Epidemiology is broadly defined as the study of factors that influence the health of populations. The application of epidemiologic findings in populations to decisions in the
care of individual patients is: a.
Known as clinical epidemiology
Limited to chronic disease epidemiology
Limited to infectious disease epidemiology e.
Subject to the ecologic fallacy.
The BEINGS model is a useful paradigm for: a.
Allocating public health resources b.
Asserting the impact of herd immunity
Determining the role of social policy on public health
Establishing the importance of social contacts
Evaluating etiologic factors in disease.
The BEINGS model provides a list of factors in disease causality. Which of the following factors are explicitly included in the list? a.
Behavioral, ecologic, idiopathic, nutritional, genetic, and social factors. b.
Behavioral, environmental, immunologic, nutritional, genetic, and selective factors. c.
Behavioral, environmental, immunologic, nutritional, genetic, and social factors.
Biologic, environmental, immunologic, nutritional, genetic, and synergistic factors. e.
Biologic, environmental, innate, nutritional, genetic, and synergistic factors
For an infectious disease to occur, there must be interaction between: a.
Behavioral factors and genetic factors
The agent and the vector
The host and the agent
The vector and the environment e.
The vector and the host
Widely publicized fatalities associated with an “emerging” disease (e.g. hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) may be an example of: a.
Active surveillance b.
The first responder effect
The iceberg phenomenon
Which one of the following activities is beyond the scope of activities undertaken by
Establishing modes of disease transmission
Providing data for genetic counseling
Rationing health care resources
Herd immunity refers to: a.
Genetic resistance to species-specific disease
Immunity naturally acquired in a population
The high levels of antibody present in a population after an epidemic
The prevention of disease transmission to susceptible individuals through acquired immunity in others.
The vaccination of domestic animals to prevent disease transmission to humans.
Attempts to eradicate a disease through wide-spread immunization programs may be associated with potential adverse effects. Which of the following adverse effects is
correlated with the efficacy of the vaccine? a.
The emergence of resistant strains
The loss of the natural booster effect
The occurrence of allergic reactions
The occurrence of infection in younger age groups e.
The occurrence of neurologic complication.
Which of the following phenomena resulted from attempts to solve a public health
Antigenic drift in the influenza virus
Desertification in sub-Saharan Africa
Reactivation of latent tuberculosis in individuals with HIV infection d.
Spread of Legionella pneumophila through air-conditioning systems
Transmission of hepatitis C via blood transfusions.
Evaluation of which of the following potentially preventable causes of disease is mostly likely to raise ethical concerns? a.
Social support networks.