Health Science 20 Workbook

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Health Science 20
Topics of Study are Human Body and Pathology, Nutrition , Health Care Philosophies and Ethics,
Diagnostics and Treatment, and Health Care Professions
There is access to a free online CK-12Biology text here:
http://www.ck12.org/book/Biology/
In Health Science 20 we will use Chapter 2.2 , 3.2, 8.2, and Chapters 21-25(Human Systems and diseases
only) and of course you can use the Glossary ch.26(optional ch 8.3,)
Also other required readings are at
http://www.ck12.org/life-science/
under the titles
Cancer, Diabetes, Preventing Infectious Diseases, Preventing Noninfectious
Diseases, Harmful Bacteria, and Viruses,
There are other online resources available at
blog.scs.sk.ca/mumford
Evaluation will be calculated using your quiz, test, lab and assignment results in the following curricular
outcomes:
-Analyze the anatomy and physiology of a healthy human.
-Investigate various pathologies and ailments and their effects on cells, tissues, organs, and
systems of a healthy human
-Assess the importance of micro and macromolecules in maintaining a healthy human.
-Analyze dietary choices based on personal and cultural beliefs and scientific understanding of
nutrition.
-Evaluate the tools and procedures used to diagnose and monitor medical conditions
-Recognize the importance of interpreting diagnostic findings to support treatment options.
-Analyze and explore health-science related career paths in Saskatchewan, Canada and the
world.
-Create and carry out a plan to explore one or more topics of personal interest relevant to
Health Science 20 in depth.
-Analyze how Western, Indigenous, traditional, complementary and alternative approaches to
health care contribute to a holistic perspective
-Examine how personal and societal beliefs impact ethical decisions regarding health care.
READ THESE
CHAPTERS IN THE CK-12 ONLINE TEXT (to tell students to read for homework)!!!
http://www.ck12.org/book/Biology/
21.1. Organization of the Human Body
3.2. Cell Structures
21.2. The Skeletal System
21.3. The Muscular System
21.4. The Integumentary System
22.1. The Nervous System
22.2. The Endocrine System
23.1. The Circulatory System
23.2. The Respiratory System
23.3. The Digestive System
2.1. Matter and Organic Compounds
2.2. Biochemical Reactions
23.4. The Excretory System
24.1. Nonspecific Defenses
24.2. The Immune Response
24.3. Immune System Diseases
24.4. Environmental Problems and Human Health
25.1. Male Reproductive System
25.2. Female Reproductive System
25.3. From Fertilization to Old Age
25.4. Sexually Transmitted Infections
http://www.ck12.org/life-science/
Cancer, Diabetes, Preventing Infectious Diseases, Preventing
Noninfectious Diseases, Harmful Bacteria, and Viruses,
Prefix or
suffix
a-, anababdomin(o)-ac, -acal
acanth(o)acous(io)acr(o)-acusis
-ad
adaden(o)-,
aden(i)adip(o)adren(o)-aemia (BrE)
aer(o)aesthesio(BrE)
-al
albalge(si)-algia, alg(i)o-
Meaning
Origin language and etymology
Ancient Greek ἀ-/ἀν- (a-/an-),
not, without
from; away from
Latin
Latin abdōmen, abdomen, fat
Of or relating to the abdomen
around the belly
pertaining to
Greek -ακός (-akos)
Ancient Greek ἄκανθα (akantha),
thorn or spine
thorn
Greek ἀκουστικός (acoustikos),
Of or relating to hearing
of or for hearing
Greek ἄκρον (akron), highest or
extremity, topmost
farthest point
Greek ἀκουστικός (acoustikos),
hearing
of or for hearing
toward, in the direction of
at, increase, on, toward
Latin
Ancient Greek ἀδήν, ἀδέν- (adēn,
Of or relating to a gland
aden-), an acorn; a gland
Of or relating to fat or fatty
Latin (adeps, adip-), fat
tissue
Of or relating to adrenal
Latin
glands
blood condition
Greek ἀναιμία, without blood
air, gas
Greek ἀήρ, ἀέρος
not, without
Example(s)
Analgesic, apathy
Abduction
Abdomen
cardiac, hydrophobiac
acanthion, acanthocyte,
acanthoma, acanthulus
acoumeter, acoustician
Acrocrany, acromegaly,
acroosteolysis, acroposthia
paracusis
dorsad
Adduction
Adenocarcinoma, adenology,
adenotome, adenotyphus
Adipocyte
adrenal artery
Anaemia
Aerosinusitis
sensation
Greek αἴσθησις
Anesthesia
pertaining to
Denoting a white or pale color
pain
pain
Denoting something as
different, or as an addition
Denoting something as
positioned on both sides;
describing both of two
Pertaining to the membranous
fetal sac (amnion)
Latin -alis
Latin albus, white
Greek ἄλγος
Greek
Ancient Greek ἄλλος (allos),
another, other
abdominal, femoral
Albino
Analgesic
Myalgia
amph(i)-,
ananaanandr(o)angi(o)-
all(o)ambiamni-
anisoankyl(o)-,
ancyl(o)ante-
Alloantigen, allopathy
Latin (ambi-, ambo), both, on
both sides
Ambidextrous
Greek ἄμνιον
Amniocentesis
on both sides
Greek ἀμφί (amphi)
not, without
back, again, up
anus
pertaining to a man
blood vessel
Describing something as
unequal
Denoting something as
crooked or bent
Describing something as
Amphicrania, amphismela,
amphomycin
Analgesia
Anaplasia
anal
Android, andrology
Angiogram
Greek
Greek
Latin
Greek ἀνήρ, ἀνδρGreek ἀγγεῖον
Ancient Greek ἄνῑσος (anīsos),
Anisocytosis, anisotropic
unequal
Ancient Greek ἀγκύλος (ankýlos),
Ankylosis
crooked, curved
Latin (āntē), before, in front of
antepartum
antiapoarcharsen(o)arteri(o)-
positioned in front of another
thing
Describing something as
'against' or 'opposed to'
another
away, separated from, derived
from
first, primitive
Of or pertaining to a male;
masculine
Of or pertaining to an artery
Ancient Greek αντι (anti), against Antibody, antipsychotic
Ancient Greek ἀπό
Apoptosis
Ancient Greek
archinephron
Greek (arsein)
arsenoblast
Ancient Greek ἀρτηρία (artēría),
a wind-pipe, artery (used
distinctly versus a vein)
Ancient Greek αρθρος (arthros),
a joint, limb
Latin articulum
Latin -arius
Greek διάστασις, division
Greek, ἀσθένεια
Arteriole, artery
-ation
atri(o)aur(i)aut(o)-
Of or pertaining to the joints,
limbs
joint
pertaining to
enzyme
weakness
imperfect or incomplete
development
fatty deposit, soft gruel-like
deposit
process
an atrium (esp. heart atrium)
Of or pertaining to the ear
self
aux(o)-
increase; growth
axill-
Of or pertaining to the armpit
Latin (axilla), armpit
(uncommon as a prefix)
Axilla
azo(to)-
nitrogenous compound
azothermia : raised temperature
due to nitrogenous substances in
blood
arthr(o)articul(o)-ary
-ase
-asthenia
atel(o)ather(o)-
Arthritis
Articulation
biliary tract
Lactase
Myasthenia gravis
atelocardia
Atherosclerosis
Latin
Latin
Latin (auris), the ear
Greek αὐτο-
medication
atrioventricular
