Industrialization - Hicksville Public Schools / Homepage

1. Between 1880 and 1900, most
immigrants coming to the United States
settled in the cities along the east coast
(1) many factory jobs were available in the
(2) little farmland remained to be settled in
the Midwest
(3) most immigrants came from the cities
of Europe
(4) city laws afforded special rights and
protections for immigrants
Base your answers to questions 2 and 3
on the speakers’ statements below and on
your knowledge of social studies.
Speaker A: “When demand ran high, and
markets were scarce, he showed little
mercy, broke his contracts for delivery and
raised prices.”
Speaker B: “The man of wealth must hold
his fortune ‘in trust’ for the community
and use it for philanthropic and charitable
Speaker C: “It is cruel to slander the rich
because they have been successful. They
have gone into great enterprises that have
enriched the nation and the nation has
enriched them.”
Speaker D: “The fruits of the toil of
millions are boldly stolen to build up
colossal fortunes for the few,
unprecedented in the history of mankind.”
2 Which two speakers would most likely
label late 19th-century industrialists as
robber barons?
(1) A and B
(2) A and D
(3) B and C
(4) C and D
3. The most valid conclusion that can be
drawn from the different viewpoints of
these speakers is that industrialists of the
late 19th century
(1) benefited and harmed society
(2) treated their workers fairly
(3) used illegal means to gain wealth
(4) generally opposed the free-enterprise
economic System
4. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the
Supreme Court ruled that
(1) states may not secede from the Union
(2) racial segregation was constitutional
(3) slaves are property and may not be
taken from their owners
(4) all western territories should be open
to Slavery
Use cartoon to answer 5 and 6
5. What is the main idea of this cartoon
from the 1800s?
(1) Labor is gaining power over big
(2) Most Americans support the labor
(3) Business has advantages over labor.
(4) Government should support the
expansion of railroads.
6. The American Federation of Labor
responded to the situation shown in the
cartoon by
(1) organizing skilled workers into unions
(2) encouraging open immigration
(3) forming worker-owned businesses
(4) creating a single union of workers and
7. The Sherman Antitrust Act and the
Clayton Antitrust Act were passed in an
effort to
(1) promote the formation of new trusts
(2) maintain competition in business
(3) increase business investment
(4) limit the activities of foreign
Base your answer to question 8 on the
table below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Progressive Era Legislation
Legislation Purpose
United States
Manage the
nation’s water
and timber
Inspection Act
Regulate meat
processing to
ensure clean
Pure Food
and Drug Act
labeling of
food and
Department of
Promote the
interests of
(3) laws that restricted certain immigrant
(4) free public schools located in innercity neighborhoods
10. The Federal Reserve System has an
impact on economic conditions in the
United States by
(1) regulating the amount of money in
(2) providing direct loans to farmers and
small businesses
(3) enforcing strict antitrust laws
(4) controlling imports from other nations
11 Which region of the United States was
most directly affected by the passage of
the Homestead Act?
(1) Atlantic Coast
(2) Rocky Mountains
(3) Appalachian Mountains
(4) Great Plains
8. The common purpose of these
legislative acts was to
(1) protect the nation’s natural resources
(2) improve conditions for recent
immigrants to the United States
(3) advance the growth of big business
(4) promote the general welfare of the
American public
9. During the Progressive Era, Jane
Addams responded to urban conditions by
working to establish
(1) settlement houses that provided
assistance to the poor
(2) newspapers that helped to inform
Americans about slum conditions
12 Which economic concept is best
illustrated by the cartoon?
(1) supply and demand (3) monopoly
(2) mercantilism (4) trade
13 Mark Twain labeled the late 1800s in
the United States the “Gilded Age” to
describe the
(1) end of the practice of slavery
(2) absence of international conflicts
(3) extremes of wealth and poverty
(4) achievements of the labor movement
14 One idea that both Booker T.
Washington and
W. E. B. Du Bois supported is that
(1) African Americans should have
increased civil rights
(2) vocational training was the best
approach to education
(3) immigration was responsible for racial
(4) Jim Crow laws were needed to help
African Americans
15 During the late 1800s and early 1900s,
where did most of the immigrants to the
United States settle?
(1) urban centers of the Northeast
(2) plantations of the New South
(3) mining areas of the Far West
(4) farming regions of the Great Plains
16. Which reform idea was a common
goal of the Populists and the Progressives?
(1) restoration of the nation’s cities
(2) expansion of opportunities for
(3) improvement in the status of African
(4) greater control of government by the
17. Jane Addams and Jacob Riis were
most notable for their efforts to
(1) treat the wounded in World War I
(2) stop the spread of diseases in Latin
(3) legalize birth control for women
(4) aid the urban poor
23 The Federal Reserve System was
created to
(1) maintain a national petroleum supply
(2) provide military support for the armed
(3) protect consumers from fraud
(4) manage the nation’s supply of currency
interest rates
18 “The right of citizens of the United
States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of sex. . . .”
