Word Formation of nouns using suffixes such as –ness, –er and by compounding [for example, whiteboard, superman] Formation of adjectives using suffixes such as –ful, –less (A fuller list of suffixes can be found on page
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in the year 2 spelling section in English Appendix 1) Use of the suffixes –er, –est in adjectives and the use of –ly in Standard English to turn adjectives into adverbs Sentence Subordination (using when, if, that, because) and co-ordination (using or, and, but) Expanded noun phrases for description and specification [for example, the blue butterfly, plain flour, the man in the moon] How the grammatical patterns in a sentence indicate its function as a statement, question, exclamation or command Text Punctuation Correct choice and consistent use of present tense and past tense throughout writing Use of the progressive form of verbs in the present and past tense to mark actions in progress [for example, she is drumming, he was shouting] Use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate sentences Commas to separate items in a list Apostrophes to mark where letters are missing in spelling and to mark singular possession in nouns [for example, the girl’s name]
pupils noun, noun phrase statement, question, exclamation, command compound, suffix adjective, adverb, verb tense (past, present) apostrophe, comma
to form short narratives 2 3 4 5 6 The consistent use of
throughout texts Use of the
to mark actions in progress (e.g.
she is drumming
he was shouting
) Introduction to paragraphs as a way to group related material Headings and sub-headings to aid presentation Use of the
to mark relationships of time and cause (e.g.
I have written it down so we)
Use of paragraphs to organise ideas around a theme Appropriate choice of
sentences Sentence Structure
can combine to make
when, if, that,
and coordination specification (e.g. (using
the blue butterfly, plain
Expanded noun phrases for description and
flour, the man in the moon
with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command Expressing time and cause using
when, before, after, while, because
then, next, soon, so
before,after, during, in, because of
) Appropriate choice of
to avoid ambiguity and repetition Fronted
with spaces Introduction to the use of capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate Capital letters for names and for the
Capital letters, full stops, question marks and exclamation marks to demarcate
Commas to separate items in a list
to mark contracted forms in spelling Introduction to speech marks to
direct speech Use of speech marks to
direct speech Apostrophes to mark singular and
the girl’s name, the boys’ boots
) Use of commas after fronted
Later that day, I heard the bad news.)
Brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis Use of commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity Devices to build
within a paragraph (e.g. then, after that, this, firstly ) Linking ideas across paragraphs using
of time (e.g.
), place (e.g.
) and number (e.g. secondly) Linking ideas across paragraphs using a wider range of
(e.g. repetition of a
or phrase), grammatical connections (e.g. the use of
on the other hand, in contrast,
as a consequence
. Layout devices, such as headings, sub-headings, columns, bullets, or tables, to structure text
who, which, where, why,
Indicating degrees of possibility using
might, should,will, must
) Use of the
to affect the presentation of information in a
I broke the window in the greenhouse
The window in the greenhouse was broken
phrases to convey complicated information concisely (e.g.
the boy that jumped over the
fence is over there,
question tags, e.g. or
the fact that it was raining meant the end of sports day
) The difference between structures typical of informal speech and structures appropriate for formal speech and writing (such as the use of
He’s your friend, isn’t he?
, or the use of the
in some very formal writing and speech)
Terminology for Pupils
word, sentence, letter, capital letter, full stop, punctuation, singular, plural, question mark, exclamation mark verb, tense (past, present), adjective, noun, suffix, apostrophe, comma word family, conjunction, adverb, preposition, direct speech, inverted commas (or ‘speech marks’), prefix, consonant, vowel, clause, subordinate clause pronoun, possessive pronoun, adverbial relative clause, modal verb, relative pronoun, parenthesis, bracket, dash, determiner, cohesion, ambiguity Use of the semi-colon, colon and dash to indicate a stronger subdivision of a
than a comma.
of bullet points to list information How hyphens can be used to avoid ambiguity (e.g.
man eating shark
) active and passive voice, subject and object, hyphen, synonym, colon, semi-colon, bullet points