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Name: _____________________________________ Date: ________ Per: ___ Rohrbach Physics I Spring Final Review Minimum Requirements: You must answer at least 35 questions including 5 problems. Questions and problems must be distributed across all units. This is due on exam day. Extra credit will be given for the following: Doing more than 35 questions Working practice problems from the book Defining important concepts Explaining when each equation is used and what the variables mean Showing other evidence that you went above and beyond in your studying The answers—but not the work—to the problems will be posted online. However, the answer key to the concept questions will NOT be posted online. That being said, Mr. Rohrbach will have a copy available in the room for use during SRT or class. You may also email him with questions. Do your work on a separate sheet of paper. Do NOT squeeze your answers into the margins! General notes for preparing for the exam: Know what all the symbols stand for, and know the units for each quantity Be able to figure out what something depends upon (ex: Upon what does electric force depend? Based on the equation it depends on the two charges acting on each other, and the distance between them, plus a constant, but since you can’t change that it’s not near as important) Know how to use the equations to answer a question (What happens to the electric force if you double the distance between two charges? Based on the equation, it will be four times less) Don’t be afraid to use the online book to look up concepts you don’t understand (www.pearsonsuccessnet.com; username – regphys1, regphys2, etc… up to regphys9; password – physnasty1) Important note for seniors: You will be taking your exams before the rest of the class. Therefore, you will not have as many in-class review days as your underclassmen classmates will have. After-school Review Sessions: There will be after-school review sessions the week before final exams and in-class review sessions. These are particularly for seniors who will not have as much time in class to review, but anyone is welcome to attend. Thursday, May 22 – 3:00pm-4:00pm Tuesday, May 27 – 3:00pm-4:00pm In-class review sessions will be on Tuesday-Friday, May 27-30. (Pd 7 will have a final on May 30) Seniors will be taking their exams on Wednesday-Thursday, May 28-29 Underclassmen will be taking exams on Monday-Tuesday, June 2-3 Name: _____________________________________ Date: ________ Per: ___ Rohrbach Unit 5: Work, Power, and Energy – Chapter 9 in book Equations: 𝑊 = 𝐹𝑑 𝑃= 𝑊 𝑡 1 𝐾𝐸 = 2 𝑚𝑣 2 𝐹𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣 = 𝑚𝑔 𝑊 = 𝐾𝐸𝑓 − 𝐾𝐸𝑖 Important Concepts: Work (p. 145 – 146) Potential Energy (p. 148 – 149) Power (p. 146 – 147) 𝐾𝐸𝑖 + 𝑃𝐸𝑖 = 𝐾𝐸𝑓 + 𝑃𝐸𝑓 𝑃𝐸 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ [+𝑊𝑓𝑟𝑖𝑐 ] Kinetic Energy (p. 150 – 152) Conservation of Energy (p. 153 – 154) Concept Questions: 1. What is work? 2. Determine whether work is or is not done. If work is not done, tell me why. a. 500 lbs of weight is lifted above the head of a weightlifter b. 500 lbs of weight is held above the head of a weightlifter c. A soccer ball is rolling across the grass and eventually stops because of friction. 3. What is the physics definition of energy? 4. Explain kinetic and potential energy? 5. A skateboarder starts at the top of a half-pipe, and begins to skate down to the bottom, up to the other side, and then back again; repeating this motion. Where would she have a maximum kinetic energy? Where would she have maximum gravitational potential energy? 6. An orange is hanging from a tree branch before it is knocked to the ground by a bird. As it falls, explain what happens to its kinetic and potential energies. 7. How can an object have two different potential energy values without changing position? 8. Explain conservation of energy. 9. What is power? 10. When an object encounters friction, the total energy remains the same, even though the object will eventually stop moving. Explain why. 11. Two cars are driving down the road. If car two is traveling two times faster than car one, but car one has two times more mass than car two, which one has more kinetic energy? 