Framework for review FRQs Prompt: European women’s lives changed in the course of the nineteenth century politically, economically, and socially. Identify and explain the reasons for those changes. Category: The arts (social) Factual information Literature - Jane Austen: “Pride and Prejudice” - Henrik Ibsen: “ A Doll’s House” - Mary Wollstonecraft: “A vindication of the rights of women” Art - Renior: “La Loge de I’ Opera” - Gustave Caillebotte: “Le Ponte de I’ Eruope” Topic Sentence: During the 19th century, women’s social status was challenged by through the art, both by men and women. Category: reforms (Political) Factual information divorce rights - England 1857 - French revolution Mines Act -Industrial revolution -no women employed underground Factory Act -Industrial revolution -limited number of hours worked by women Women’s suffrage - Sweden (1862) - Finland (1863) - Britain (1869) Topic Sentence: During the 29th century, many liberal reforms were passed for the benefit of women. Category: employment (economic) Factual information Early 19th c. - Housewife -child rearing -housekeeper -cook Industrial rev. -same “housewife” responsibilities -plus factory work -textile industry Late 19th c. “new women” -typist -telephone operator -clerk -women= breadwinner w/ office work Topic Sentence: During the 19th century, many women held the traditional “housewife” role. However, by the end of the century had evolved into the working force. Thesis Statement: The 19th century witnesses great changes in women’s roles in society. 19th century art, liberal reforms, and Industrialization largely affected the social, political, and economic aspects of women’s lives. Framework for review FRQs Prompt: Analyze the ways in which the events of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period (1789–1815) led people to challenge Enlightenment views of society, politics, and human nature. Category: society Enlightened view -Man should defend his rights French revolution -third estate wanted more representation in the Estates General -formed the General assembly in protest -lead to violent revolution Changed in enlightened views -people feared another revolution -began to put more trust in government Topic sentence: The violence of the French revolution quickly altered society’s enlightened view point. With the fear of another revolution, society abandoned the enlightened views and put more faith into the government. Category: politics Enlightened view Framework for review FRQs Prompt: Analyze the major factors responsible for the rise of anti-Semitism in nineteenth-century Europe. Category: migration of Jews from Eastern Europe to Western Europe Factual information Russia -Jews discriminated -blamed for assassination of Czar Alexander II and Russian rev. Eastern Europe (Germany) -2 million Jews migrated from east to west between 1868 and 1914 - 70,000 went to Germany -at the same time German economy weakened -Jews became scapegoats - Because of different dress, language and culture, Jews were alienated Topic Sentence: Due to the discrimination Jews were facing in Russian, a large number migrated to Eastern Europe specifically Germany. This migration proved to be little improvement from Russia. Category: Social Darwinism Factual information Darwin -“On the Origin of Species” Herbert Spencer -used Ideas of Darwin -human society progressed through competition -social Darwinism Late 19th c. -from ideas of social Darwinism, racial hierarchies were created Houston Stewart Chamberlain (worked in Germany) - “Foundations of the Nineteenth Century” - Argued that Jews were the major enemy to European racial regeneration Topic Sentence: throughout the nineteenth century, the ideas of social Darwinism lead to a rise in anti-Semitism, due to the idea that white Europeans were the dominate race. Category: nationalism Factual information -national community identified by the race of the nation Germany -unification of Germany through Bismarck -nationalism was major component Austria -Christian Social Party (CSP) -adopted German anti-semitic ideas -Karl Lueger (leader of CSP) became mayor of Vienna 1895 -many Jews in professions such as lawyers and physicians -their professional success and lack of national racial characteristics left them vulnerable for exclusion Topic Sentence: During the 19th century, the rise of nationalism in Eastern Europe led to the isolation of Jews. Thesis: The rise in anti-Semitism during the 19th century was largely due to the migration of Jews from Eastern Europe, and the difficulties they faced with nationalism and social Darwinism in the east.