I am pleased and honored to come to you today to discuss what The Open Group is doing with
Enterprise Architecture. I hope that I will be able to adequately represent the very important work that is being done at The Open Group. In thirty minutes that will be very difficult and I encourage everyone interested to look at The Open Group further to get more detail. Fujieda-San and I will be most happy to help you to get further detail if you wish.
I have worked in the IT world for over 23 years. The first 20 years with the NCR Corporation. My last position was Director of Strategic Architecture for NCR, overlooking all of NCR’s architecture work. In this position I became directly involved with The Open Group. I am happy to say that this engagement was so enlightening that I opted to come work as The Open Group’s CIO about 3 years ago.
To make my points today I would like to present to you the following topics:
First I would briefly provide you with the history of TOGAF
Following this I will provide a brief comparative analysis with some other architecture frameworks
Then provide you with information on some Case Studies of TOGAF use
I will follow this up with a discussion on TOGAF Certification
Next I will briefly discuss future plans for TOGAF
Finally provide a summary
In this presentation I have backup slides for your review offline if you wish.
With your patience I shall proceed
First I would briefly provide you with the history of TOGAF
It is important to note that TOGAF started out as a customer initiative in 1994. Customers of The
Open Group requested that we put together a framework to understand the various standards and how they fit together resulting in a Technical Reference Model… Also they expected we need a way to help customers use those standards resulting in an Architecture Development Method since one Technical Reference Model would not fit all cases. This was an architecture framework effort, not just an architecture of standards.
A broad request for an initial starting point was sent out in 1995 resulting in the selection of the
US Department of Defense Technical Architectural Framework for Information Management, called TAFIM, as the starting point. So TOGAF was originally founded on TAFIM.
However as you will see it has evolved significantly since 1995.
In comparison the initial impetus for the C4ISR Framework came from the Defense Science
Board, who determined in the early 1990s that one of the key means for ensuring interoperable and cost effective military systems is to establish comprehensive architectural guidance for all of
DoD. Consequently, the C4ISR Integration Task Force developed version 1.0 of the C4ISR
Architecture Framework in June of 1996, and the C4ISR Architecture Working Group completed version 2.0 in December of 1997, under the auspices of the Architecture Coordination Council.
So since 1995 you see yearly releases of TOGAF where industry experts have put in time and content to build up TOGAF based on real-world practical architecture experience. I have been lucky to have been involved since 1996 and have seen TOGAF grow to become a valuable asset,… a valuable business management tool.
In a February 1998 memorandum, the Under Secretary of Defense, the Acting Assistant
Secretary of Defense (C3I), and the Joint Staff Director of C4 Systems (J6) mandated the C4ISR
Architecture Framework, Version 2.0 for use in all C4ISR or related architectures. In addition, they directed that the Framework be examined as the basis for a single architecture framework for all functional areas or domains within the DoD.
The C4ISR Framework has evolved in parallel to TOGAF… the key difference is the warfighter scenario versus TOGAF being scenario independent.
How does TOGAF compare to some widely know architecture frameworks?
A common question that comes up is “How does TOGAF compare to the US Governments
“Federal Enterprise Architecture” FEA. Before we compare let me briefly describe FEA.
FEA is a business driven approach adopted by the US Federal Government to describing architectures reference models with a common architecture principle of being “componentbased.” There are two classes of architectures, one class is owned by the Line of Business and includes the performance reference model and the business reference model. The other class is owned by the CIO council and includes reference models for service components, data, and technology.
The architecture reference models depicted here are designed to be linked and/or associated where possible.
To begin the comparison of TOGAF to a few other frameworks, DODAF and FEA, let’s start with the general descriptions:
Where DODAF defines a common approach for describing, presenting, and integrating DoD architectures and
FEA Reference Models provides ability to look across federal government projects and identify opportunities to collaborate, consolidate, and identify Information Technology investments…
TOGAF provides a generic method for creating architectures, and has supporting resources applicable to both government and non-government environments.
First one might compare how widespread the usage of the frameworks are in comparison to each other:
FEA Reference Models are embryonic and still evolving therefore not widespread
DODAF is Required across DoD
Adaptations in use by National Reconnaissance Office, NATO, multiple foreign countries
In use for eight years
Influenced other Frameworks
TOGAF is mature and still evolving to meet ever demanding business needs, it is
Used around the world
In use for eight years
Influencing other frameworks
Used in commercial and non commercial situations
Additionally it is useful to compare how much guidance is available for the architect:
FEA Provides categories into which aspects of individual project proposals can be mapped
DODAF Prescribes a very high-level process for getting started
Products are very specific for detailed work
New “Desk Book” includes “As-Is” to “To-Be” transition strategy, example processes, and reference resources
TOGAF provides step-by-step method giving very detailed guidance, the Architecture Development Method covers complete life-cycle.
