper level courses: the art of annotation, research and
composition, and writing for the web. Susan E Metros19 examines the need for teaching a
basic visual design vocabulary, providing the resources needed for becoming visual
producers, and developing constructive critics of visual information. Barbara Quarton 20
describes teaching strategies faculty in any discipline can use to guide their undergraduate
students through the basic library research necessary for writing a solid research paper.
Ariel Rodriguez21 discusses why and how to teach students evaluate research. Argues the
ability to evaluate research could be more important than the ability to conduct research.
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Jerilyn Veldof and Karen Beavers22 discusses how students' mental models affect the
way they interact with and learn from online systems. Identifies ways tutorials can be
designed for more effective instruction. Sherie Williams23 applies steps such as survey,
question, read, reflect, review, etc. to help students decipher complex information. Niki
Young24 discusses ways to transform a complex process into a series of small achievable
steps and deliver instruction at the student's point of need.
As far as discipline specific information literacy programs are concerned Nancy
Dennis25 explains how American social history websites were used in a women's
studies class. Student’s integrated evaluations of web sites with analyses of content. John
W East26 reviews the existing literature on the information behaviour of researchers in the
humanities, in order to develop a set of learning objectives, which can be used in the
planning of information literacy training programmes. The competence lists in print and on
academic library Websites are too numerous to cite; however, several Websites from the
California State University27-30 libraries are worth noting because of the enormous
amount of information literacy work they have done at California. Stephanie Sterling
Brasley31 describes the development of a test to measure cognitive skills covering
these seven proficiencies: define, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create, and
communicate. In his study Stephen C Ehrmann32 proposes five key outcomes for liberal
education. He gives examples of liberal arts institutions that are among the leaders in
redefining the curriculum. Patricia Iannuzzi33 considers assessment methodologies such as
evaluation of bibliographies, reviews of assignments that underscore the research process,
and the use of portfolios or journals. Lorie Roth34 describes information competence
assessment initiatives at several universities in California, including a study at
California State University, San Marcos, to measure student attainment in information
literacy over a four-year period. Susan Carol Curzon35 describes the California State
University Information Competence Skills Assessment, a telephone survey in which
3,000 students responded to hypothetical research and information-seeking scenarios.
Bonnie Gratach Lindauer36 examines the learning environment (curriculum and
independent learning opportunities), information literacy programme components
(courses, reference desk instruction, etc.), and student learning outcomes (such as
performance measures on tests, assignments, portfolios and self-assessments). Diane
Mittermayer37 made a study on the information literacy competency of the first year
undergraduate students. A questionnaire given to first year students measured knowledge
of five areas: concept identification, search strategy, document types, search tools, and
use of results. Janet
Williams38 in his study outlines the steps in designing an
assessment, and has examples of various assessment methods such as constructed
response, Know-Wonder-Learn-Wonder, self-reflection, and performance tasks. Other
academic libraries have undertaken related assessments and have developed their own
instruments, which were of interest. An effort to compare students self-assessment of
information skills with objective evaluation was described by Greer, Weston, and Alm39.
Coupe40 who conducted two surveys at Johns Hopkins University compared freshmen and
upperclassmen at that institution, focusing first on evaluating basic library skills and then
adding some advanced skills. The Indiana University Bloomington Libraries Assessment
Plan for Information Literacy41, while not offering a single assessment tool, describes a
plan for assessing information literacy and articulates specific objectives and possible
measurement techniques for each information literacy goal.
There is a small contribution from Indian Library and Information Science Professionals
in the realm of information literacy. C.R. Karisiddappa42 has discussed the concept and
characteristic of information literacy. He has also deliberated upon the origin and growing
importance of information literacy and had suggested that it should be included not only in
library and information science curriculum but also in all curriculums from school
education to higher education. He suggests that information literacy is a tool for capability
building. Suresh K. Chauhan, Prem Chand and TAV Murthy43 provides an overview of the
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awareness programmes initiated by INFLIBNET for information literacy through out the
country under UGC-Infonet: E-Journals consortium. Describe the efforts INFLIBNET
had been extending to make academicians aware and train to use the e-resources available
through consortium up to optimum level. RSR Varalakshmi44 advocated that effective
implementation of Information Literacy Programmes is possible with efficient models of
information literacy. Keeping in view the Indian environment and needs she suggests
three types of models for trainers, under graduates and post graduates and the
necessary measures for their application. Besides C.K. Sharma45, Neena Singh46, Sudhakar
Goud47, Satish Kanamadi and Vishakha Vichare48, Mulla and Chandrasekhara49 have
emphasized the need for information literacy in higher education in India.