12. When you lift an object, what are you doing work against? Problems: 13. A force of 333 N is used to push a stroller 14 m. a. How much work was done? b. If this happened in 12 seconds, what was the power produced? 14. 700 J of work is done to pull a stubborn dog (Cujo) across the ground. If Cujo has a mass of 55 kg and was initially at rest, what is his final velocity? 15. A skier (m = 78 kg) is lifted to the top of a 103 m tall mountain. How much work is done by the lift? 16. Harry Stamper (aka: Bruce Willis) is standing on an oil rig 80 m above the water. He decides to hit a 0.10 kg golf ball at a group of protestors in a boat. If he gives the ball an initial velocity of 65 m/s, what is its velocity when it reaches the protestors (who are 10 m above the water)? 17. A marble is at rest at the top of a 4 m ramp and has a total energy value of 400 J. As it rolls down the ramp, friction does work on it so that at 1 m above the ground, it has a kinetic energy value of 240 J. How much work is done by friction? Name: _____________________________________ Date: ________ Per: ___ Rohrbach Unit 6: Circular Motion and Gravitation – Chapter 10, 13, 14 in book Equations: 𝑣𝑇 = 2𝜋𝑟 𝑡 𝐹𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣 = 𝑣𝑇 = 𝑟𝜔 𝐺 𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑟2 Important Concepts Rotational vs. tangential velocity Universal Gravitation Kepler’s Laws 𝜔= #𝑟𝑜𝑡 𝑡 × 2𝜋 𝐹𝑐 = 𝑚 𝑣𝑇2 𝑟 𝐺 = 6.67 × 10−11 Nm2/kg2 Centripetal force Orbital Motion Concept Questions: 18. In which direction does the centripetal force always act? 19. Explain what two factors combine to make objects move in a circle? 20. When you are driving, and you turn your car to the right, explain why your body leans to the left. 21. Samuel and Hannah are both riding a carrousel. Hannah is on a unicorn, which is 5 m from the center of rotation, and Samuel is on a lion, which is 7 m from the center. a. Which child, if either of them, will have the greater rotational velocity? Explain. b. Which child, if either of them, will have the greater tangential velocity? Explain. 22. Explain the difference between tangential and rotational velocity. 23. Does the gravitational force act between all objects? If so, why do we not notice it between light objects? 24. Why do astronauts appear weightless in space? 25. List and explain each of Kepler’s three laws. 26. What is the difference between G and g? Problems 27. An astronaut (m = 60 kg) in a large centrifuge has a radius of 6 m and a tangential velocity of 196 m/s. What is the centripetal force acting on her? 28. What is the gravitational force acting between a spatula (ms = 0.3 kg) and a wrench (mw = 2.4 kg) that are separated by a distance of 0.35 m? Name: _____________________________________ Date: ________ Per: ___ Rohrbach Unit 7: Simple Harmonic Motion & Waves – Chapter 25 in book Equations: #𝑐𝑦𝑐 𝑡 𝑚 2𝜋√ 𝑘 𝑓= 𝑇𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑 = 2𝜋√ 𝑙 𝑔 𝑇𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑇= #𝑐𝑦𝑐 𝑡 𝐹𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 = −𝑘𝑑 𝐹𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑣 = 𝑚𝑔 𝑣 = 𝑓𝜆 Important Concepts: Period (p. 491) Parts of a wave (p. 492) Wave speed (p. 495) interference (p. 498 - 499) Simple harmonic motion (p. 491) Wave motion (p. 493 - 494) Types of waves (p. 497, 500) Concept Questions: 29. Explain equilibrium and restoring force. 30. Explain what happens to the velocity of a pendulum as it moves towards and away from equilibrium. 31. What two things do you need to have in order to have simple harmonic motion? 32. Determine whether or not the scenarios are examples of SHM, and tell why or why not (make sure you know what simple harmonic motion is). a. A Ferris wheel at the fair b. The bob of a grandfather clock 33. If you increased the mass of a pendulum, what would happen to its period? Explain your answer (you should also be about to do this with amplitude, length, and acceleration of gravity). 34. If you increased the mass of a spring, what would happen to its period? Explain your answer (you should also be able to do this with amplitude, spring constant, and acceleration of gravity). 35. Explain why an oscillator keeps moving when it gets to equilibrium, even though the net force there is always zero? 36. What is the difference between frequency and period? 