Also the structure can be compared:
FEA Comprises five reference models —Performance, Business, Service Component, Technical, and Data
DODAF has three Views
— Operational, Systems, Technical — with various model types assigned to Views
TOGAF Enterprise continuum - Technical Reference Model and Standards Information Base provides a flexible core taxonomy
The next point of comparison is how integration is handled within the frameworks:
For FEA there is linkage between the reference models; and can serve as useful starting point to align IT investments. There are simple association rules between models, e.g., each Line of
Business should have an associated performance measure
For DODAF there are explicit connections between elements across the outputs
For TOGAF there are explicit connections between deliverables of each phase and subsequent phases.
The final point of comparison is the level of detail addressed in the frameworks:
For FEA there is a s imple hierarchical decomposition within each reference model
For DODAF and TOGAF the l evel of detail captured in each product is left to Architect in accordance with purpose and scope of architecture.
Some people believe that FEA is actually quite light as compared to other EA Frameworks since
FEA provides little guidance on solution architectures, and is mostly a dictionary of terms and codification of existing federal IT capabilities.
However FEA is beneficial as it is is used to align agencies IT spending to budget process, it is a useful framework for promoting cross agency collaboration within the US Federal Government, it may prove to be valuable in helping to leverage federal government purchasing power, and it is a successful mechanism for modernizing the overall federal government Information Technology management organization.
Regardless of what you feel about FEA, TOGAF provides an Architecture Development Method that can help you fill out the reference models in FEA, or in DODAF, or in the Zachman
The following are some case studies on the commercial use of TOGAF.
You can see here that not only are organizations downloading TOGAF (>1000 per year), but many organizations are becoming licensed users. This is a current list of 35 organizations that have licenses for TOGAF – again spread across the world.
But first what is TOGAF? TOGAF 8 is an architecture framework called The Open Group
Architecture Framework. It enables you to design, evaluate, and build the right target enterprise architecture for your organization.
TOGAF 8 consists of three main parts:
The TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) , explains how to derive an organizationspecific enterprise architecture that addresses business requirements.
The Enterprise Continuum , is a "virtual repository" of architecture assets - models, patterns, architecture descriptions, etc… that exist both within the enterprise and in the IT industry at large.
The TOGAF Resource Base , is a set of resources - guidelines, templates, background information, etc…. to help the architect in the use of the ADM.
The key to TOGAF is the TOGAF Architecture Development Method (ADM) - a reliable, proven method for developing an IT enterprise architecture that meets the needs of your business.
TOGAF provides a common sense, practical, prudent, and effective method of developing an enterprise architecture.
TOGAF 8 called the “Enterprise Edition” was designed to address key issues such as to:
Lower and control costs
Deliver new value to the business
Improve operational efficiency of business
Improve understanding of the impact of change
Help take a holistic view of requirements management
Lower overall risk of information technology changes or deployments
And most importantly help make better decisions faster
TOGAF’s Architecture Development Method represents a journey that provides benefits at each step!
TOGAF is being used all around the world.
The Dairy Farm Group head-quartered in Hong Kong used TOGAF to save millions of dollars.
TOGAF has been used in the United Kingdom in the Department of Social Security, Ministry of
Defense, the National Health Service, the Police IT Organization, and QA Consulting.
Litton PRC has used TOGAF in the US as well as other US organizations.
And you see organizations such as NATO in Belgium, Statskonsult in Norway, Westpac Banking
Corporation in Australia, Dalian Commodity Exchange in China, and the Government-wide
Enterprise Architecture Framework in Korea also use TOGAF.
And we know there are many many more. TOGAF is being downloaded hundreds of times per month from across the world.
The Dairy Farm Group case study illustrates extensive use of TOGAF as the basis of an enterprise-wide IT architecture to integrate many disparate business units.
The Dairy Farm Group had a mission to become a leading food and drugstore retailer in the Asia
Pacific region. The holding company of retailers included a portfolio of well known retail companies and was the 71st largest retailing company world wide. The Dairy Farm Group had a corporate goal to be the largest, most successful retailer in Asia / Pacific . To support this goal,
The Dairy Farm Group had restructured from a federation to a unified group of companies, with a single corporate purpose business focus, and a single IT infrastructure. Nick Price who at the time was the Group Technical Architect of Dairy Farm Group was given the task to make
Information Technology an enabler for this mission.
The Dairy Farm Group Technical Program Architecture Group was chartered to develop a
Technical Architecture for DFG, and chose TOGAF and its supporting methodology as the basis.
Using TOGAF, the Technical Program Architecture Group was able, in a very short period of time, from July through October 1998, to develop a world class technical architecture.