Aural
Autoimmune
Auxocardia : enlargement of the
heart, Auxology
B[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Of the glans penis or glans
balanoclitoridis
twice, double
bilife
biogerm or bud
blast(o)blephar(o)- Of or pertaining to the eyelid
brachi(o)brachybradybronch(i)bucc(o)burs(o)-
Of or relating to the arm
Origin language and etymology
Example(s)
Greek βάλανος - balanos, acorn, glans
Balanitis
Latin
Ancient Greek βίος
Greek βλαστός
Ancient Greek βλέφαρον (blépharon), eyelid
Latin (brachium), from Ancient Greek
βραχίων (brachiōn), arm
Ancient Greek βραχύς (brachys), short, little,
shallow
Ancient Greek βραδύς (bradys), slow
Binary
Biology
Blastomere
Blepharoplast
Brachium of inferior
colliculus
Indicating 'short' or less
commonly 'little'
'slow'
of or relating to the bronchus
Of or pertaining to the cheek Latin (bucca), cheek
bursa (fluid sac between the
Latin
bones)
brachycephalic
Bradycardia
Bronchiolitis obliterans
Buccolabial
Bursitis
C[edit]
Prefix or
suffix
capillcapitcarcin(o)cardi(o)carp(o)-
Meaning
Of or pertaining to hair
Pertaining to the head (as a
whole)
cancer
Of or pertaining to the heart
Of or pertaining to the wrist
Origin language and etymology
Example(s)
Latin (capillus), hair
Capillus
Latin (caput, capit-), the head
Capitation
Greek καρκίνος (karkinos), crab
Ancient Greek καρδία (kardía), heart
Latin (carpus) < Ancient Greek καρπός
Carcinoma
Cardiology
Carpopedal
cata-cele
-centesis
cephal(o)cerat(o)cerebell(o)cerebr(o)cervicchem(o)chir(o)-,
cheir(o)-
down, under
pouching, hernia
surgical puncture for
aspiration
Of or pertaining to the head
(as a whole)
Of or pertaining to the cornu;
a horn
Of or pertaining to the
cerebellum
Of or pertaining to the brain
Of or pertaining to the neck,
the cervix
chemistry, drug
Of or pertaining to the hand
chlor(o)-
Denoting a green color
chol(e)-
Of or pertaining to bile
cholecyst(o)-
Of or pertaining to the
gallbladder
chondr(i)ochrom(ato)-cidal, -cide
cilicircumcisclast
cocol-, colo-,
colono-
cartilage, gristle, granule,
granular
color
killing, destroying
Of or pertaining to the cilia,
the eyelashes; eyelids
Denoting something as
'around' another
on this side
break
with, together, in association
colon
(karpós), wrist; NOTE: This root should
not be confused with the mirror root
carp(o)- meaning fruit.
Greek κατά (kata)
Ancient Greek κήλη (kēlē)
Cataract
Hydrocele, Varicocele
Ancient Greek κέντησις (kentēsis)
Amniocentesis
Ancient Greek κεφαλή (képhalē), the head Cephalalgy
Ancient Greek κέρας, κερατ- (kéras, keratCeratoid
), a horn
Latin (cerebellum), little brain
Cerebellum
Latin (cerebrum), brain
Cerebrology
Latin (cervix, cervīc-), neck, cervix
Cervicodorsal
Greek χημεία
Chemotherapy
Ancient Greek χείρ, χειρο- (cheir, cheiro-),
Chiropractor
hand
Ancient Greek χλωρός (chloros), green,
Chlorophyll
yellow-green
Cholaemia (UK)/
Ancient Greek χολή (cholē), bile
Cholemia (US),
Cholecystitis
Ancient Greek χοληκύστις (cholēkýstis),
gallbladder < χολή (cholē), bile, gall +
Cholecystectomy
κύστις (kýstis), bladder
Ancient Greek χονδρός (chondros)
Chondrocalcinosis
Ancient Greek χρῶμα
Latin
Hemochromatosis
bacteriocidal
< Latin (cilium), eyelash; eyelid
Ciliary
Latin (circum), around
Circumcision
Latin (cis)
Greek κλαστός
Latin
osteoclast
coenzymes
Colonoscopy
Ancient Greek κόλπος (kólpos), bosom,
Colposcopy
womb; hollow, depth
with, together
Latin
comagainst
Latin
Contraindicate
contra
with, together
Latin
corAncient Greek κόρη (kórē), girl, doll; pupil
cor-, core-,
Of or pertaining to eye's pupil
Corectomy
of the eye
coroOf or pertaining to the heart
Latin (cor, cordi-), heart
Commotio cordis
cordi[Uncommon as a prefix]
Applied to processes and
parts of the body describing
Latin (cornū), horn
Greater cornu
cornuthem likened or similar to
horns
crown
Latin corōna (“garland, crown”)
coronary
coron(o)Of or pertaining to the ribs
Latin (costa), rib
Costochondral
cost(o)Of or relating to the hip,
Latin (coxa), hip
Coxopodite
coxhaunch, or hip-joint
Latin (cranium) < Ancient Greek κρᾱνίον
Belonging or relating to the
(krānion), the cranium, skull, bones
Craniology
crani(o)cranium
enclosing the brain
εκκρίνει ecrine
Endocrine
-crine, crin(o) to secrete
cold
Greek κρύος
Cryoablation
cry(o)skin
Latin cutis
Subcutaneous
cutaneAncient Greek κύανος, κυάνεος (kýanos,
Denotes a blue color
Cyanopsia
cyan(o)kyáneos), blue
colp(o)-
Of or pertaining to the vagina
cyclcyph(o)cyst(o)-,
cyst(i)cyt(o)-cyte
circle, cycle
Denotes something as bent
(uncommon as a prefix)
Of or pertaining to the urinary
bladder
cell
cell
Greek κύκλος (kuklos)
Ancient Greek κυφός (kȳphós), bent,
hunchback
Cyphosis
Ancient Greek κύστις (kýstis); bladder, cyst Cystotomy
Greek κύτος
Greek
Cytokine
Leukocyte
D[edit]
difdigit-
Origin language and
etymology
tear
Greek δάκρυ
Ancient Greek δάκτυλος
Of or pertaining to a finger, toe
(dáktylos), finger, toe
away from, cessation
Latin deOf or pertaining to teeth
Latin (dens, dentis), tooth
Ancient Greek δέρμα,
Of or pertaining to the skin
δέρματ- (dérma, démat-),
skin, human skin
binding
Greek δέσις (desis)
right, on the right side
Latin dexter
two
Greek διapart, separation
Latin
Ancient Greek διά (diá),
through, during, across
through, during, across
apart, separation
Latin
Of or pertaining to the finger [rare as a root] Latin (digitus), finger, toe
-dipsia
suffix meaning "(condition of) thirst"'
Greek dipsa
disdors(o)-,
dors(i)dromo-
separation, taking apart
Latin dis-
different
Digit
polydipsia,
hydroadipsia,
oligodipsia
Dissection
Of or pertaining to the back
Latin (dorsum), back
dorsal, Dorsocephalad
running, conduction, course
duodenum, twelve: upper part of the small
intestine (twelve inches long on average),
connects to the stomach
Greek dromos
Dromotropic
Latin duodeni
Duodenal atresia
dynam(o)-
force, energy, power
Greek δύναμις (dunamis)
-dynia
dys-
pain
bad, difficult, defective, abnormal
Greek δυσ-
Hand strength
dynamometer
Vulvodynia
Dysphagia, dysphasia
Prefix/suffix
dacryo-dactyl(o)dedentdermat(o)-,
derm(o)-desis
dextr(o)dididia-
duodeno-
Meaning
Example(s)
Dacryocystitis
dactylology,
polydactyly
dehydrate
Dentist
Dermatology
arthrodesis
Dextrocardia
Diplopia
dialysis
E[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Origin language and etymology
-eal
pertaining to
Latin
ecect(o)-ectasia, ectasis
out, away
outer, outside
Greek ἐκ- (ek-)
Greek ἐκτός
expansion, dilation
Ancient Greek ἔκτασις
Denotes a surgical operation
or removal of a body part.