37. Describe both longitudinal and transverse waves, and give an example of each. 38. Draw and label the following parts of a wave: wavelength, amplitude, equilibrium, crest, and trough. 39. Describe constrictive and destructive interference. 40. What is the difference between period and wavelength? 41. What do waves do? 42. Draw two different waves; one with a large frequency, and one with a small frequency. 43. Draw two different waves; one with a large amplitude and one with a small amplitude. Problems: 44. The spring in a grocery produce scale is stretched 0.03 meters when 2 kg of oranges are placed in the basket. a. Find the spring constant for the scale. b. What is the period the scale would have if it were allowed to oscillate? 45. A pendulum makes 9 oscillations in 15s. Find the period and frequency of the pendulum. 46. The pendulum on a grandfather clock swings back and forth 30 times in one minute. What is the length of this pendulum? Name: _____________________________________ Date: ________ Per: ___ Rohrbach Unit 8: Sound & Light - Chapter 26 in book (sound); Chapters 27, 28, 39, 30, 31, 38 in book (light) Equations: 𝑣 = 𝑓𝜆 𝑣±𝑣 𝑓 = 𝑓𝑠 ( 𝑣 ∓ 𝑣𝑜 ) 𝑠 Speeds of sound: air = 343 m/s water = 1530 m/s Speed of light: c = 3.00 x 108 m/s Important Concepts: How sound travels (p. 514 – 518) Resonance (p. 521 – 522) Electromagnetic waves (p. 536) Refraction (p. 584) iron = 5100 m/s Sound properties (p. 519 – 520) the Doppler effect (p. 501 - 503) Reflection (p. 579 – 583) Concept Questions: 47. Why does sound not travel in space? 48. A fire truck is driving towards an intersection when it turns on its siren. If you are standing still at the intersection, describe what you would observe about the frequency of the siren as it drove towards and away from you. 49. Explain what parts of a wave affect loudness and pitch. 50. Which has a longer wavelength, a 1000 Hz sound or a 3000 Hz sound? Explain. 51. Explain the law of reflection 52. Explain why a red shirt appears red. 53. Explain refraction and give an example. 54. A piece of wood reflects light in the same way as a mirror (they both obey the law of reflection), so why can you not see your reflection in the wood? 55. Why does light travel through space, even though sound cannot? 56. Explain what I mean by, “a person is blind to most light.” Problems: 57. You are driving North at 17 m/s when you see a police car in your rearview mirror that is also driving north, but at 32 m/s. If you hear a frequency of 10,000 Hz, what frequency is actually produced by the cruiser? 58. What is the frequency of yellow light (λ = 5.91 x 10-7 m)? Name: _____________________________________ Date: ________ Per: ___ Rohrbach Unit 9: Electricity – Chapters 32, 33, 34, 35 in book Equations: Electric Forces: Circuits: 𝑉 = 𝐼𝑅 𝐹𝑒 = 𝑘 𝑘 𝑞1 𝑞2 𝑑2 𝑘 = 8.998 𝑥 109 Nm2/C2 Series: 𝑅𝑒𝑞 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 + ⋯ Important Concepts: Electric force (p.645, 648 – 650) conductors (p.651) electric field (p. 665 - 669) electric potential/voltage (p. 670 – 671) Ohm’s law (p. 685 - 688) Circuits (703 – 708) Parallel: 1 𝑅𝑒𝑞 1 1 =𝑅 +𝑅 +⋯ 1 2 charge (p. 646 – 647) charging objects (p. 652 – 654) electrical potential energy (p. 669 – 670) current (p. 681 - 682) resistance (p. 684) Concept Questions: 59. What are the two types of charges? 60. Like charges _____________, but opposite charges ______________. 61. What is the difference between a conductor and an insulator? 62. Two circuits are set up, one in series and one in parallel. What will happen if one resistor is removed from each circuit (explain the effect on each circuit)? 63. What is an electric force? 64. What is voltage? 65. What is grounding? 66. Explain the difference between a series and parallel circuit (come up with at least two differences)? 67. Why did the Van DeGraff generator make people’s hair stand on end? Problems: 68. Calculate the electric force between two charges (q1 = 3.4 x 10-6 C and q2 = -1.7 x 10-6 C) that are separated by 0.003 m. 69. Four resistors, with values of 10 Ω, 1.79 Ω, 47 Ω, and 29 Ω are connected in series. If the circuit is then connected to a 5 V source, what is the current through the circuit? 70. Four resistors, with values of 10 Ω, 1.79 Ω, 47 Ω, and 29 Ω are connected in parallel. If the circuit is then connected to a 5 V source, what is the overall current through the circuit?