It was particularly helpful to be able to point key suppliers to a published version of TOGAF, so that they could see an explanation of the methodology and refer to the TOGAF Standards
Nick Price went to The Open Group looking for an open architecture method. Within one night reading Nick said he was convinced that TOGAF was the right starting point for him to begin his venture of creating an architecture for The Dairy Farm Group. He has said that starting with
TOGAF immediately saved the Dairy Farm Group money in terms of providing something they could start with, rather than re-inventing their own approach to doing architecture.
So the Dairy Farm Group saved money by starting with TOGAF, but the benefits only started there. The architecture work resulted in a strategy and infrastructure changes that had immediate bottom line benefits. Over $3.7 million dollars were realized as the architecture lead to infrastructure changes that guided and enabled the deployment of a new procurement application. As Nick says the strategies embodied in the architecture lead to enormous savings, not in measured terms of hundreds or thousands, but rather millions of dollars.
Today the Technical Architecture at the Dairy Farm Group is still in use. The strategies established in the architecture are still being pursued and have stood the test of time. We are also happy to report that Nick Price has also been promoted!
Westpac is a major Australian bank who have used TOGAF in collaboration with IBM, in much the same way as the UK Department of Social Security… that is, as the basis of managing the technology components of a major outsourcing relationship.
Westpac Banking Corporation is using TOGAF to collect baseline data, understand overlaps and gaps in their Information Technology. They are using TOGAF to help them:
• Document their architecture,
• Conduct interviews to determine architecture needs,
• Review current product and services portfolios,
• Identify the owners of the building blocks in the information technology environment, and
• Influence the way they use and decide on standards
Westpac Banking Corporation has described a number of rewards including:
Having a common reference point internally and for our vendors. They no longer argue about the basic definitions and concepts,… saving a great deal of time and money.
They use the ready made structure for governance that assures that the architecture is going in the right direction and that implementations adhere to the architecture,… again resulting in savings. And also they mention that a result of this effort implementations have accelerated allowing the value to be realized more quickly.
Other individual architects that have used TOGAF had also good things to say about using
TOGAF is a shared best practice that cuts the up-front cost of re-inventing an architecture method. It has embodied in it the experiences of many practitioners, including the improvements that ensure success, and improvements meant to overcome previous failures. It is truly an accumulation of the wisdom of many real-world architects.
TOGAF is also thought to be comprehensive in a number of dimensions, including driving from business requirements all the way to solutions. Also TOGAF, when followed, helps establish mechanisms for team communication. TOGAF provides refined and honed checklist that help you understand your progress as you move through the architecture.
A final set of points from architects is that it is obvious that TOGAF is an open, vendor and technology neutral, professional approach developed by professionals over many years.
The latest news we have about TOGAF includes:
Sun Microsystems in the US is incorporating TOGAF into a composite of best in breed EA frameworks
Raytheon is integrating TOGAF into their REAP methodology
HP's internal Information Technology organization is using TOGAF
TOGAF is supported in architecture tools including Popkin’s System Architect and Computas’
Moving a bit from TOGAF and looking at other external success stories about enterprise architecture efforts here are some additional success stories from Corporate Executive Board
John Hancock has realized a $6.25 million US dollars savings on redundancies discovered through EA
Dow has realized $300 million US dollars in new revenue as a result of implementing new projects identified by the enterprise architecture work
Key Corp has realized 20% reduction is application maintenance resulting in a 1 st year savings of
$7 million US dollars
The next set of slides discuss certification.
We realized the great importance of TOGAF with support of the many users. So to protect this valuable asset we have created numerous certification programs around it including,
Certification of Tools that support TOGAF, to ensure that the tools actually do adhere to the principle of TOGAF
Certification of TOGAF training course, to ensure the quality of instruction
Certification of architects that have been trained in the use of TOGAF, and finally
Certification of professional service organizations that offer services said to be TOGAF services
Certification is currently against the TOGAF 7 release, in February 2004 we hope to announce certification of TOGAF 8.
The TOGAF 7 TOOL SUPPORT program defines core requirements for Tools that support the development of IT Architectures using TOGAF. Some of the detailed conformance requirements are:
The tool may be a single tool, or a defined configuration of tools from a single product family.
A conforming tool shall support: the modeling of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method the development of the key deliverables of the TOGAF Architecture Development Method the modeling of the TOGAF Foundation Architecture, specifically the Technical Reference Model and Standards Information Base the import, storage, use, and reuse of models in accordance with the concepts of the Enterprise
As of today we have two companies that have certified their tools. Popkin has certified a release of their System Architect tool, and Computas has certified a release of their Metis tool. This is a very good sign for TOGAF. As it is being perceived as an important framework in the industry.
The TOGAF 7 Training program is intended for training courses that impart the necessary knowledge and awareness of TOGAF Version 7.
