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Force & Motion Review Notes Sir Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most influential scientists of all time. He is most famous for his discovery of gravity. He also had scientific discoveries involving light & color, and developed the Laws of _________. Newton’s First Law Rest Inertia An object at rest, ___________ at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Example: The snowman doesn’t move unless it is pushed or pulled. Motion Newton’s Second Law An object in motion, ____________ in motion, traveling in a straight line and at a constant speed, unless acted on by an unbalanced force. Example: A sled on the ice will keep moving until it is stopped by another force (like friction or another object in its path). Force = mass x acceleration Force It takes more force to move something heavier vs lighter. Example: 2 people needed to move a piano, only 1 for a book. It takes more force to make something move faster. Example: Hitting a baseball harder makes it go faster/farther. Mass If the force is the same, the lighter the mass the more acceleration it will have. Examples: The washer lab It takes more force to move something with more mass. Examples: It is more difficult to pull 2 kids in a sled than 1. Acceleration The acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the Force acting on it. Acceleration = force ÷ mass Newton’s Third Law Action - Reaction For every action there is an ____________ and ____________ reaction. The force is equal but the movement is opposite in direction. Example: The rocket moves upward as the hot gasses move down. Measuring Motion Speed Speed is distance divided by time. S=d/t S= 145 m 3 min S=90 m/min. Velocity Velocity is speed (Distance ÷ Time) and also the ____________. V=d/t + direction Example: The boat’s velocity is 35 miles per hour, south. Acceleration Acceleration is the ________ of change in velocity over time. There are 3 ways to accelerate an object: 1._______________________________________ 2. ______________________________________ which is also called negative acceleration or ___________________. 3. Changing ____________________. A = Final velocity – starting velocity Change in Time Displacement Displacement is the measurement of the ___________ and ___________ an object has moved from a particular place called a ____________point. start 25 meters east end 10 meters west 15 meters east is the object’s displacement