Ms. Arness Name: Science 10 Date: Carbon Cycle Block: Carbon Cycle 1. What is the importance of nutrients? Nutrients are important for plant and animal growth and for other life processes. 2. What is a nutrient store? A nutrient store is the accumulation of nutrients for short or long periods of time in Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, and land masses. 3. Explain the term “nutrient cycle”. A nutrient cycle is the flow of nutrients in and out of nutrient stores. These flows are also known as exchanges. 4. How can human activities affect a nutrient cycle? By altering the rate or the amount of nutrients in certain areas or between stores 5. What are the 5 chemical elements that limit the amount/type of life in an ecosystem? C, H, O, P, N 6. Why is carbon important for life? Cellular respiration provides energy for living things 7. Where are short term carbon stores found? Carbon is stored short term in the plants on land, in the ocean, and in animal as well as in decaying soil 8. Where are long term carbon stores found? In rocks and sediments 9. What is sedimentation? The process that contributes to the formation of sedimentary rock. It is the accumulation of organic matter on the ground or in oceans that is then turned into rock through geological processes 10. How is calcium carbonate in shells a carbon source? Some shells for marine animals are made of carbonate. When these animals die they leave their shells to contribute to sedimentation. 11. List the varieties of natural processes that move carbon through ecosystems Ms. Arness Science 10 Carbon Cycle Carbon is stored short term in the plants on land, in the ocean, and in animal as well as in decaying soil. Carbon is also found in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. It is also stored in the ocean as carbonate, which can be incorporated into marine shells 12. What is the chemical reaction of photosynthesis? Sunlight + 6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 13. Describe photosynthesis Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reacts with water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. The energy from the Sun provides the energy for this reaction. 14. Describe cellular respiration In cellular respiration, the carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere when plants and animals convert carbohydrates and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water. In the process, energy is released within the cells to be used for growth, repair, and reproduction. 15. How is decomposition important to the carbon cycle? The importance of decomposition is that organic molecules, such as cellulose, are broken down and the carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere. 16. How does the ocean move carbon throughout the world? Carbon is cycled from intermediate ocean depths by ocean currents. 17. What two processes release carbon dioxide? Any two of: volcanic eruptions, decomposing trees, and forest fires 18. How much has the amount of carbon in the atmosphere increased since 1850? 30% 19. How has burning fossil fuels changed the natural carbon cycle? Burning fossil fuels reintroduces carbon, which was stored long ago, into the atmosphere. 20. What other human activities have an impact on the carbon cycle? Other activities that have affected the carbon cycle include clearing land for agriculture and expansion of cities. The amount of carbon dioxide returning to the atmosphere is reduced because there are fewer plants now.