Resection, excision
vomiting condition
blood condition (AmE)
Of or pertaining to the brain.
Also see Cerebro.
Denotes something as 'inside'
or 'within'
Ancient Greek ἐκτομή (ectomē),
excision
-ectomy
-emesis
-emia
encephal(o)endoeosin(o)-
Red
Greek ἕμεσις
Greek ἀν-αιμία, without blood
Ancient Greek ἐγκέφαλος
(enképhalos), the brain
Ancient Greek ἐνδο- (endo-), inside,
internal
Eosin comes from Eos, the Greek
word for 'dawn' and the name of the
Greek goddess of the dawn.
Example(s)
adenohypophyseal, corneal,
esophagus, perineal
Ectopia, ectopic pregnancy
Ectoblast, ectoderm
Bronchiectasis,
telangiectasia
Mastectomy
Hematemesis
Anemia
Encephalogram
Endocrinology, endospore
Eosinophil granulocyte
Ancient Greek ἔντερον (énteron),
intestine
Ancient Greek ἐπι- (epi-), before,
on, upon
upon, on, outside, outside of
Of or pertaining to the pubic Ancient Greek ἐπίσιον- (epísion), the
region, the loins
pubic area, loins; vulva
Denotes a red color
Ancient Greek ἐρυθρός (erythros), red
Of or pertaining to the
intestine
enter(o)epiepisi(o)erythr(o)-esophageal, esophagoesthesioeuexexoextra-
Gastroenterology
Epicardium, epidermis,
epidural, episclera, epistaxis
Episiotomy
Erythrocyte
gullet (AmE)
Greek οἰσοφάγος (oisophágos)
Esophagus
sensation (AmE)
true, good, well, new
out of, away from
Denotes something as
'outside' another
outside
Greek αἴσθησις (aisthēsis)
Greek
Latin
Ancient Greek ἐξω- (exo-), outside of,
external
Latin
Esthesia
Eukaryote
Excision, exophthalmos
Exoskeleton
Extradural hematoma
F[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Origin language and etymology Example(s)
Latin (faciēs), the face,
Facioplegic
countenance
Fibroblast
faci(o)-
Of or pertaining to the face
fibr(o)
filli-form, iform
forefossa
front-
fiber
fine, hair like
Used to form adjectives indicating 'having the form
Latin (forma), form, shape
of'
before or ahead
A hollow or depressed area; trench or channel
Latin (fossa), ditch, pit
Of or pertaining to the forehead
Latin (frōns, front-), the forehead
Cuneiform
foreword
fossa ovalis
Frontonasal
G[edit]
Prefix/suffix
galact(o)gastr(o)-
-gen
-genic
genu-geusia
gingivglauc(o)gloss(o)-, glott(o)glucoglyc(o)gnath(o)-gnosis
gon(o)-gram, -gramme
-graph
-graphy
Origin language and
etymology
milk
Greek γάλα, γαλακτAncient Greek γαστήρ
Of or pertaining to the
(gastēr), γαστρ-, stomach,
stomach
belly
(1) Denotes the sense 'born in, Ancient Greek -γενής (from' (2) Denotes the sense 'of genēs), from γεν-νάειν (gena certain kind'
náein), to be born
Formative, pertaining to
Greek
producing
Of or pertaining to the knee
Latin (genū), knee
Meaning
Example(s)
Galactorrhea
Gastric bypass
(1) Endogen; (2) Heterogenous
Cardiogenic shock
Genu valgum
Ageusia, dysgeusia,
Taste
Ancient Greek γεῦσις (geusis) hypergeusia, hypogeusia,
parageusia
Of or pertaining to the gums Latin gingīva, gum
Gingivitis
Denoting a grey or bluish-grey Ancient Greek γλαυκός
Glaucoma
colour
(glaukos), grey, bluish-grey
Ancient Greek γλῶσσα,
Of or pertaining to the tongue γλῶττα (glōssa, glōtta),
Glossology
tongue
sweet
Greek γλυκός, sweet
Glucocorticoid
sugar
Ancient Greek
Glycolysis
Ancient Greek γνάθος
Of or pertaining to the jaw
Gnathodynamometer
(gnáthos), jaw
knowledge
Greek
diagnosis, prognosis
seed, semen; also,
Ancient Greek γόνος
Gonorrhea
reproductive
record or picture
Greek γράμμα (gramma)
Angiogram
Ancient Greek -γραφία (instrument used to record data
graphía), written, drawn,
Electrocardiograph
or picture
graphic interpretation
process of recording
Ancient Greek
Angiography
gyno-, gynaeco(BrE), gyneco(AmE)
Greek γυνή, γυναικ-
woman
Gynecomastia
H[edit]
Prefix/suffix
halluc-
Meaning
to wander in mind
hemat-, haemato(haem-, hem-)
Of or pertaining to blood
hema or hemo-
blood (AmE)
hemangi or
hemangio-
blood vessels
hemi-
one-half
hepat- (hepatic-)
heter(o)hidr(o)hist(o)-, histiohome(o)hom(o)humer(o)hydr(o)hyperhyp(o)hyster(o)-
Origin language and etymology
Example(s)
Classical Latin to wander in mind Hallucinosis
Latin (hæma) < Ancient Greek
Hematology, older form
αἵμα, αἱματ- (haima, haimat-),
Haematology
blood
Hematological
Greek
malignancy
Hemangioma
Ancient Greek ἡμι- (hēmi-),
"half"
Ancient Greek ἥπαρ, ἡπατοOf or pertaining to the liver
(hēpar, hēpato-), the liver
Denotes something as 'the other' Ancient Greek ἕτερος (héteros),
(of two), as an addition, or
the other (of two), another;
different
different
sweat
Greek ἱδρωτtissue
Greek ἱστός
similar
Ancient Greek ὅμοιος (homoios)
Denotes something as 'the same' Ancient Greek ὁμο- (homo-), the
as another or common
same, common
Of or pertaining to the shoulder Incorrect Etymology < Latin
(or [rarely] the upper arm)
(umerus), shoulder
water
Greek ὕδωρ
Denotes something as 'extreme' Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hyper), over,
or 'beyond normal'
above; beyond, to the extreme
Denotes something as 'below
Ancient Greek ὑπ(ο)- (hypo-),
normal'
below, under
Of or pertaining to the womb, the Ancient Greek ὑστέρα (hystéra),
uterus
womb
Cerebral hemisphere
Hepatology
Heterogeneous
Hyperhidrosis
Histology
Homeopathy
Homosexuality
Humerus
Hydrophobe
Hypertension
Hypovolemia,
Hysterectomy, Hysteria
I[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Origin language and
etymology
Greek -ίασις
Example(s)
-ic
-icle
-ics
condition
Of or pertaining to medicine, or a physician
[uncommon as a prefix; common as as suffix, see iatry]
Denotes a field in medicine of a certain body
component
pertaining to
small
organized knowledge, treatment
idio-
self, one's own
ileo-
ileum
