Math SOL 5.18 - Augusta County Public Schools

Submitted By VES
5.18 The student will
investigate and describe the concept of variable;
write an open sentence to represent a given mathematical relationship, using a variable;
model one-step linear equations in one variable, using addition and subtraction; and
create a problem situation based on a given open sentence, using a single variable.
Patterns, Functions, and Algebra
What do your students need to KNOW?
What do your students need to be able to
How will you assess what your
students ALREADY KNOW, and assess
All students will know:
 Understand that a variable is a symbol that
can stand for an unknown number or
 Understand that a variable expression is a
variable or combination of variables,
numbers, and symbols that represents a
mathematical relationship.
 Understand that verbal expressions can be
translated to variable expressions.
 Understand that an open sentence has a
variable and an equal sign (=).
 Understand that problem situations can be
expressed as open sentences.
Students will:
 Describe the concept of a variable
(presented as boxes, letters, or other
symbols) as a representation of an
unknown quantity.
 Write an open sentence with addition,
subtraction, multiplication, or
division, using a variable to represent
a missing number.
 Model one-step linear equations using
a variety of concrete materials such as
colored chips on an equation mat or
weights on a balance scale.
 Create and write a word problem to
match a given open sentence with a
single variable and one operation.
Prior knowledge assessed by
verbal feedback to questions &
examples presented, i.e. “Do you
understand what a numerical
expression is?” (includes only
numbers & operation signs)
“Have you ever seen a math
expression having numbers &
letters, or symbols?” (give ex. of
both types; stress that a letter or
symbol can represent a variable)
Ask: “How might you use your
knowledge of numerical
expressions to write an
expression with variables?”
HOW will you teach it?
Students will write definition of
“variable” and copy examples of
variables from board, as teacher
introduces & models the use of
variables in different numerical
Students get in small groups of 3 or
4, with sm. white bds. As a group,
ask: a. Since you know what a
numerical expression is, write an
expression with variables. b. Give
another way to represent a variable(draw symbols, tap on desk, stamp
foot, clap hands). c. give phrases for
translations into variable
expressions, such as: “the sum of 9
and a number (9+n); 6 plus a
number (6+n); the number of
marbles in a bag decreased by 6 (n6).
Students will also utilize the hands
on equation kits available at our
school. (Hopefully each elementary
school had these.) These kits come
with a differentiated manual for
teachers to use.
How will you meet the needs of all
Give different examples @ varying levels of
difficulty, such as: 1. Special needs
students- work in pairs; one represents a
number & the other represents a variable
by tapping, hopping, etc. to denote a
number. 2. Advanced students-give
phrases orally; have them translate into
writing, such as “6+10=x”, or the difference
between 16 and a number is “16-n”.
3.Advanced students-have students write
their own expression & find the value of the
variable used. 4. All levels-Give an
intentional “incorrect” value of a variable
within an expression & have students
explain why this value is Unreasonable…ex:
Jill has some pencils; she buys 8 more &
then gives 12 away {(n+8)-12}….why would
2 be an unreasonable value for n? (Teacher
should vary the difficulty level according to
student ability)
Other discussion: have students answer
questions such as: How would you describe
what you are trying to find? Show us the
steps you used to get this answer. (have
students process the steps themselves, and
explain); teacher intervention may be
necessary to help with different steps .
Harcourt Math text, Gr. 5
See Pgs. 64A – 67; see Intervention
& Extension Resources on Pg. 64B
Processing Skill Checklist for RigorInfused Math Skill Process Skills
Online IXL program, for practice
with Variables, and for related skills
Flanagan skills from VA
Mathematics Item Bank, specifically
for SOL 5.18a. Individual problems
may be extracted from skill bank
and used in different groups,
according to students’ skill levels.
Other websites may be used for skill practice, addressing different levels
of difficulty, such as: