Global Biogeochemical Cycles Supporting Information for A comparison of plot-based, satellite and Earth system model estimates of tropical forest net primary production Cory C. Cleveland,1* Philip Taylor,2 K. Dana Chadwick,3 Kyla Dahlin, 4 Christopher E. Doughty,5 Yadvinder Malhi,5 W. Kolby Smith,6 Benjamin W. Sullivan,7 William R. Wieder,8 and Alan R. Townsend9 1 Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 USA and Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke Universtity, Durham, NC, USA, 3Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA, USA, 4Michigan State University Department of Geography, East Lansing, MI USA, 5Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford University, Oxford, UK, 6Department of Ecosystem and Conservation Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA, 7Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA, 8Climate and Global Dynamics Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO USA, 9Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA 2 Contents of this file Figure S1 Figure S2 Table S1 Table S2 Introduction This supporting information contains two figures and two tables that are referenced and described in the main text. Figure S1. Field measurements of aboveground net primary production using plot-based inventory techniques as a function of mean annual precipitation. We used a nonlinear model optimized by minimizing root mean square error, which is a less biased approach to predicting ANPP with rainfall-based extrapolation than maximizing the correlation coefficient (i.e., r2). The model (ANPP = A* MAPB/exp(C * MAP) has been applied in prior empirical modeling studies, and was optimized using least-squares, where A = 0.559991, B = 0.416652, and C = 0.0000308789 [Del Grosso et al. 2008]. Figure S2. Amazonian ecoregions sampled from MODIS and CLM results 2009-2010 and compared with RAINFOR-GEM observations from the Southern (Hacienda Kenia in Guarayos Province, Santa Cruz, Bolivia), Western (Tambopata-Candamo Reserve in the Madre de Dios region of Peru), and Eastern Amazon (Caxiuanã National Forest Reserve). Color bars show the percentage of each gridcell covered by evergreen tropical forests in CLM that are <60% forest cover. Table S1. Spatial (2000-2010 average) correlation coefficients (Pearson’s R) between drivers of MODIS- and CLM-based NPP. Bold text indicates statistical significance at P < 0.05. Method Variable Correlation MODIS Fraction of PAR absorbed Photosynthetically active radiation (W m-2) Leaf area index CLM 0.26 - 0.24 0.22 Minimum temperature (°C) - 0.66 Vapor pressure deficit (kPa) 0.26 Rain (mm d-1) 0.38 Water stress 0.57 Evapotranspiration (mm d-1) 0.06 Specific humidity Soil moisture (kg m-2) - 0.23 0.19 Atmospheric temperature (°K) - 0.45 Vegetation temperature (°K) - 0.45 Incoming radiation (W m-2) 0.007 Incoming – reflected radiation (W m-2) 0.44 N limitation of GPP 0.65 Table S2. Correlations between climate and energy variables and 2009-2010 fieldMODIS- and CLM-based NPP estimates. Field data are from the RAINFOR GEM plots. TMP = average monthly temperature; PCP = precipitation (mm mo-1); RAD = radiation (W m-2); VPD = vapor pressure deficit (kPa); PAR = photosynthetically active radiation (W m-2); PAR = photosynthetically active radiation (W m-2); Tmin = average monthly minimum temperature (°C); fPAR = fraction of PAR; TBOT = temperature at the bottom of the atmosphere (°K); Rain = precipitation (mm d-1). Method Field MODIS CLM Variable Region of Amazon Western Eastern Southern TMP 0.66*** -0.31 0.39* PCP 0.31 0.64*** 0.29 RAD 0.41* -0.53** 0.10 VPD 0.29 -0.32 0.02 Tmin -0.29 -0.14 -0.24 fPAR 0.77*** 0.52** 0.40* PAR 0.94*** 0.78*** 0.23 VPD 0.82*** 0.35* -0.30 TBOT -0.19 -0.42* 0.13 Rain 0.19 0.55** 0.85*** PAR 0.33 -0.45* -0.17 *P < 0.1, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.