Ancient Greek ἰᾱτρός
(iātrós), healer, physician
Greek -ικός (-ikos)
Latin
Latin -ica < Greek < -ικά
Greek ἴδιος, idios, "one's
own"
Greek ἰλεός
infra-
below
Latin
inter-
between, among
Latin
intra-
within
Latin
ipsi-
same
Latin
irid(o)isch-
iris
restriction
ischio-
Of or pertaining to the ischium, the hip-joint
-ism
condition, disease
Greek ἴρις
Greek ἴσχω
Ancient Greek ἰσχιόν
Ischioanal fossa
(ischión), hip-joint, ischium
Dwarfism
-i-asis
iatr(o)-iatry
Ancient Greek ἰᾱτρός
(iātrós), healer, physician
Mydriasis
Iatrochemistry
Podiatry,
Psychiatry
Hepatic artery
Ovarian follicle
Obstetrics
Idiopathic
Ileocecal valve
Infrahyoid
muscles
Interarticular
ligament
intramural
Ipsilateral
hemiparesis
Iridectomy
Ischemia
-ismus
spasm, contraction
iso-
Denoting something as being 'equal'
-ist
-ite
-itis
-ium
one who specializes in
the nature of, resembling
inflammation
structure, tissue
Greek -ισμός
Ancient Greek ἴσος (ísos),
equal
Greek -ιστής (-istes)
Greek -ίτης
Hemiballismus
Isotonic
Pathologist
Hermaphrodite
Tonsillitis
pericardium
J[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Near
to,
alongside
or next to
Juxta (iuxta)
Origin language and etymology
Latin
Example(s)
Juxtaglomerular apparatus
K[edit]
Prefix/suffix
kalkaryokerat(o)kin(e)-, kin(o), kinesi(o)koil(o)kyph(o)-
Meaning
potassium
nucleus
cornea (eye or skin)
movement
hollow
humped
Origin language and etymology
Greek κάρυον, "nut"
Greek
Greek κινέω
Greek κοῖλος (koilos)
Greek κυφός
Example(s)
Hyperkalemia
Eukaryote
Keratoscope
Kinesthesia
Koilocyte
Kyphoscoliosis
L[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Of or pertaining to the lip
labi(o)tear
lacrim(o)lact(i)-, lact(o) milk
Example(s)
Labiodental
Lacrimal canaliculi
Lactation
lapar(o)-
Laparotomy
laryng(o)-
Origin language and etymology
Latin (labium), lip
Latin
Latin
Ancient Greek λαπάρᾱ (lapárā),
Of or pertaining to the abdomen-wall, flank
flank
Of or pertaining to the larynx, the lower
Ancient Greek λάρυγξ, λαρυγγthroat cavity where the voice box is
(lárynx, laryng-), throat, gullet
latero-
lateral
Latin
lei(o)-
smooth
Greek λεῖος
-lepsis, -lepsy
attack, seizure
Greek λῆψις
lept(o)leuc(o)-,
leuk(o)lingu(a)-,
lingu(o)lip(o)lith(o)log(o)-
light, slender
Greek λεπτός (leptos)
Ancient Greek λευκός (leukos),
white, bright
-logist
-logy
lymph(o)lys(o)-, -lytic
-lysis
Denoting a white color
Larynx
Lateral pectoral
nerve
Leiomyoma
Epilepsy,
narcolepsy
Leptomeningeal
Leukocyte
Of or pertaining to the tongue
Latin (lingua), tongue
Linguistics
fat
stone, calculus
speech
Denotes someone who studies a certain
field: _____-logy; a specialist; one who
treats
Denotes the academic study or practice of a
certain field; The study of
lymph
dissolution
Destruction, separation
Greek λίπος (lipos)
Greek λίθος (lithos)
Greek λόγος (logos)
Liposuction
Lithotripsy
Ancient Greek λογιστής
(logistēs), studier, practitioner
Oncologist,
pathologist
Ancient Greek λόγoς (logos)
study
Greek λέμφος, λύμφη
Greek
Greek λύσις
hematology,
urology
Lymphedema
Lysosome
Paralysis
M[edit]
Prefix/suffix
macr(o)-malacia
mamm(o)mammill(o)-
Meaning
large, long
softening
Of or pertaining to the breast
Of or pertaining to the nipple
Origin language and etymology
Greek μακρός
Greek μαλακία
Latin (mamma), breast; udder
Latin mammilla, nipple
Example(s)
Macrophage
Osteomalacia
Mammogram
mammillaplasty,
manu-
Of or pertaining to the hand
mast(o)-
Of or pertaining to the breast
Latin (manus), hand
Ancient Greek μαστός (mastós),
breast, women's breast; man's
pectoral muscle
meg(a)-, megal(o)enlargement, million
, -megaly
black color
melos
mening(o)mero-
extremity
membrane
part
mes(o)-
middle
meta-
milli-
after, behind
instrument used to measure or
count
process of measuring
Pertaining to conditions or
instruments of the uterus
denoting something as small, or
relating to smallness, millionth
thousandth
mon(o)-
single
morph(o)muscul(o)-
form, shape
muscle
-metry
metr(o)micro-
myc(o)myel(o)myl(o)myrimyring(o)myx(o)-
Splenomegaly,
megameter
Ancient Greek μέλας, μελανο(melas, melano-), black; dark
Ancient Greek μέλος
Greek μῆνιγξ, μηνιγγGreek μέρος (meros), part
Ancient Greek μέσος (mesos),
"middle"
Greek μετά
Melanin
erythromelalgia
Meningitis
merocrine, meroblastic
Mesoderm
Metacarpus
Greek μέτρον
Sphygmomanometer
Greek -μετρία
Ancient Greek μήτρᾱ (mētrā), womb,
uterus
Ancient Greek μικρός (mikros),
small
Latin mille, thousand
Optometry
Greek μονός (monos)
Greek μορφή (morphē)
Latin
Ancient Greek μῦς, μυ- (mys, my-),
Of or relating to muscle
muscle; mouse; mussel
fungus
Greek μύκης, μυκητOf or relating to bone marrow or Ancient Greek μυελόν (myelon),
spinal cord
marrow; bone-marrow
Of or relating to molar teeth or
Greek (myle)
lower jaw
Ancient Greek μύριοι (mýrioi),
ten thousand
myriad
eardrum
Latin myringa
mucus
Greek μύξα
my(o)-
Mastectomy
Greek μέγας
melan(o)-
-meter
mammillitis
Manufacture
Metrorrhagia
Microscope
milliliter
Infectious
mononucleosis
Morphology
Musculoskeletal system
Myoblast
Onychomycosis
Myeloblast
Mylohyoid nerve
myriad
Myringotomy
Myxoma
N[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
numb, sleep
narc(o)Of or pertaining to the nose
nas(o)necr(o)-
death
neo-
new
nephr(o)-
Of or pertaining to the kidney
nervneur(i)-,
neur(o)normo-
Of or pertaining to nerves and the
nervous system [Uncommon as a root:
neuro- mostly always used]
Of or pertaining to nerves and the
nervous system
normal
Origin language and etymology
Example(s)
Greek νάρκη
narcolepsy
Latin (nāsum), nose
nasal
Necrosis, necrotizing
Greek νεκρός
fasciitis