3.1. Information literacy models
There are many models being applicable around the globe and some tested and wellaccepted models are:
1. SCONUL50 (Society of College, National and University Libraries)
It is a seven pillar model used to promote excellence in library services in higher
education and national libraries across the United Kingdom and Ireland 45 (Society of
College, National and University Libraries). SCONUL identifies seven headline skills: (i)
the ability to recognize a need for information; (ii) the ability to distinguish ways in which
the information 'gap' may be addressed; (iii) the ability to construct strategies for locating
information; (iv) the ability to locate and access information; (v) the ability to compare and
evaluate information obtained from different sources; (vi) the ability to organize, apply and
communicate information to others in ways appropriate to the situation; (vii) the ability to
synthesize and build upon existing information, contributing to the creation of new
2. The Big6 51 Skills Information Problem-Solving Approach to Information
Skills Instruction
It is an information and technology literacy model and curriculum, implemented in
thousands of schools – through higher education. Some people call the Big6 an information
problem-solving strategy because with the Big6, students are able to handle any problem,
assignment, decision or task. This bases learning around the six steps: (i) task definition;
(ii) information seeking strategies; (iii) location and access; (iv) use of information; (v)
synthesis; (vi) Evaluation. Further, in order to solve an information problem of answering
a research question, you follow a research process or research steps, it list some steps to be
followed such as: (i) the first step is preparing for research. At this step you brainstorm
ideas and possible sources of information; narrow your topic to make it manageable; and
plan how you are going to do your research; (ii) the second step is accessing
resources. Here, you decide what sources of information will be best; find them; and locate
the information in them that might be helpful in answering your information question; (iii)
the third step is processing information. This is the step where you look closely at the
information from your sources; decide what is important; and take notes. Then you
organize your information; make sense of it; and develop your own ideas about it (iv) the
fourth step to successfully solving your information problem is to transfer your learning.
This is the step where you take your ideas and the information that helped you come to
them and plan, create and present to other people, your findings and solutions. (ALA np)
3.2. Information literacy standards
There are some well-known standards:
1. Information Literacy Standards for Student Learning published by the ASSL52.
2. IL Standards published by IFLA53
3. ISTE’s National Educational Technology Standards (NETS)54
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4. Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education by ACRL55.
The ACRL standards are very popular and widely accepted and tested around the world.
It includes the expected outcomes under each performance indicator, which are developed
with the purpose of providing guidance in the development, assessment methods,
instruments and strategies for measuring students’ learning outcomes. These standards can
be used to assess the IL skills of teachers, librarians etc. The standards focus upon the
needs of students in higher education at all levels. The standards also list a range of
outcomes for assessing student progress toward information literacy. In addition to
assessing all students’ basic information literacy skills, faculty and librarians should also
work together to develop assessment instruments and strategies in the context of particular
disciplines, as information literacy manifests itself in the specific understanding of the
knowledge creation, scholarly activity, and publication processes found in those
disciplines. In implementing these standards, institutions need to recognize that different
levels of thinking skills are associated with various learning outcomes--and therefore
different instruments or methods are essential to assess those outcomes.
1. ACRL IL Standards
Standard One
The information literate student determines the nature and extent of the information
Performance Indicators
 The information literate student defines and articulates the need for
 The information literate student identifies a variety of types and formats of
potential sources for information.
 The information literate student considers the costs and benefits of acquiring
the needed information.
 The information literate student reevaluates the nature and extent of the
information need.
Standard Two
The information literate student accesses needed information effectively and
Performance Indicators
 The information literate student selects the most appropriate investigative
methods or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information.
 The information literate student constructs and implements effectively
designed search strategies.
 The information literate student retrieves information online or in person using
a variety of methods.
 The information literate student refines the search strategy if necessary.
 The information literate student extracts, records, and manages the
information and its sources.
Standard Three
The information literate student evaluates information and its sources critically and
incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge base and value system.
Performance Indicators
 The information literate student summarizes the main ideas to be extracted
from the information gathered.
 The information literate student articulates and applies initial criteria for
evaluating both the information and its sources.
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 The information literate student synthesizes main ideas to construct new
 The information literate student compares new knowledge with prior
knowledge to determine the value added, contradictions, or other unique
characteristics of the information.
 The information literate student determines whether the new knowledge has an
impact on the individual’s value system and takes steps to reconcile
 The information literate student validates understanding and interpretation of
the information through discourse with other individuals, subject-area experts,
and/or practitioners.
 The information literate student determines whether the initial query should be
Standard Four
The information literate student, individually or as a member of a group, uses
information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.
Performance Indicators
 The information literate student applies new and prior information to the
planning and creation of a particular product or performance.
 The information literate student revises the development process for the
product or performance.