— 19th Amendment, United States Constitution
Which group of women worked for the
passage of this amendment?
(1) Harriet Tubman, Jane Addams, and
Dorothea Dix
(2) Susan B. Anthony, Carrie Chapman
Catt, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(3) Madeline Albright, Geraldine Ferraro,
and Sandra Day O’Connor
(4) Clara Barton, Amelia Earhart, and
Eleanor Roosevelt
19 During the 19th century, New York
was one of the most powerful states in the
nation because it
(1) became the financial and industrial
center of the nation
(2) led the nation in achieving political
(3) produced more presidents than any
other state
(4) offered more civil liberties than any
other state
20 During the late 19th century, which
practices were used by employers against
(1) boycotts and lockouts
(2) picketing and walkouts
(3) blacklists and yellow-dog contracts
(4) mass rallies and sit-down strikes
21 The term robber baron was used to
criticize the
(1) tactics of big-business leaders
(2) corruption of government officials
(3) dishonesty of carpetbaggers
(4) unskilled labor of illegal immigrants
22. What major trend related to population
occurred during the industrialization boom
of the late 1800s?
(1) Immigration decreased.
(2) Suburbanization decreased.
(3) Urbanization increased.
(4) Migration to rural areas increased.
23 During the Progressive Era,
muckrakers published articles and novels
primarily to
(1) advance their own political careers
(2) make Americans aware of problems in
(3) help the federal government become
more efficient
(4) provide entertainment for readers
24 Supporters of a graduated national
income tax argued that it was the fairest
type of tax because the
(1) rate of taxation was the same for all
(2) rate of taxation increased as incomes
(3) income tax provided the most revenue
for the government
(4) income tax replaced state and local
government taxes
25 In a United States history textbook, the
terms bread and butter unionism, Gospel
of Wealth, and mechanization would most
likely be found in a chapter entitled
(1) Reconstruction (1865–1877)
(2) Industrialization (1870–1900)
(3) Imperialism (1898–1905)
(4) The Roaring Twenties (1920–1929)
26 In the last half of the 1800s, which
development led to the other three?
(1) expansion of the middle class
(2) growth of industrialization
(3) formation of trusts
(4) creation of labor unions
27 The “new immigrants” to the United
between 1890 and 1915 came primarily
(1) southern and eastern Europe
(2) northern and western Europe
(3) East Asia
(4) Latin America
28 Both the Interstate Commerce Act and
the Sherman Antitrust Act were
(1) inspired by the effectiveness of earlier
state laws
(2) designed to protect business from
foreign competition
(3) declared unconstitutional by the
Supreme Court in the late 1800s
(4) passed by the federal government to
regulate big business
29 One responsibility of the Federal
Reserve System is to
(1) balance the federal budget
(2) raise or lower income taxes
(3) control the supply of money
(4) regulate the stock market
30 During the late 1800s, the defenders of
Social Darwinism would most likely have
(1) labor unions
(2) progressive income taxes
(3) laissez-faire capitalism
(4) environmental conservation
Base your answers to questions 31 and 32
on the passage below and on your
knowledge of social studies.
“. . . This, then, is held to be the duty of
the man of Wealth: First, to set an
example of modest, unostentatious living,
shunning display or extravagance; to
provide moderately for the
legitimate wants of those dependent upon
him; and after doing so to consider all
surplus revenues which come to him
simply as trust funds, which he
is called upon to administer, and strictly
bound as
a matter of duty to administer in the
manner which, in his judgment, is best
calculated to produce the most beneficial
results for the community— . . .”
— Andrew Carnegie, “Wealth,” North American
Review, June 1889
31 According to this passage, the
responsibility of the wealthy is to
(1) invest in future industry to increase
(2) share their excess wealth with the
(3) maintain a lifestyle consistent with
their wealth
(4) influence government to assist all
32 Andrew Carnegie carried out the ideas
expressed in this statement by
(1) funding numerous libraries and
educational institutions
(2) serving many years in the federal
(3) investing his fortune in several new
(4) promoting programs to benefit the
33 The Interstate Commerce Act and the
Sherman Antitrust Act were attempts by
Congress to
(1) regulate the activities of big business
(2) protect consumers against unsafe
(3) impose government regulations on
agricultural production
(4) bring transportation activities under
government ownership
34 What is the main idea of the cartoon?
(1) Government policies have created a
(2) Americans support the activities of
(3) Good government has saved the
country from trusts.
(4) Trusts are a threat to the nation.
35 Which group would most likely have
favored government action to address the
issue shown in the cartoon?
(1) bankers (3) industrialists
(2) unions (4) railroad owners
36 Which development led to the other
(1) growth of tenements and slums
(2) shift from a rural to an urban lifestyle
(3) rapid industrial growth
(4) widespread use of child labor
37 Reducing interest rates to stimulate
economic growth is a function of the
(1) Department of Commerce
(2) Federal Reserve System
(3) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
(4) Securities and Exchange Commission
38 Which group’s numbers increased the
most as a result of the Industrial
(1) skilled craftsmen
(2) landed aristocracy
(3) urban middle class
(4) owners of small farms
39 Which trend is shown in these graphs?
(1) When production increases, prices
(2) When production increases, prices
(3) When production remains unchanged,
(4) Prices and production are usually
(1) Communists had taken control of the
major unions.
(2) The government supported business
efforts to limit the powers of unions.
(3) Most unions had been organized by big
(4) Most workers were satisfied with
working conditions.
43. A goal of the Progressive movement
was to
(1) reduce the government’s involvement
in social issues
(2) correct the problems caused by
(3) promote laissez-faire policies
(4) promote settlement of land west of the
Mississippi River
40 As a result of the trends shown in the
graphs, the Populist Party wanted the
federal government to increase the money
supply to
(1) raise the prices of crops
(2) limit the exportation of corn
(3) discourage the consumption of corn
(4) increase agricultural imports
41 Business leaders John D. Rockefeller,
J. P. Morgan, and Cornelius Vanderbilt
were referred to as robber barons primarily
because they
(1) bought titles of nobility from foreign
(2) were ruthless in dealing with
(3) stole money from state and local
(4) gained all of their wealth by illegal
42 During the late 1800s, what was the
main reason
labor unions had difficulty achieving gains
for workers?
44. According to the map, in which region
of the United States did women receive
the most support for equal suffrage before
passage of the 19th amendment?
(1) East (3) South
(2) North (4) West
45 Which idea led to the creation of the
Interstate Commerce Commission, the
Federal Trade Commission, and the Food
and Drug Administration?
(1) Business activity must sometimes be
regulated in the public interest.
(2) Workers should be allowed to bargain
with owners for working conditions.
(3) Domestic industry should be protected
from foreign competition.
(4) The economy works best without
government regulation.
14 Which major population shift in the
late 1800s
occurred as a result of industrialization?
(1) northerners to the Sun Belt
(2) rural residents to urban areas
(3) working class people from the cities to
(4) African Americans from the North to
46. When the Federal Reserve Board
lowers interest
rates, it is most likely attempting to
(1) stimulate consumer spending
(2) lower prices
(3) encourage saving
(4) reduce investment
47. The initiative, the referendum, and the
recall were adopted by several states
during the Progressive Era as ways to
(1) limit immigration
(2) promote the formation of trusts
(3) restrict the use of presidential vetoes
(4) make government more democratic
48. During the 20th century, federal
prosecutions of corporations such as
Standard Oil, AT&T, and
Microsoft were based on alleged
violations of
(1) stock market practices
(2) environmental regulations
(3) labor union protections
(4) antitrust laws
49. Which action by the federal
government during the late 1800s is an
example of nativism?
(1) passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act
(2) creation of tribal reservations in the
(3) grants of financial aid to western
(4) support for the construction of
transcontinental railroads
50. Which idea of the late 1800s is most
closely associated with this cartoon?
(1) regulated capitalism
(2) graduated income tax
(3) Social Darwinism
(4) the Gospel of Wealth
51. During the early 1890s, the federal
government dealt with situations like the
one shown in the cartoon by
(1) raising tariff rates on imported oil
(2) providing economic aid for small
(3) prosecuting businessmen for graft and
(4) passing the Sherman Antitrust Act
52. “The growth of a large business is
merely survival of the fittest. The
American beauty rose can be produced in
the splendor and fragrance which bring
cheer to its beholder only by sacrificing
the early buds which grow up around it.
This is not an evil tendency in business. It
is merely the working out of a law of
nature and a law of God.
. . .”
— John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
Which concept is described by this
(1) communism
(2) Populism
(3) utopian socialism
(4) Social Darwinism
53. The growth of big business in the late
1800s resulted in
(1) a reduction in child labor
(2) the elimination of the middle class
(3) the widening of the economic gap
between rich and poor
(4) a shift in transportation investment
from railroads to canals
54 In the late 19th century, Congress tried
to limit the power of monopolies by
(1) creating the Federal Trade
(2) strengthening the Supreme Court
(3) adopting Granger laws
(4) passing the Sherman Antitrust Act
55 According to the graph, which was the
first year in which more Americans lived
in urban areas than in rural areas?