Greek νέος
Neoplasm
Ancient Greek νεφρός (nephrós),
Nephrology
kidney
Latin (nervus), tendon; nerve;
Nerve, nervous
Cognate with the Greek νευρον
system
(neuron) (see below)
Ancient Greek νεῦρον (neuron),
Neurofibromatosis
tendon, sinew; nerve
Latin
Normocapnia
O[edit]
Prefix/suffix
ocul(o)-
Meaning
Of or pertaining to the
eye
odont(o)-
Of or pertaining to teeth
odyn(o)-
pain
Origin language and etymology
Latin (oculus), the eye
Ancient Greek ὀδούς, ὀδοντ- (odoús,
odont-), tooth
Greek ὀδύνη
Example(s)
Oculist
orthodontist
stomatodynia
-oesophageal,
gullet
oesophago- (BrE)
resemblance to
-oid
small or little
ole
Denoting something as
'having little, having
olig(o)few'
Of or pertaining to the
om(o)shoulder
-oma (singular), tumor, mass, collection
omata (plural)
Of or pertaining to the
omphal(o)navel, the umbilicus
tumor, bulk, volume
oncoOf or pertaining to the
onych(o)nail (of a finger or toe)
Of or pertaining to the
an egg, a woman's egg,
oothe ovum
Of or pertaining to the
oophor(o)woman's ovary
Of or pertaining to the
ophthalm(o)eye
Of or relating to
chemical properties of
optic(o)the eye
Of or pertaining to the
or(o)mouth
orchi(o)-,
testis
orchid(o)-,
orch(o)Denoting something as
orth(o)straight or correct
Greek οἰσοφάγος
Greek -οειδής
Latin
Sarcoidosis
Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (oligos), few
Oligotrophy
Ancient Greek ὠμός (ōmos), shoulder
Omoplate
Greek -ωμα
Sarcoma, teratoma
Ancient Greek ὀμφαλός (omphalós), navel,
Omphalotomy
belly-button
Greek ὄγκος
Oncology
Ancient Greek ὄνυξ, ὀνυχο- (ónyx,
Onychophagy
ónycho-), nail; claw; talon
Ancient Greek ᾠόν, ᾠο- (ōón, ōo-), egg,
ovum
Oogenesis
Neoclassical Greek ᾠοφόρον (ōophóron),
Oophorectomy
ovary, egg-bearing
Ancient Greek ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmós), the
Ophthalmology
eye
Middle French (optique) < Greek ὀπτικός
(optikós); ώψ(opsi), vision. Cognate with Opticochemical, biopsy
Latin oculus, relating to the eye
Latin (ōs, or-), mouth
Oral
Greek ὀρχις (orkhis, orkhi-)
Orchiectomy,
orchidectomy
Ancient Greek ὀρθός (orthos), straight,
correct, normal
Orthodontist
-osis
a condition, disease or
increase
Greek -ωσις
osseo-
bony
Latin
ossi-
bone
Latin
ost(e)-, oste(o)-
bone
Of or pertaining to the
ear
pertaining to
Of or pertaining to the
ovaries
Of or pertaining to the
eggs, the ovum
addition of oxygen
sharp, acid, acute,
oxygen
Greek ὀστέον
Harlequin type
ichthyosis, psychosis,
osteoperosis
Osseous
Peripheral ossifying
fibroma
Osteoporosis
Ancient Greek οὖς, ὠτ- (ous, ōt-), the ear
Otology
ot(o)-ous
ovari(o)ovo-, ovi-, ovoxooxy-
Latin -osus
Latin (ōvarium), ovary
Ovariectomy
Latin (ōvum), egg, ovum
Ovogenesis
Greek ὀξύς
Greek ὀξύς(oxus)
P[edit]
Prefix/suffix
pachypalpebrpan-, pant(o)papillpapul(o)para-paresis
Meaning
thick
Of or pertaining to the eyelid
[uncommon as a root]
Denoting something as 'complete' or
containing 'everything'
Of or pertaining to the nipple (of the
chest/breast)
Indicates papulosity, a small elevation
or swelling in the skin, a pimple,
swelling
alongside of, abnormal
slight paralysis
Origin language and etymology
Example(s)
Greek παχύς
pachyderma
Latin (palpebra), eyelid
Palpebra
Ancient Greek πᾶς, παν- (pas, pan), all, every
Latin (papilla), nipple; diminutive
of papula (see below)
Latin (papula), pimple, pustle; a
small elevation or swelling in the
skin
Ancient Greek παρά (para)
Greek πάρεσις
panophobia,
panopticon
papillitis
Papulation
paracyesis
hemiparesis
pauci-
small
disease
Denotes (with a negative sense) a
disease, or disorder
Few
Latin parvus
Greek πάθος
Ancient Greek πάθος (pathos),
suffering, accident
Latin paucus
pector-
breast
Latin pectus
ped-, -ped-, -pes
ped-, pedopelv(i)-, pelv(o)-penia
peo-
Of or pertaining to the foot; -footed
Of or pertaining to the child
hip bone
deficiency
Of or pertaining to the penis
-pepsia
Denotes something relating to
digestion, or the digestive tract.
Latin pēs, pēd-, foot
Ancient Greek παιδός, child
Latin
Greek πενία
Greek πέος (peos)
Ancient Greek πεπτός (peptós)
cooked, digested < πέσσω (péssō) I Dyspepsia
boil, cook; digest
Latin
parvopath(o)-pathy
-pexy
through
Denoting something with a position
'surrounding' or 'around' another
fixation
phaco-
lens-shaped
Greek φακός
Forms terms denoting conditions
relating to eating or ingestion
eating, devouring
Forms nouns that denote a person who
'feeds on' the first element or part of
the word
Forms nouns that denotes 'feeding on'
the first element or part of the word
phallus
drug, medication
Ancient Greek φαγία (phagía)
eating < φαγεῖν (phagein) to eat
Greek -φάγος
perperi-
-phage, -phagia
-phagophagist-:
Ancient Greek περί (peri), around
Periodontal
Greek πῆξις
Nephropexy
phacolysis,
phacometer,
phacoscotoma
Ancient Greek φαγιστής
(phagistēs) eater; see -phagia
-phobia
Ancient Greek φαγία (phagia)
eating; see -phagia
Greek φαλλός (phallos)
Greek φάρμακον
Ancient Greek φάρυγξ, φαρυγγOf or pertaining to the pharynx, the
(phárynx, pháryng-), throat,
upper throat cavity
windpipe; chasm
attraction for
Greek φιλία
Ancient Greek φλέψ, φλεβOf or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a
(phleps, phlebo-), blood-vessel,
vein
vein
exaggerated fear, sensitivity
Greek φόβος
phon(o)-
sound
-phagy
phallopharmacopharyng(o)-phil(ia)
phleb(o)-
phos-
phot(o)phren(i)-,
phren(o)-,
phrenico
phytpiri-plasia
-plasty
-plegia
pleio-
Greek φωνή
Of or pertaining to light or its
chemical properties, now historic and Ancient Greek φῶς, φωτ- (phōs,
used rarely. See the common root
phōt-), light
phot(o)- below.