 The information literate student communicates the product or performance
effectively to others.
Standard Five
The information literate student understands many of the economic, legal and social
issues surrounding the accesses and use of information to use information ethically and
Performance Indicators
 The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and
socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology.
 The information literate student follows laws, regulations, institutional
policies, and etiquette related to the access and use of information resources.
 The information literate student acknowledges the use of information sources
in communicating the product or performance.
2. IFLA Information Literacy Standards
The IFLA standards are grouped under the three basic IL components.
Access – The user access information effectively and efficiently
Definition and articulation of need
 Defines or recognizes the need for information
 Decides to do something to find the information
 Express and defines the information need
 Initiates the search process
Location of Information
 Identifies, and evaluate potential sources of information
 Develop search strategies
 Access the selected information sources
 Selects and retrieve the located information
2. Evaluation – The user evaluates information critically and competently Assessment of
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 Analyses and examines, extracting information
 Generalizes and interprets information
 Selects and synthesizes information
 Evaluate accuracy and relevance of the retrieved Information
 Organization of information
 Arrange and categorized information
 Groups and organizes the retrieved information
 Determines which is the best and most useful information
3. Use – The user applies/uses information accurately and creatively
 Use of information
 Finds new ways to communicate, present and use information
 Applies the retrieved information
 Learn for personal knowledge
 Presents the information product
Communication and ethical use of information
 Understands ethical use of information
 Respects the legal use of information
 Communicates the learning product with acknowledgement of
intellectual property
 Uses the relevant acknowledgement style standards
4. Information literacy programmes initiatives in India
Advent and application of ICT has changed the whole philosophy of information
literacy. Libraries are now more concern with those programmes which help their users to
develop the ability to identify information needs, seek out resources to meet those
needs and analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate the resulting knowledge.
Some noteworthy institutions that are conducting information literacy programmes in India
4.1. Organisation of information literacy programmes by the institutions
National Information on Science Communication and Research (NISCAIR) formerly
known as Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) organizes
information literacy programmes. In addition to an advance two years Associateship in
Information Science, it conducts a few short-term training courses on the topics such as ecommerce fundamentals, bibliometrics, e-publishing, Internet access, online information
retrieval, library automation, resource sharing, CDS/ISIS and WINISIS, database
management systems, and use of Microsoft Office software. Documentation Research and
Training Centre (DRTC) of the Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore has been conducting
several information literacy programmes for library and information professionals in
different areas such as library automation and Internet for librarians. In addition, it also
organizes different workshop in collaboration with many other organizations such as
University of Hyderabad and Dalhousie University in Canada on the Semantic Web with
topics including metadata, Resource Description Framework, retrieval in Indian languages,
Web ontology and taxonomy and XML etc. Information and Library Network
(INFLIBNET) of the University Grants Commission (UGC), India is conducting several
progarmmes to create awareness and develop e-resource use capabilities among them for
the use of UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium. It also conduct training progrmmes
for university and college library professionals to get them trained in a library management
system – Software for University Libraries (SOUL), and the creation of union databases. In
addition, it promotes the information literacy through computer application to library and
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information services (CALIS), a four-week intensive training programme focusing on the
practical aspects in the use of computers in libraries, workshop on Automation and
Networking of University libraries (WANULIP), onsite training in various topics, training
in library management systems for university library staff, and Convention on Automation
of Libraries in Education and Research Institutions (CALIBER), Professional bodies, such
as the Indian Library Association, the Indian Association of Special Libraries and
Information Centres, the Society for Information Science and Developing Library Network
are also involved in continuing professional development in this area through their several
periodical activities.
4.2. Organisation of information literacy programmes by the Universities
University libraries in India are offering several information literacy programmes.
Bangalore University uses the SOUL software package for its library management
functions of acquisition, OPAC, circulation; Cochin University of Science and Technology
since 2000 is using ADLIB library management system and conducted extensive training
programmes for their library staff and users to make use of this software along with the use
and accessibility to various databases and internet resources, Gulbarga University,
University of Hyderabad, Kuvempu University, Manglore University and the latest edition
to this list is the efforts of University of Delhi.
University of Delhi was established in 1922, it has grown as one of the largest education
system in India having 14 faculties, 86 academic departments, 6 Centres of Advanced
Studies, 79 colleges and about 120,000 students enrolled as regular students whereas about
250,000 students are enrolled as distance learner in the School of Open Learning. Delhi
University Library System has 34 libraries and the total collection of Delhi University
Library System has been given in the Table mentioned below.
Table 1. Collection of DULS
Document Category
Total Numbers
Bound Volumes
Ph D Thesis
M Phil Dissertations
Electronic Databases
It caters the information needs of about 220,000 students, 7,000 teachers and over 5,000
research scholars enrolled in M.Phil or PhD programmes. It also provides services to a
large number of bona-fide research scholars from different parts of the world. This library
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has become the trend setter library for the whole country in the field of designing,
developing and implementing the Information Literacy Programmes.
It imparts
information literacy programmes at different levels. For example, level one programme
offers information literacy skills to its researchers in the form of an Infogame where focus
is to bring to the notice of the users the real learning experience to access various kinds of
online information sources available on the internet. Level two programme is based on
organising regular information literacy and competency development programme for the
academic community of University of Delhi. The library officers designed and develop the
information literacy modules based on the information needs of the users and presenting
before them through PowerPoint presentation slides and tutorials, etc. By now, about forty
such like programmes have been organized and presented in several departments and
colleges of the University in which an extensive training for developing the skills of using
e-resources especially the e-journals which are being made available to them through the
UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium. These programmes targeted the Post Graduate
Students, Faculty Members, Research Scholars at the level of M.Phil Ph.D, and D.Litt. In
addition, these programmes did target the Under Graduate Students and many a times Delhi
University Library System did organize such like programmes in different colleges. The
faculties, the Departments and the Colleges which have been covered under Information
Literacy progarmmes are: (i) Faculties under which Management Studies (including S.P.
Jain Management Institute, and South Campus are covered; (ii) Departments under which
Department of Botany; Department of Commerce for MIB & MHROD Course;
Department of East Asian Studies; Department of Economics; Department of Geography;
Department of Music; Department of Philosophy; Department of Political Science;
Department of Psychology; and Department of Sociology are covered so far. Similarly,
under the category of colleges, the colleges namely Hindu; Keshav Mahavidyalaya; Lady
Irwin; Lady Shriram; Shri Guru Teg Bahadur Khalsa; Shri Venkateswara; and Shyam Lal
have been covered so far. These progarmmes has the distinct features such as: (i)
Introduction to search strategies focusing on the use of e-resources, (ii) Practical
orientation focusing on advanced searching, phrase searching, proximity searching,
Boolean Operators , field searching, use of controlled vocabulary, and
limiting/refining/narrowing searching etc. including the searing mechanism of the CREDO
reference, a reference source that contain exclusive 239 well known reference sources from
the most established 55 leading publishers world wide; (iii) Subject specific exposure
based modules were also developed and demonstrated to users through websites, of
scholarly societies, organizations, databases, databases available in public domain etc.
DULS has recently started an e-reference service known as Ask your Librarian and
audiences were encouraged to make best use of this new service; (iii) Feedback analysis of
a total of 1,041 participants comprising faculty members, research scholars and
postgraduate students. The Department of Library and Information Science, University of
Delhi revised its syllabi in 2007. The members of the syllabi revision committee
unanimously opined the need for launching a separate compulsory paper at M.L.I.Sc. level
on Information Literacy. Ultimately, a compulsory paper at M.L.I.Sc IInd Semster was
In conclusion, the inclusion of information literacy programmes in universities in India
is entirely the responsibility of library and information professionals. Universities in India
recognise the need to train and provide the right skills not only to their library and
information professionals, but also to the users of libraries.
The author suggests that all Indian universities unify and undertake a programme in
information literacy and further make it compulsory for all students whether
undergraduates, postgraduates or research scholars. Facilities including computer
laboratories for hands-on training should be provided and the courses should be
assessed/examined with relevant credits awarded to them. To achieve this effectively the
library and information professionals need to possess the right skills in appropriate areas, as
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of Special Library Services
well as to have a wide range of knowledge of various information sources with adequate
teaching skills. In the author’s view, the challenges presented here should be viewed as
opportunities, which will enhance the library profession and create better relationships with
users in the university libraries. The main aim is to bridge the digital divide to enable users
to acquire the right information at their own pace and independently and the hope is that
the universities in India, through INFLIBNET and other education support systems, will
intelligently swim with the current without drowning.
5. Conclusion
Information literacy is a new paradigm for lifelong learning in the library and
information environment and libraries are working at their best to inculcate the new modes
of education and services. Information literacy attempts to address the issues of
information overload with methods of churning the ever increasing information at an
increasingly faster pace. It transforms information into knowledge that will empower
individuals to acquire and use information appropriate to situation. For the purpose of
information use intelligently various models and standards designed and developed by
varied agencies are very much applicable but still there are some challenges need to be
prudently explore for better results and effective and efficient services.
6. Reference
2. Doyle, C.S. (1992). Outcome measures for information literacy within the national
education goals of 1990. Final report to national forum on information literacy.
summary of findings. (ED 351 033)
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