project report

Name of the Project: The production and development of an electronic reading device for
visually impaired individuals
Purpose of the Project: The purpose of the project is to create a prototype of a device
enabling visually impaired peers to read any text encoded in virtual format, e-books in
particular. The device would be able to be utilized as a material in the education of the
visually impaired individuals, and would also eliminate the issue of providing special
materials. Among the future objectives of the project is the provision of a multifunctional
device assisting visually impaired individuals with regard to vocalizing diagrams in e-books,
mathematical expressions and symbols.
The previous works to provide solutions to the problems faced by visually impaired peers
have been elaborated, and navigation systems to vocally navigate visually impaired
individuals through their travels and embossed maps have been encountered. It is also known
that the Braille alphabet, developed by Louis Braille in 1821 is being used frequently
throughout their educational lives. It can also be seen that the educational materials revolve
around this six-dotted alphabetic system. In Braille alphabetical system, every letter is
encoded as a different combination of 6 different dots. With the aid of this system, books can
be prepared for visually impaired people. At present, documents can be prepared in Braille
using specially embossed scriptural tablets and needles. Along with the aforementioned
materials that are called to be traditional, embossed rulers used in mathematical education,
Cranmer abacus, needled papers and graphics are among the examples educational materials.
In addition to these traditional materials, applications within which the present day's
technology is used can be considered
A device based on the Braille system has been developed in the project. The device is made of
six vibration motors and an electronic circuit sending signals to these motors (Device is
shown in figure 2).
Figure 2- Representative drawing of system
The communication between the electronic circuit and the device to vocalize is provided by a
Bluetooth module. Operation of the device necessitates a program that is encoded in C
programming language to be installed into the device. When the user taps the alphabetic
characters, the signals reaching the micro-detectors are evaluated with use of the Bluetooth
module. After processing the incoming signals, the micro-detector sends signals of the Braille
equivalent of the touched character to six vibration motors. The motors have been connected
to the circuit using wires. Six motors have been placed on a surface and arrayed according to
Braille coding system. The mechanism containing these motors will be put on to the wrist of
the user. The Braille embossing of the letter A would be provided to the user when the letter
A is pressed on the touch screen. When the letter A is scrolled on, the upper left motor of the
six-motor system would receive signals and move accordingly. The user would then feel the
motion of the motor and perceive that the letter they had touched was A. As the user keeps
moving their finger over the line they’re reading, the same processes will be carried out by the
system, allowing the user to perceive every character in the text. Spaces, punctuation marks
and numbers have also been encoded and the necessary precautions have been taken in order
to provide a fluent experience. Using the same technique, the system can also be used for
geometrical shapes and mathematical symbols. The motors have been programmed to
differentiate colors as well as characters. When colored shapes are being drawn, (such as
geometrical shapes or simple atom models), as the user moves their finger along the shape,
when their finger touches areas of different colors, they would feel different motions just as
they do in embossed shapes, because signals would be sent to color-associated motors
accordingly as the user touches different colors, allowing the user to follow the vibrations
accordingly and have a general perception about the color of the shape.
The compatibility of the project to every tablet PC, the sufficiency of its software and
electronic circuit to fulfill aforementioned vocalizing functions provides economic advantages
along with the ease of use. The production of this device would allow existing educational
materials to be available for visually impaired individuals with minor alterations, thus
rendering the preparation of specialized education materials unnecessary. This would supply
visually impaired peers with access to a great variety of educational content.
The application process of the project involves two main steps: writing the computer program
to allow the system to satisfy the required functions and designing and activating the
electronic circuit (Electronic circuit is shown in figure 3). The computer software used in the
project is written in C# programming language and includes three forms in total, each having
distinctive functions.
The electronic circuit prepared within the project is run using a micro-detector. Its
communication with the computer is established via Bluetooth. The integrated Bluetooth
system is called HC-06. The micro-detector employed is called PIC18F2550. There are six
shaftless vibration motors within the circuit. The power source used is 9V-2A.
The data sent by the computer via Bluetooth is processed by the micro-detector. The
respective motors vibrate according to the incoming data. Six vibrating dots have been
arranged in line with the logic of the Braille alphabet. The programming language used to
program the micro-detector is CCS-C. This language is used to program the micro-detector
using C-language.
Figure 3- Drawing of circuit
BluetoothBee HC06
Serial Module
PIC18F2550 I/SP
7805 Regülatör
12X12 Green LED illimunated
Power Enctrance connector
12VDC 3A Plug-in Type Adaptor
Connection Cables
Materials that are used in the project
Code Structure of the Computer
The codes in the project have been encoded in two different programming languages. One of
them is the micro-detector program and the other one is the computer program. Each
programming has its own functions.
The functions of the programming codes within the project can be listed as such:
CCS C – Micro-detector Code
The function of the micro-detector in the project is to apply the directives received
from the computer. There are certain if-else expressions. The functions of the micro-detector
code can be listed as such:
Its function within the controlling project is to process the data received from the
computer and create a motion in the motors accordingly, which is also the main task of the
It makes predefined motors vibrate in accordance with the directives received from the
computer. It uses the if-else expressions in the C-language while functioning
For example, if the letter A is to be sent from the computer to the micro-detector. The
signal associated would be activated in the predefined output points.