Ancient Greek φῶς, φωτ- (phōs,
Of or pertaining to light
phōt-), light
the mind
to grow
Pear
formation, development
surgical repair, reconstruction
paralysis
more, excessive, multiple
pleur(o)-,
pleur(a)
Of or pertaining to the ribs
-plexy
stroke or seizure
pneum(o)-
Of or pertaining to the lungs
Parvovirus
Pathology
sociopathy,
neuropathy
Pauci-immune
pectoralgia,
pectoriloquy,
pectorophony
Pedoscope
pediatrics. pedophilia
Pelvis
osteopenia
Peotomy
Greek φρήν, φρεν-
Latin pirum, pear
Greek πλάσις
Greek πλαστός
Greek πληγή
Greek pleion
Latin (pleura) from Ancient Greek
πλευρόν (pleurón), rib, side of the
body
Greek πλῆξις
Ancient Greek πνεύμων, πνευμον(pneumōn, pneumon-), lung <
πνεῦμα (pneuma), wind, spirit
Sarcophagia
phagocyte
Lotophagi
hematophagy
Aphallia
pharmacology
Pharyngitis,
Pharyngoscopy
Hemophilia
Phlebography,
Phlebotomy
arachnophobia
phonograph,
symphony
Phosphene
Photopathy
Phrenic nerve,
schizophrenia,
diaphragm
hydrophyte
Piriformis muscle
Achondroplasia
rhinoplasty
paraplegia
pleiomorphism
Pleurogenous
Cataplexy
Pneumonocyte,
Pneumonia
pneumat(o)pod-, -pod-, pus
-poiesis
air, lung
polio-
Denoting a grey color
poly-
Denotes a 'plurality' of something
por(o)-
pore, porous
porphyr(o)-
Denotes a purple color
Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek πούς, ποδ- (poús,
pod-), foot
Of or pertaining to the foot, -footed
production
hematopoiesis
Ancient Greek πολιός (poliós),
grey
Ancient Greek πολυς (polys),
much, many
Denotes something as 'after' or
'behind' another
Denotes something as 'before' another
(in [physical] position or time)
old age
Denotes something as 'first' or 'mostimportant'
Denotes something as 'before' another
(in [physical] position or time)
anus, rectum
face
Denotes something as 'first' or 'most
important'
Denotes something false or fake
postprepresby(o)primproproct(o)prosop(o)prot(o)pseud(o)psych(e)-,
psych(o)
Of or pertaining to the mind
pterygo-
Pertaining to a wing
psor-
Itching
falling, drooping, downward
placement, prolapse
(a spitting), spitting, hemoptysis, the
spitting of blood derived from the
lungs or bronchial tubes
-ptosis
-ptysis
pulmon-,
pulmopyel(o)-
Of or relating to the lungs.
pelvis
to thicken (as the nucleus does in
early stages of cell death)
pus
fever
pyknopy(o)pyr(o)-
Podiatry
Poliomyelitis
Polymyositis
Ancient Greek πορπύρα
(porphýra), purple
Porphyroblast
Latin (post), after, behind
Postoperation,
Postmortem
Medieval Latin (pre-) < (Classical)
Premature birth
Latin (præ), before, in front of
Greek
Presbyopia
Latin prīmus, first, most important Primary
Ancient Greek προ (pro), before, in
Procephalic
front of
proctology
Greek (prosopon), face, mask
Prosopagnosia
Ancient Greek πρωτος (prōtos),
Protoneuron
first; principal, most important
Ancient Greek
Pseudoephedrine
Ancient Greek ψυχή (psyché),
Psychology,
breath, life, soul
psychiatry
Lateral pterygoid
Greek
plate
Psoriasis
Apoptosis,
nephroptosis
hemoptysis
Latin (pulmo, pulmōn-, usually
used in plural), a lung
Ancient Greek (pyelos)
Greek πυκνωνω, to
thicken/condense
Greek πύον
Greek πῦρ, πυρετός
pulmonary
Pyelonephritis
Pyknosis
Pyometra
Antipyretic
Q[edit]
Prefix/suffix
quadr(i)-
Meaning
four
Origin language and etymology
Latin
Example(s)
quadriceps
R[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Meaning
Origin language and
etymology
radiorerect(o)ren(o)reticul(o)retrorhabd(o)-
radiation
again, backward
rectum
Of or pertaining to the kidney
net
backward, behind
rod shaped, striated
Latin
Latin
Latin
Latin (rēnes), kidney
Latin
Latin
Greek ῥάβδος
rhachi(o)-
spine
Greek ῥάχις
rhin(o)-
Of or pertaining to the nose
rhod(o)-
Denoting a rose-red color
Example(s)
radiowave
relapse
renal
reticulocyte
retroversion, retroverted
rhabdomyolysis
rachial, rachialgia, rachidian,
rachiopathy
Ancient Greek ῥίς, ῥῑνο- (rhīs,
rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhīno-), nose
Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon), rhodophyte
-rrhage
-rrhagia
-rrhaphy
-rrhea
(AmE)
-rrhexis
-rrhoea
(BrE)
rubr(o)-rupt
burst forth
rapid flow of blood
surgical suturing
rose
Greek -ρραγία
Greek -ρραγία
Greek ῥαφή
Hemorrhage
menorrhagia
flowing, discharge
Greek -ρροια
Galactorrhea, Diarrhea
rupture
Greek ῥῆξις
Karyorrhexis
flowing, discharge
Greek -ρροια
diarrhoea
Of or pertaining to the red nucleus
Latin (ruber), red
of the brain
Break or burst
Latin
Rubrospinal
Erupt, Interrupt
S[edit]
schiz(o)-
Denoting something 'split' or 'doublesided'
scler(o)-
hard
Origin language and
etymology
Ancient Greek σάλπιγξ,
σαλπιγγ-, (sálpinx, salpingo) trumpet (literally)
Latin (sanguis, sanguin-),
blood
Greek σάρξ, σαρκGreek σχιστός (schistos)
Ancient Greek σχιζω;
irregular formation of the
verb σχίζειν (schizein), to
cut, split
Greek σκληρός
-sclerosis
hardening
Greek σκλήρωσις
scoli(o)-scope
-scopy
scotosemisial(o)sigmoid(o)sinistr(o)-
twisted
instrument for viewing
use of instrument for viewing
darkness
one-half, partly
saliva, salivary gland
sigmoid, S-shaped curvature
left, left side
sinus-
Of or pertaining to the sinus
sitosomat(o)-,
somatico-spadias
spasmosperma-,
spermo-,
spermatosplanchn(i)-,
splanchn(o)splen(o)-
food, grain
Greek σκολιός (skolios)
Greek -σκόπος
Greek -σκοπία
Greek σκότος (skotos)
Latin
Greek σίαλος (sialos)
Greek σιγμοειδής
Latin
Latin (sinus), a curve, bend,
Sinusitis
bay
Greek σῖτος (sitos)
Sitophobia
body, bodily
Greek σῶμα (sōma)
somatic
slit, fissure
spasm
Greek σπάδων
Greek σπασμός
hypospadias, epispadias
Spasmodic dysphonia
semen, spermatozoa
Greek σπέρμα (sperma)
Spermatogenesis
viscera
Greek σπλάγχνον
splanchnology
Prefix/suffix
salping(o)sangui-,
sanguinesarcoschist(o)-
spondyl(o)squamos(o)-stalsis
-stasis
-staxis
sten(o)-stenosis
Meaning
Of or pertaining to tubes e.g. fallopian
tubes
Of or pertaining to blood
muscular, fleshlike
split, cleft
Greek σπλήν, σπληνGreek σπόνδυλος /
Of or pertaining to the spine, the vertebra σφόνδυλος, (spóndylos,
sphóndylos), the spine
Denoting something as 'full of scales' or Latin sqāmōsus, full of
'scaly'
scales; scaly
contraction
Greek στάλσις
stopping, standing
Greek στάσις
dripping, trickling
Greek στάξις, στακτός
Denoting something as 'narrow in shape' Ancient Greek στενός
or pertaining to narrowness
(stenos); narrow, short
abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or Ancient Greek στένωσις
other tubular organ or structure
(stenōsis)
spleen
Example(s)
Salpingectomy,
salpingopharyngeus
muscle
Sanguine
sarcoma
schistocyte
Schizophrenia
Scleroderma
Atherosclerosis, multiple
sclerosis
scoliosis
stethoscope
endoscopy
scotopic vision
semiconscious
sialagogue
sigmoid colon
Splenectomy
Spondylitis
Squamous cell
Peristalsis
Cytostasis, homeostasis
Stenography
Restenosis, stenosis
sthenostom(a)
Of or pertaining to the upper chest, chest,
the area above the breast and under the
neck
strength, force, power
mouth
stomat(o)-
Of or pertaining to the mouth
-stomy
subsupersupra-
creation of an opening
beneath
in excess, above, superior
above, excessive
Indicates similarity, likeness, or being
together; Assimilates before some
consonants: before l to syl-, s to sys-,
before a labial consonant to sym-.
