Activity 5.3.2: Heart Matter

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Activity 5.3.2 – Heart of the Matter
Introduction
Listen carefully. Can you hear or feel your heart beating? What do you know about
your heart other than it is beating? How does blood enter and exit the heart? What
do the valves do? What happens when something doesn’t work correctly? What
kinds of heart dysfunctions exist, and which ones can be corrected with surgery?
Of all the organs in the body, the heart is at the core of life. According to the
American Medical Association, over 70.1 million Americans have some sort of
cardiovascular disease. Deaths by heart related disease remains the #1 killer in the
US.
In this activity, you will take a closer look at the heart. You will investigate its function
and some of the more common cardiovascular dysfunctions that can occur.
Procedure
As a group, divide and conquer the following questions. Be sure to answer the
questions the thoroughly and be able to explain them to your group members.
YOUR RESEARCH SHOULD BE RECORDED IN YOUR NOTEBOOK.
DAY ONE:
General Heart Issues:
1. What is the difference between a disease and a disorder?
Disease: abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism.
Disorder: It could also mean a disturbance in physical or mental health or
functions.
2. What are the most prevalent heart issues for adults and children?
Obesity
3. What age group may experiences the most heart disease? What is the rate of
increase or decrease for each age group? Is heart disease a concern for
teenagers?
Older people but under 65; 51-61 25% 70+ 40%; Yes
4. What is the medical indication that a person needs a heart transplant?
a. How many heart transplants are performed each year?
2000
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PLTW TM - BE – Unit 5 – Lesson 5.3 – Activity 5.3.2 – Heart of the Matter – Page 1
b. How many people die before receiving a heart transplant?
35%
How does a person get on the recipient list and how is the order of merit determined?
When the organ has been damaged in an accident or by disease, the doctor first
assesses whether the person is medically eligible for a transplant then they evaluate the
patient’s health and mental status as well as the level of social support; It depends on
how long the person has been on the list and how much they need of the organ/dyer
situation is.
5. What is the annual national average for children or newborns in need of a heart?
What is the most prevalent cause of heart problems for children and newborns?
1000; Congenital heart disease
6. What are simple, immediate solutions to maintaining a healthy heart?
Exercise, healthy diet, and little too no stress on your heart.
Artificial Heart:
7. How does the artificial heart function? How is it different from the human heart?
Functions as a pump, same as human heart. Can either be used a a temporary
solution or permanent fix. Has to run electrically, unlike a human heart
8. Who invented the artificial heart?
Robert Jarvik
9. Who was the first individual to receive an artificial heart? Dr. Barney Bailey Clark,
a. How long did he or she live after receiving the artificial heart? 112 days
What engineering problems existed with the first artificial heart that were
later addressed in newer models? Had to run on a battery, material,
infections
10. Who currently manufactures artificial hearts? Where is this company (or
companies) located? SynCardia and in Tucson, Arizona
11. What patents currently exist on the artificial heart or on its components?
12. How long does it take for one artificial heart to be built and tested? 7 days
a. How many are manufactured per year? 140,000
b. What is the average cost to build an artificial heart? $176,000 to $226,000.
13. When a patient receives an artificial heart, who pays for the heart, surgery and
the ongoing care? Insurance pays for part and the patient
14. What factors determine whether a person can be eligible for an artificial heart? Is
there a waiting list for an artificial heart? Yes;
People in the Field:
15. Who pioneered the surgeries involved with human heart transplant and artificial
heart implants?
Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Copyright 2010
PLTW TM - BE – Unit 5 – Lesson 5.3 – Activity 5.3.2 – Heart of the Matter – Page 2
a. How long did the first operations take?
b. What improvements have engineers made to the medical equipment
used?
16. Who is currently involved in the improvement of the artificial heart? What are
areas of concern for engineers?
DAY TWO:
Next Steps:
As a group, choose a cardiac disease or disorder to research and begin collecting
information concerning the cause, symptoms, age of onset, and treatment.
Design and sketch a device that can treat this heart problem.
Based on your research, create a 3D model of the heart chambers and valves. This
model will be created using Autodesk. One side of your heart’s model should
represent a normal heart and valves, while the other side should reflect the disease
or disorder researched. Your device should be able to interact with your heart
model.
Create a tri-fold poster display of the research information, a sketch of a normal
bisected heart, and the 3D model of the heart your group created comparing a
normal side to an afflicted side.
Conclusion
As a group, answer these questions ON YOUR WEEBLY:
1. How would knowledge of the heart structure assist an engineer in designing an
artificial heart valve?
2. Physicians are highly interested in the creation of noninvasive procedures for
heart valve implants. Brainstorm and list ways to develop a noninvasive or less
invasive method for implanting valves.
3. What is the role of the three components of the heart chamber in an artificial
heart?
4. What are some engineering challenges concerning each of the heart valves?
5. What is the engineering challenge about the blood flow on each side of the
heart?
Project Lead The Way, Inc.
Copyright 2010
PLTW TM - BE – Unit 5 – Lesson 5.3 – Activity 5.3.2 – Heart of the Matter – Page 3
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