Chapter 9 Study Guide 3 stresses that deform the crust (tension, compression and shear) 3 types of fault (i.e. normal, thrust(reverse) and strike-slip) earthquake focus epicenter volcano pipe crater caldera cinder cone seismograph pyroclastics (i.e. ash, lava bombs, lava, etc.) 3 areas where volcanic activity occurs effusive eruptions shield volcano explosive eruptions composite volcano topography relief know the three crustal orders of relief craton terrane basalt plateau Active, dormant, extinct volcanoes Other Concepts Be able to identify the types of faults. Know the stresses that create the faults and the type of off set or displacement you would expect with each fault. Describe the three situations that lead to volcanoes. Compare the type of volcanic activity for each situation. Compare effusive and explosive eruptions. Why are they different and what distinct landforms are produced by each type? Know how the characteristics of lava relate to the type of volcanic explosion (effusive versus explosive) What are some benefits of volcanoes? How is new crust added to a continent? In other words, how might an continent increase in size?