steth(o)-
sy, syl-, sym-,
syn-, sys-
Ancient Greek στῆθος
(stēthos), chest, cuirass
Greek σθένος
Greek στόμα
Ancient Greek στόμα,
στοματ- (stóma, stomat-),
mouth
Greek -στομία
Latin
Latin
Latin
Ancient Greek συν- (syn),
with, together
Stethoscope
Stomatogastric,
stomatognathic system
colostomy
subcutaneous tissue
superior vena cava
supraorbital vein
Symptom, synalgia,
synesthesia, syssarcosis
T[edit]
Prefix/suffix
tachy-tension, -tensive
tetanthecthelthely-
Origin language and
etymology
Denoting something as fast, irregularly Ancient Greek ταχύς (tachys),
fast
fast, quickly
pressure
Latin
rigid, tense
Ancient Greek tetanos
case, sheath
Ancient Greek θήκη (theke)
Of or pertaining to a nipple [uncommon Ancient Greek θηλή (thēlē), a
as a prefix]
teat, nipple
Denoting something as 'relating to a
Ancient Greek θῆλυς (thēlys),
woman, feminine'
female, feminine
Meaning
Tachycardia
Hypertension
tetanus
Intrathecal
Theleplasty
Thelygenous
hydrotherapy,
therapeutic
therap-
treatment
therm(o)-
heat
thorac(i)-,
thorac(o)-,
thoracico-
Of or pertaining to the upper chest,
chest; the area above the breast and
under the neck
thromb(o)-
Of or relating to a blood clot, clotting
of blood
thyr(o)-
thyroid
thym-
emotions
-tic
toco-tome
-tomy
tono-tony
top(o)tort(i)tox(i)-, tox(o)-,
toxic(o)trache(a)-
pertaining to
childbirth
cutting instrument
act of cutting; incising, incision
tone, tension, pressure
tension
place, topical
twisted
Ancient Greek θερμός
(thermós)
Latin (thōrāx) < Ancient
Greek θώραξ (thōrax), chest,
cuirass
Ancient Greek θρόμβος
(thrómbos), lump, piece, clot
of blood
Greek θυρεο-ειδής
Greek: "thymos", spirit, soul;
courage; breath, mind,
emotions
Greek -τικός
Greek τόκος
Greek τομή
Greek -τομία
Greek τόνος (tonos)
Greek -τονία
Greek τόπος
Latin tortus
toxin, poison
Greek τοξικόν
Toxoplasmosis
trachea
Tracheotomy
trachel(o)-
Of or pertaining to the neck
Greek τραχεία
Ancient Greek τράχηλος
(tráchēlos), neck
Latin trāns, across, through
Transfusion
Latin
Ancient Greek θρίξ, τριχ(ο)(thríx, trich(o)-), hair
Greek τρίψις
Greek -τροφία, τροφή
triangle
transtritrich(i)-, trichia,
trich(o)-tripsy
-trophy
Denoting something as moving or
situated 'across' or 'through'
three
Of or pertaining to hair, hair-like
structure
crushing
nourishment, development
Ancient Greek (therapeía)
Example(s)
Thorax
Thrombus,
thrombocytopenia
dysthymia
Gastrotomy
Topical anesthetic
Torticollis
tracheloplasty
Trichocyst
Lithotripsy
Pseudohypertrophy
Greek τύμπανον
eardrum
tympan(o)-
Tympanocentesis
U[edit]
Prefix/suffix
Origin language and
etymology
Meaning
Example(s)
-ula, -ule
ultra-
small
beyond, excessive
Latin
Nodule
Latin
Latin (umbilīcus), navel, bellyUmbilical
button
Unguiform,
Latin (unguis), nail, claw
Ungual
Unilateral
Latin (unus)
hearing loss
umbilic-
Of or pertaining to the navel, the umbilicus
ungui-
Of or pertaining to the nail, a claw
un(i)-
one
ur(o)-
Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system;
(specifically) pertaining to the physiological
chemistry of urine
Ancient Greek οὖρον (ouron),
urine
uri(c)-,
urico-
uric acid
Greek οὐρικός
urin-
Of or pertaining to urine, the urinary system
uter(o)-
Of or pertaining to the uterus or womb
Urology
Latin (ūrīna), urine < Ancient
Uriniferous
Greek ουρον (ouron), see above.
Latin (uterus), womb, uterus
Uterus
V[edit]
Prefix or
suffix
vaginvaric(o)vas(o)vasculovenventr(o)-
Meaning
Origin language and etymology
Of or pertaining to the vagina
swollen or twisted vein
duct, blood vessel
blood vessel
Of or pertaining to the (blood) veins, a vein
(used in terms pertaining to the vascular
system)
Of or pertaining to the belly; the stomach
cavities
Examples
Latin (vāgīna), sheath, scabbard
Latin varix
Latin
Latin vāsculum
Vagina
varicose
vasoconstriction
Latin (vēna), blood-vessel, vein
Vein, Venospasm
Latin (venter), the belly, the
stomach; the womb
Latin (venter), the ventricles of
the heart, the ventricles of the
brain
ventricul(o)-
Of or pertaining to the ventricles; any
hollow region inside an organ
-version
turning
Latin versiō
vesic(o)-
Of or pertaining to the bladder
viscer(o)-
Of or pertaining to the internal organs, the
viscera
Latin (vēsīca), bladder; blister
Latin (viscera), internal organs;
plural of (viscerum), internal
organ
Ventrodorsal
Cardiac
ventriculography
anteversion,
retroversion
vesical arteries
Viscera
X[edit]
Prefix/suffix
xanth(o)xen(o)xer(o)-
Meaning
Denoting a yellow color, an abnormally yellow
color
Foreign, different
dry, desert-like
Origin language and etymology
Ancient Greek ξανθός (xanthós),
yellow
Greek ξένος (xenos), stranger
Greek ξερός (xeros), dry
Example(s)
Xanthopathy
Xenograft
Xerostomia
Y[edit]
Prefix/suffix
-y
Meaning
condition or process of
Origin language and etymology
Latin -ia < Greek -ία
Example(s)
Surgery
List of Medical Terms Broken into Roots
An/alges/ic, a/pathy cardi/ac, hydro/phobi/ac, acantho/cyte, acanth/oma, acou/meter,
Acro/cran/y, acro/megaly, acro/osteo/lysis, Par/acusis, dors/ad, Adeno/carcin/oma,
adeno/logy, adeno/tome, Adipo/cyte, adren/al, An/aemia, Aero/sinus/itis, abdomin/al,
An/alges/ic, fibro/my/algia, Allo/anti/gen, allo/pathy, Ambi/dextr/ous, Amnio/centesis,