The TOGAF 7 Training program covers either a single course, or a defined configuration of courses from a single family of related courseware.
In order to participate in the TOGAF 7 TRAINING certification program, the applicant must:
Have a current commercial license for TOGAF Version 7
Agree to register with The Open Group:
TOGAF training courses,
The number of course attendees eligible to receive TOGAF 7 certification
The names and contact details of all course attendees who have “opted in”
Also the applicant must provide The Open Group with a signed declaration to the effect that all attendees that are eligible for TOGAF certification have satisfactorily demonstrated participation and commitment to the course
As of today we have two companies that have certified their training. Frietuna Computer
Consultants and Architecting-the Enterprise have both certified their training programs.
The TOGAF 7 CERTIFIED program defines the core requirements for knowledge and awareness of TOGAF Version 7 that IT Architecture practitioners should have in order to be able to use
TOGAF Version 7 effectively in developing IT Architectures.
This certification is intended:
To enable IT Architecture practitioners to demonstrate that they have acquired the necessary knowledge and awareness of TOGAF Version 7 to be able to use it in IT Architecture work
To ensure that professional services offered in support of TOGAF are delivered by architects who have completed the necessary training and have up-to-date knowledge about TOGAF
This certification is not intended to denote proficiency in IT Architecture per se.
Some of the CONFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS include:
The applicant must have fulfilled satisfactorily the completion requirements of a coursework certified as compliant with the TOGAF 7 TRAINING program
The applicant's name must be registered with The Open Group by the Course Provider as having satisfactorily completed the Course
As of today we have 28 individuals that that are certified. These individuals are from around the world, and from individual consulting organizations as well as large companies such as HP,
Cisco, et cetera.
The TOGAF 7 PROFESSIONAL SERVICES program defines the core requirements for knowledge and awareness of TOGAF, Version 7 on the part of IT Architecture practitioners who intend to use it in IT Architecture work. Secondly, it defines the nature of professional services that may be offered in association with TOGAF Version 7. In so doing, it references a Code of
Practice to which service providers must adhere.
This certification is intended to enable existing IT Architecture service providers to demonstrate that they have personnel with the required knowledge and awareness of TOGAF Version 7 to be able to use it effectively in IT Architecture work.
In order to participate in the TOGAF 7 PROFESSIONAL SERVICES certification program, the applicant must:
Have a current commercial license for TOGAF Version 7
Agree to abide by the TOGAF 7 Code of Practice
Commit to use of TOGAF 7 CERTIFIED practitioners in provision of TOGAF Version 7-based professional services
Have a published training policy for its TOGAF 7 CERTIFIED practitioners
Agree to register with The Open Group the names of all personnel who are currently TOGAF 7
Today we have 7 companies that have are TOGAF 7 Professional Services certified. Frietuna
Computer Consultants Limited, Architecting-the-Enterprise Limited, CCANDC SOLUTIONS Pty
Ltd, Computacenter UK plc, Popkin Software and Systems Inc., Capita IT Services, and C&C
Now briefly onto Future plans.
We plan to provide certification for TOGAF 8 the Enterprise Edition in 2004 and to redesign the certification program to accommodate changes in the method.
We also had a very successful initial architecture practitioners conference recently in Washington
DC. This effort is one we shall repeat to get more involvement with day to day practitioners.
Finally we also plan to make incremental improvements to TOGAF, TOGAF version 8.1 will be out in the first part of the year and TOGAF 9 will be released some time after. The focus for these releases will be improving its usefulness for Enterprise Architecture, further aligning TOGAF with other Frameworks, and incorporating even more best practices.
Let me now summarize.
Enterprise architecture is becoming a recognized critical success factor for Information
Technology alignment to the business.
Enterprise architecture is really about the journey not the destination, as in each step of the journey there is value to be gained.
The benefits for enterprise architecture are many,… and are becoming more clear as we learn.
Enterprise architecture is truly a Business Management tool, not just a technology tool.
The Open Group provides a comprehensive open architecture framework that provides an open architecture method that apply to government and commercial environments and that can be used to fill out any architecture framework.
Leverage is key, do not hesitate to leverage TOGAF!
Please consider adopting and using TOGAF, it may help you
“Demystify” and speed up architecture development
Get faster response to evolving business needs
Become more flexible in introducing new technology
Achieve faster, simpler, and cheaper procurement
Achieve faster time-to-market, and
Improve vendor, tool, and technology neutrality
Also I would like you to consider participation in the Architecture Forum, it is a Worldwide forum for customers, tools vendors, solution vendors, integrators, academic & research organizations. It can help further the development of IT Architecture as a discipline, allow you to contribute to and access work in progress, and allow you to network with experienced peers and industry experts.
If you wish to study TOGAF further, I hope the following links will be helpful to you.
Domo arigato gozaimasu!