The detector used in the project has twenty-eight branches. Certain branches have
predefined special functions. These branches can be used freely by disabling these predefined
functions, or in their specialized areas. To accomplish this, certain pins would be labeled as
outputs beforehand, meaning that the detector would recognize these pins as outputs. For
example, if a LED light was to be lit, the pin should be labeled an output, because outwards
tension is required in order to light a LED. If a LED is to be lit when a button is pressed, the
button has to be labeled an input, because the detector would function according to the signals
taken from the button.
The pins associated to the motors are labeled as output in the program, because the units to be
moved within the electronic circuit are motors. The task is accomplished using the following
if(IncomingData==’A’) { output_high(motor1); }
In short, the incoming data from the computer is checked using if-phrases, applying the
associated act in the motors.
C# – Computer Program
The computer codes fulfilling the basic tasks in the project are that of the computer. The
computer scans all of the touched data and sends the predefined values of the touched area to
the processor. The functions of the computer code can be listed as such:
The geometrical processes in the computer are mainly scanning the pixels on the
screen. The RGB-equivalent of the point touched is subject to process. Which is why, certain
RGB codes have been predefined as certain colors in the program. For example, the RGB
code for the color black is (0, 0, 0). The program recognizes this and sends data to the
processor accordingly.
A similar logic to that of images is applied to data as well. After the text has been
input, the images that represent the letters in the text are shown on the screen. Every image
has been saved previously within the software. When the user starts to read, the data of the
letter touched is sent to the processor. The processor then moves the motors accordingly.
As a result of the process mentioned, the alphabetical characters and geometrical shapes
create stimuli comprehensible to the user. The texts and the shapes need to be predefined into
the software for the system to work. Thus, remarkable benefits would be gained when
compatible content is prepared for visually impaired individuals in every area where written
data is required, such as education.
Further studies will be made in the future for the device to be able to read the content directly
without needing of any predefinitions and to further improve the sensitivity of the system. As
this report is being written, studies are being conducted in order to cover the missing points
within the system, to make the intervals between the lines more clear and to indicate the
position of the lines with vocal notifications. The system is currently being developed
according to the reviews of the users. The system requires external power sources in order to
run, which results in mobility and operation problems. The device is planned to be made
rechargeable in the future. The units of the electronic circuit will be downsized to have a more
ergonomic design. The mobility and compatibility to any tablet of the device results in the
advantage that when the device is mass-produced, the cost would be lessened and supplying
problems would not be faced.
The project has been used by blind people to test the functionality of the project. Users were
wanted to predict the geometric figures and alphabetic characters. For this experiment, 16
blind people participated as a voluenteer. Participants was being consisted from persons who
are in the group of age 16-20 and know Braille alphabet. At the first step of experiment, some
information was given about project and was wanted from blind people to follow some
instructions. At the second step, some exercises were done and some more information about
project was given to them. True and false answers are appreciated as figures, alphabetic
characters and word predictions. The results of experiment are shown in the table down.
Between the age
of 16-20
words (Before
words (After
As we look at the results, it is seen that when some exercises are done, the yield of project is
increasing. It can be said that the yield of the project can reach to %100 percentage in the
situation of developing the system and giving chance to blind people to exercise more. When
the project is asked to blind people, they said that this project was so useful and beneficial for
● Sürmeli, C. ve Mutlu, A.Kadir., Mikrodenetleyiciler ile Seri İletişim. KODLAB
Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 2014.
● Aktaş, V., Her Yönüyle C#, KODLAB Yayıcılık. İstanbul, 2013.
● Uzunköprü, S., Projeler ile C# 5.0 ve SQL Server 2012. KODLAB Yayıncılık,
İstanbul, 2013.
● Çiçek, S., CCS C ile PIC Programlama, Altaş Yayıncılık,İstanbul, 2012.
● Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, Bilişim Teknolojileri Veri Yapıları, Mesleki Eğitim ve
Öğretim Sisteminin Güçlendirilmesi Projesi, Ankara, 2007,
● Akalın A., Kim Korkar Javadan, Pusula Yayınları,2007
● Martin Hitz(Ağustos 2010), Design and Implementation of a Toolkit forthe Rapid
Prototyping of MobileUbiquitous Computing,Klagenfurt Üniverstesi,Almanya.
● Internet:Türkiye Bilişim Derneği Görme Engelliler için Bilişim Çalışma Grubu
● Özürlüler Araştırması Sonuçları, Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü ve Özürlüler İdaresi
Bakanlığı, Ankara, 2003
● M. Şahin BÜLBÜL, Ümmügülsüm CANSU, Dilber DEMİRTAŞ, Belkıs GARİP.,
İğneli Sayfa ile Engellilerin Kullandığı Diğer Matematik Öğrenme Setlerinin
Karşılaştırılması, 2012
● Gürel., Görme engelli çocuklar için eğitim ortamlarının düzenlenmesi, Eğitimci
Dergisi, 1(8), 18-21. , 2011.
● Thompson, D. M., Physics and Mathematics for the Blind or Visually Impaired.
Technology, 2005.
● Bülbül, M. Ş. & Eryılmaz, A., Görme engelli Öğrenciler için fizik ders araçları, Murat
Kitabevi, 2012.
● Bergsman, P. (1994), Controlling The World With Your PC
● Dhananjay V.,Gadre, (1998), Programming the Parallel Port Interfacing the PC for
Data Acquisition and Process Control
● Millman, Jacob, Grabel, Arvin, (1979),Microelectronics, McGraw-Hill.
● Chevalier, A. (2004), Guide Du Dessinateur Industriel