NAME CLASS/SECTION DATE Louis IX In 1226, during an expedition to put down the Albigensian heretics, Louis VIII lost his life. His son, Louis IX, became the new king at the tender age of twelve. Louis IX’s mother, Blanche of Castille, was to be the regent until he reached maturity (Jordan, 1986, p. 674). A revolt by Philip Hurepel, Peter Mauclerc, the Duke of Brittany, Theobald IV, and Hugh Count of La Marche occupied Blanche's immediate attention. The rebels allied themselves with Raymond VII of Toulouse and with King Henry III of England who saw an opportunity to reclaim lost lands in France (Previte-Orton, 1951, p. 113; Hallam, 1980, p. 207). Theobald IV soon switched sides, while Peter Mauclerc and Hugh of La Marche submitted to the queen in 1227 (Hallam, 1980, p. 208). Toulouse was ravaged by the royal army which led to Raymond's submission in 1229 (Previte-Orton, 1951, p. 113). Henry III landed an army in northeastern France at SaintMalo in 1230 and was supported by Peter Mauclerc. But, their armies were reluctant to fight, and the partnership collapsed. By the end of 1230, peace had been established in north France (Hallam, 1980, p. 210). Minor rebellions continued to arise, however, and a major threat arose in 1242 when Henry III, in cooperation with Raymond VII of Toulouse, tried to reconquer Poitou. Louis' army routed them at the Battle of Taillebourg (Previte-Orton, 1951, p. 113). The Poitevin lords then made peace with Louis, and Henry entered into a five year truce (Hallam, 1980, p. 213). The barons’ resistance faded away as Louis became the supreme ruler in his kingdom. Louis was regarded as a simple, good-natured king by his people (Fawtier, 1960, p. 29). Although he hated Jews, he thought of himself as one of the old kings of Israel. He allowed the people to bring their problems directly to him as he sat under a tree at his court in Vincennes (Armstrong, 1988, p. 436). He believed that God had placed him on the throne to lead the French people out of their sin towards eternal salvation (Fawtier, 1960, p. 30). His relationship to the church reflected both his devotion and his growing sense of absolutism. He built the magnificent Saint Chapelle at Paris to accommodate the relics of Christ's Passion that the Emperor Baldwin II had sold to him in order to raise money to manage the part of the Greek empire that he had conquered in the Fourth Crusade (Jordan, 1986, p. 675; Armstrong, 1988, p. 436). Louis was also a great supporter of the friars and monks. William of Saint-Pathus estimated that Louis spent 7,000 pounds each year on them and gave them additional food and clothing (Hallam, 1980, p. 232). His admiration of them was so great that he took to wearing a mendicant-style tunic (Jordan, 1986, p. 675). However, he did not accept the church's position without question. Although he recognized the supremacy of the papacy, he refused to yield to the pope's attempts to interfere in his own jurisdiction. Louis gave the Inquisition more support and freedom than any other European monarch which resulted in greater successes for the Church Court. But, he refused to confiscate for the clergy any property belonging to the excommunicated (Previte-Orton, 1951, p. 115). Louis also reordered the administration of his kingdom. Baillis were placed over the prévôts who were in charge of collecting, "subsidies for communes, regalian dues, fees for the use of the royal seal, and payments raised from the royal forests” (Hallam, 1980, p. 239). These prévôts gave their records to the baillis who presented them at Paris for the yearly audit. The baillis were also responsible for overseeing the castles in their district and for raising troops for the royal army. Starting in 1247, Louis sent enqueteurs, usually friars, out into the country to collect complaints about royal officials and to remedy them (Hallam, 1980, p. 239-240). In addition to his reforms, Louis was the last great Crusader. In 1244, a severe illness led him to take the Cross. His army set sail in August 1248 and wintered in Cyprus where it was decided that they would attack Damietta. On June 5, the French landed and quickly routed the Egyptian defenders. Damietta was conquered the next day and by December, the French were outside of Mansourah. Decimated by weakness, hunger, and the constant attacks of the Muslims, Louis' army began retreating to Damietta, but were captured in April. The French queen, Margaret, was in Damietta and persuaded the Italian merchants not to abandon the city, which would give her a bargaining chip in securing Louis' release (Mayer, 1988, p. 260-264). After paying 400,000 bezants, Louis went to Acre where he oversaw the repair of the area's fortifications (Mayer, 1988, p. 264; Armstrong, 1988, p. 446). In November of 1252, Blanche died and Louis returned to France in 1254 (Jordan, 1986, p. 675). He was convinced that the Crusade had failed so that God could teach him about humility (Armstrong, 1988, p. 446). As a kind of penance, his compassion for the poor, widows, orphans, and the sick deepened (Jordan, 1986, p. 675). In 1254, he issued a reforming ordinance that forced royal officials to swear to good conduct. Louis amended the ordinance with "instructions on public morality, against usury, blasphemy and prostitution, games of chance, and the frequenting of inns meant for travellers" (Hallam, 1980, p. 243). Judicial duels, private wars, tournaments, feudal coinage, and feudal arbitrariness in the administration of justice were all restricted (Jordan, 1986, p. 675). The crusading spirit in Louis had not been dampened by his defeat. In 1267, he began preparing for a new Crusade against Egypt (Jordan, 1986, p. 675; Previte-Orton, 1951, p. 118). The goal of Tunisia was added at the last minute. Louis believed that the Moslem Emir of Tunisia was at the point of conversion, and Louis reasoned that an invasion would win him over. In addition, Tunisia would be an excellent headquarters for campaigns against Egypt (PreviteOrton, 1951, p. 118). On July 18, the Crusaders landed in Tunisia and settled in to await the arrival of Charles of Anjou. Dysentery or typhus ravaged the camp and Louis, already in poor health, died on August 25, 1270 (Riley-Smith, 1987, p. 175; Armstrong, 1988, p. 449). He was succeeded by Philip III (Jordan, 1986, p. 676). REFERENCES Armstrong, K. (1988). Holy war. New York: Doubleday. Fawtier, R. (1960). The Capetian Kings of France. (L. Butler and R.J. Adam, Trans). New York: St. Martin's Press. Hallam, E. M. (1980). Capetian France, 987-1328. London: Longman. Jordan, W. C. (1986). Louis IX of France. In J.R. Strayer (Ed.), Dictionary of the Middle ages (pp. 670-675). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Mayer, H. E. (1988). The Crusades. (J. Gillingham, Trans.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Previte-Orton, C. W. (1951). A History of Europe from 1198 to 1378. London: Methuen & Co., Ltd. Riley-Smith, J. (1987). The Crusades. New Haven: Yale University Press.