What theory states that inherited variations increasing reproductive success will be passed? a. b. c. d. Biogenesis Spontaneous generation Natural selection Controlled evolution Darwin’s theory of natural selection explains how the traits of a population can change over time. It deals with inherited variation that affect reproductive success and alter species. Cumulative changes in groups of organisms over time is called ______. a. b. c. d. Evolution Natural selection Spontaneous generation Gene synthesis Evolution describes how organisms change over time through multiple generations, which involves genetics. Evolution states that all organisms have descended from ancestral forms. Natural selection is the theory explaining how evolution works. Which of these is not a component of the theory of natural selection in a duck population? a. b. c. d. Ducks in a population have different markings. Traits that hinder swimming are likely to be passed on. Baby ducks carry the same traits as parents. Not all offspring survive after hatching. Natural selection has four main components: members of a population show differences, variations are inherited, not all offspring survive, and successful traits are more likely to be passed. The ________ provides evidence of extinct species in support of evolutionary change. a. b. c. d. Biogenesis record Igneous rock layer Fossil record Metamorphic rock layer The fossil record provides significant evidence for evolutionary change by showing ancestral forms and evolutionary patterns. Fossils are the preserved evidence of extinct species in sedimentary layers of rock. This organism is the _______ of the modern-day armadillo. a. Genetic duplicate b. Ancestral form c. Primary predator d. Primary food source The theory of evolution states that modern species descended from ancestral forms, as suggested in this picture. Darwin hypothesized the ancestral relation between the armadillo and the extinct glyptodont. What are the two major classes of traits in transitional fossils? a. b. c. d. Chemical and biological Biogenic and genetic Spontaneous and archaic Derived and ancestral Scientists studying transitional fossils divide traits into two classes: derived traits and ancestral traits. Derived traits are newly evolved features. Ancestral traits are more primitive features. These vertebrate forelimbs are examples of ____________. a. b. c. d. Homologous structures Vestigial structures Ancestral development Dysfunctional evolution These vertebrate forelimbs are called homologous structure because they are similar in form. They are not vestigial structures because they have not been reduced or lost functioning through evolution. Which of these is an example of a vestigial structure? a. b. c. d. Kangaroo’s pouch Leg attachment site on snake pelvis Elephant’s trunk Light weight bones in bird skeleton Vestigial structures are anatomical parts that have evolved to a reduced form and serve no function. Snakes have small attachment sites for legs on their pelvis. Since snakes do not have legs, this is a vestigial structure. The wings of hawks and beetles are _________. a. Ancestral forms b. Vestigial structures c. Analogous structures d. Natural selection Analgous structures carry out the same, or similar, purposes, and have a similar construction, but they do not come from a common ancestor. A hawk's wing is similar in structure and purpose to a fly's wing, although they do not have a common ancestor. What does this graph suggest? a. b. c. d. Amino acids can show evolutionary similarities Size of organisms can show evolutionary similarities Butterflies and humans are closely related Monkeys and fish have similar biochemical features This graph shows biochemical differences between species. The species closer to one another on the graph have fewer differences in amino acid sequences. This indicates a biochemical aspect in evolutionary theory. Which statement is true based on this graph showing biochemical differences? a. Fish share more amino acid sequences with pigs than with turtles b. Monkeys share more amino acid sequences with humans than with fish c. Humans and pigs share no amino acid sequences d. Turtles and fish share no amino acid sequences This graph shows biochemical differences between species. The species closer to one another on the graph have fewer differences in amino acid sequences. This indicates a biochemical aspect in evolutionary theory. Which statement is true regarding this archaeopteryx? a. b. c. d. It has no ancestral dinosaur features. It has no evolutionary relation to birds. It has not become extinct. It has ancestral dinosaur features. This archaeopteryx shares many features with birds while retaining ancestral dinosaur features. A random change in the frequency of alleles in a population is called__________. a. b. c. d. Genetic drift Hardy-Weinberg principle Natural selection and mutation occurs Biogenesis Genetic drift ensures that the frequency of alleles in a large population remains relatively constant from one generation to the next. What type of selection occurs when an extreme trait increases an organism’s fitness? A. B. C. D. Stabilizing Directional Bottleneck Varied Directional selection occurs when an extreme version of a trait increases an organism' fitness, which is the contribution a particular trait makes to future generations. This can cause a certain trait to dominate in species in a certain area over time. Which of these are two conditions for genetic equilibrium according to Hardy-Weinberg principle? a. b. c. d. Natural selection and mutation occurs Population is small; mutations occur Mating is random; natural selection does not occur Immigration and natural selection occurs Random mating and lack of natural selection are two conditions of genetic equilibrium, according to the HardyWeinberg principle. The other examples indicate violations of this principle.