From 2007 to 2009 a survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of Encephalitozoon spp. in lagomorphs of Sardinia (Italy) in 9 industrial farms of rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus) and two breedings of hares (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). A total of 378 slaughtered rabbits (both meat rabbits and breeders) and 45 alive hares were examined. The survey was carried out through three different approaches: 1. serological; 2. pathologically; 3.biomolecular. Sera obtained after centrifugation were frozen at -18°C until the serological examination with Carbon Immuno Assay Test (CIA) (Medicago, Uppsala, SWE). Six out of the nine rabbit farms were found serologically positive for E. cuniculi (66.7%), while the number of seropositive rabbits were 68 of 378 (18.5%). All hares’ sera tested were negative. In all slaughtered rabbits macroscopic renal lesions presumably attributable to the action of E. cuniculi were detected. The gross lesions were found in 62 out of the 378 subjects examinated (16.4%); they were classified with the following score: 0 = no lesions, 1 = localized small white spots, 2 = widespread presence of small white spots, 3 = localized scarring, 4 = wrinkles kidney. DNA was extracted from 22 samples positive to microsporidia for sequencing and genotyping. Genotyping of DNA isolates showed 100% homology to E.cuniculi.