(1) 1860 (3) 1920
(2) 1890 (4) 1930\
56 What was a major cause of the trend
shown in the
(1) availability of cheap farmland
(2) increased industrialization
(3) end of restrictions on immigration
(4) completion of the interstate highway
57 In an effort to resolve conflicts with the
frontier settlers in the 1870s, the federal
government forced Native American
Indians to
(1) move west of the Mississippi River
(2) live on reservations with definite
(3) relocate to urban industrial centers
(4) help build the transcontinental railroad
15 After 1880, a major new source of
labor for American factories was
(1) western farmers who moved back to
eastern cities
(2) young women who worked until they
(3) formerly enslaved persons fleeing from
the South
(4) immigrants from southern and eastern
58. During the 19th century, the
completion of the Erie Canal and the
transcontinental railroads contributed to
the industrial growth of the United States
(1) making the movement of goods easier
and cheaper
(2) protecting the United States from lowpriced foreign imports
(3) encouraging subsistence farming
(4) connecting the United States to
markets in Mexico and Canada
59 During the late 1800s, the principles of
Darwinism were used to justify
(1) support for unlimited immigration
(2) desegregation of public facilities
(3) the use of strikes by organized labor
(4) the accumulation of great wealth by
60 Which type of business organization is
criticized in this cartoon?
(1) monopoly
(2) multinational corporation
(3) partnership
(4) proprietorship
61 Which government policy would this
most likely support?
(1) adopting antitrust laws
(2) easing regulations regarding mergers
(3) giving government subsidies to
(4) encouraging large companies to
62. The theory of laissez-faire economics
was used during the late 1800s to
(1) justify unregulated business growth
(2) call for more consumer protection
(3) support Progressive programs
(4) achieve equal distribution of income
Base your answers to questions 63 and 64
on the speakers’ statements below and on
your knowledge of
social studies. Speaker A: The best way to
prevent corruption in government is to
allow citizens a direct role in the
legislative process.
Speaker B: Breaking up trusts and
monopolies will
increase business competition.
Speaker C: An important goal of the
government should be the protection of
our natural resources.
Speaker D: Government will only improve
women are granted full suffrage.
65 Which speaker’s statement is most
directly related to the political concepts of
initiative, referendum, and recall?
(1) A (3) C
(2) B (4) D
20 Which two speakers’ viewpoints reflect
actions taken by Theodore Roosevelt
when he was president (1901–1909)?
(1) A and B (3) C and D
(2) B and C (4) D and A
66 The term muckraker was used in the
early 1900s
to describe writers who
(1) supported limits on government
(2) exposed abuses in American society
(3) wanted the United States to ban all
(4) promoted racial integration efforts
67 The Federal Reserve System was
created in 1913
(1) authorize Congress to set interest rates
(2) regulate the nation’s money supply
(3) allow the government to own the
(4) take over the responsibility of printing
Speaker B: “New” immigrants of the late
1800s often experienced discrimination.
Speaker C: The use of a quota system is
the best way to address the issues of
Speaker D: Today’s immigrants take too
many jobs away from those who were
born in America.
69 Which two speakers are expressing an
opinion related to United States
(1) A and B (3) B and D
(2) A and C (4) C and D
70 The “new” immigrants referred to by
Speaker B came mainly from
(1) western and northern Europe
(2) southern and eastern Europe
(3) Africa and Asia
(4) Central America and South America
71. President Theodore Roosevelt’s
conservation efforts were influenced by a
desire to
(1) protect natural resources for the future
(2) increase revenues through land sales
(3) reduce the role of the federal
(4) return tribal lands to Native American
68 Which was the first labor strike to end
with the president intervening on behalf of
(1) 1886 Haymarket Affair (3) 1902
Anthracite Coal Strike
(2) 1894 Pullman Strike (4) 1912 Textile
Base your answers to questions 69 and 70
on the speakers’ statements below and on
your knowledge of social studies.
Speaker A: Until the 1880s, most
immigrants came
from the same European countries
where colonial immigrants originated.
72 Information in the cartoon most clearly
supports the conclusion that by 1914
(1) states along the East Coast had granted
full voting rights to women
(2) women could vote only in state
(3) most states had approved at least some
voting rights for women
(4) complete national suffrage for women
had been achieved
73 The actions of muckrakers in the late
century and early 20th century resulted in
(1) Supreme Court decisions that
expanded the right to vote
(2) government regulation of unfair
business practices
(3) increases in the power of monopolies
(4) reduction of the president’s power to
manage the economy