Amphi/crania, Ana/plasia, An/al, andr/ology, Angio/gram, Aniso/cyt/osis, aniso/tropic,
Ankyl/osis, anti/psychot/ic, Apo/ptosis, Archi/nephron , arseno/blast, Arteri/ole, Arthr/itis,
Articul/ation, axill/ary, Lact/ase, My/asthenia , Atelo/cardia , Athero/sclerosis,
atrio/ventricul/ar, Aur/al , Auto/anti/body, Auxo/cardia , azo/thermia , Balan/itis,
Bio/gen/ous, Blepharo/plast, Brach/ium, Brachy/cephal/ic, Brady/cardia, Burs/itis,
de/capit/ation, Carcin/oma, Cardio/logy, Carpo/ped/al, Hydro/cele, Varico/cele,
mega/cephal/y, Cerebr/al, Cervico/dors/al, Chemo/therap/y, Chole/cyst/itis,
Chole/cyst/ectomy, Hemo/chromate/osis, Bacterio/cidal, Cili/ary, Osteo/clast,
co/carcino/gen/ic, Colono/scopy, Colpo/scopy, Contra/later/al, Cor/ectomy, Costo/chondr/al,
Coxo/pod/ite, Cranio/logy, Endo/crine, Cryo/therap/y, Sub/cutane/ous, Cyan/osis,
Cyph/osis, Cysto/tomy, Leuko/cyte, Dacryo/cyst/itis, dactyl/ology, poly/dactyl/y,
de/hydr/ation, Dent/ist, Dermat/itis, Arthro/desis, Dextro/cardia, Dia/lysis, inter/digit/al,
poly/dipsia, oligo/dipsia, Dis/section, Dorso/cephal/ad, Dromo/tropic, Duoden/al,
dynamo/meter, uro/dynia, Dys/phag/ia, lact/eal, Ecto/blast, Bronchi/ectasis, oophor/ectomy,
Hemat/emesis, An/emia, Encephalo/gram, Endo/crino/logy, Endo/trache/al,
Gastro/enter/ology, Epi/card/ium, epi/dermis, epi/sclera, epi/staxis, Episio/tomy,
Erythro/cyte, an/esthesia, exo/crine, Exo/skeleton, Extra-/amniot/ic, bucco/faci/al,
brachio/faci/al, Fibro/blast, Fronto/nas/al, Galacto/rrhea, Gastr/ic, gastro/hepat/ic,
gastro/enter/itis, Endo/gen, Carcino/gen/ic, dys/geusia, hyper/geusia, hypo/geusia,
para/geusia, Gingiv/itis, Glauc/oma, Glosso/logy, Gluco/kin/ase, glyco/gen, Glyco/lysis,
Gnatho/dynamo/meter, dia/gnosis, pro/gnosis, Gono/rrhea, nephro/gram,
Angio/cardio/graph, cardio/graph, Angio/graphy, Gyneco/mast/ia, Hallucin/osis,
Haemato/logy, Haemato/logist, Hemangi/oma, Hepato/logy, Hetero/chrom/ic,
Hyper/hidr/osis, Histo/logy, Homeo/pathy, Hydro/lysis, Hyper/tension, Hypo/therm/ia,
Hyster/ectomy, Hyster/ia, psor/iasis, elephant/iasis, iatro/chemistry, Pod/iatry,
neuro/psych/iatry, Hepat/ectomy, hepat/ism, aur/icle, hemat/ics, an/alges/ics, idio/path/ic,
infra/axill/ary, inter/articul/ary, ipsi/later/al, irid/ectomy, ischi/algia, a/chromat/ism,
Hemiball/ismus, iso/anti/gen/ic, Patho/logist, mening/itis, Encephal/itis, Peri/card/ium,
Hyper/kal/emia, Kerato/scope, Kin/esthesia, hemat/emesis, Koilo/cyte, Kypho/scoli/osis,
Labio/dent/al, Lacrim/al, lact/ase, Lact/ation, Laparo/tomy, Laryng/eal, Leio/my/oma,
Epi/lepsy, narco/lepsy, Lepto/mening/eal, Lip/ase, hypo/lip/osis, hyper/lip/osis, lipo/lysis,
Litho/tripsy, Onco/logist, patho/logist, hemato/logy, uro/logy, Para/lysis, Macro/phage,
Osteo/malacia, Acro/megaly, Spleno/megaly, melan/ist/ics, encephalo/mening/itis,
mero/crine, mero/blast/ic, Meso/derm, Meta/stasis, adipo/meter, Osteo/metry,
Micro/bio/logy, mono/cyte, Morpho/logy, Myo/blast, Onycho/myc/osis, Myelo/blast/oma,
Myringo/tomy, narc/osis, Nas/al, Necr/osis, Neo/plasty, Nephro/logy, hydro/nephro/logist,
Neuro/bio/logist, sub/norm/al, orth/odont/ist, Stomato/dyn/ia, Sarc/oma, Oligo/trophy,
Omo/plate, xanth/oma, Omphalo/tomy, Onco/logy, Onycho/phagy, Ophthalmo/logy,
Optic/al, Or/al, Orth/odont/ist, osteo/myel/itis, Osse/ous, oss/icle, fibr/oma, Osteo/por/osis,
Oto/logy, Patho/logy, neuro/pathy, papill/edema, Pedo/scope, ped/iatr/ics, Pelv/ic,
Osteo/penia, Dys/pepsia, Peri/odont/al, Nephro/pexy, phaco/lysis, phaco/scot/oma,
Sarco/phagia, Phago/cyte, Loto/phagi, Hemato/phagy, A/phallia, Pharmaco/logy, Pharyng/itis,
Pharyngo/scopy, Hemo/phil/ia, Phlebo/graphy, Phlebo/tomy, Photo/pathy, Phren/ic,
schizo/phren/ia, Piri/form, cata/ plasia, dys/plasia, hyper/plasia, leuko/plasia, Rhino/plasty,
para/plegia, pleio/morph/ism, Pleuro/gen/ous, Cata/plexy, Pneumato/cyte,
Pneumo/thorac/ic, Pod/iatry, Haemato/poiesis, Polio/myel/itis, poly/dactyl/y, Poly/myos/itis,
Porphyro/blast, Presbyop/ia, Pro/cephal/ic, Procto/logy, Prosopa/gnosis, Proto/neuro,
Psor/iasis, quadri/plegia, Salping/ectomy, salpingo/pharyng/eal, ex/sanguin/ation,
Sanguine/ous, schisto/cyte, Sclero/derma, Arterio/sclerosis, multiple-scler/osis, Scoli/osis,
endo/scopy, scotop/ic, Sinus/itis Somat/ic, hypo/spadias, epi/spadias, Spasmo/lytic,
Splanchno/logy, Splen/ectomy, Spondyl/itis Peri/stalsis, Cyto/stasis, homeo/stasis,
Re/stenosis, Stetho/scope, stheno/meter, Stomato/gastr/ic, stomato/gnath/ic, Colo/stomy,
super/anti/gen, supra/laryng/eal, syn/algia, syn/esthes/ia, sys/sarc/osis, Tachy/card/ia,
dys/tension, Tetan/y, Intra/thec/al, Thely/gen/ous, hydro/therap/y, therap/y, Thromb/osis,
thrombo/cyto/penia, Dys/thym/ia, Gastro/tomy, Toxo/plasm/osis, Tracheo/tomy,
Trachelo/plasty, Trans/plant, Pseudo/hyper/trophy, Tympano/centesis, Veno/spasm,
Ventro/dorsal, ventriculo/graphy, ante/version, retro/version, vesic/al.
Microscope LAB Summary DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER!!!!!!
Write your answers to this handout onto your lab and hand back this page to your teacher. You can get
this lab at home online in the file “Bio 20 Workbook” on the blogsite: blog.scs.sk.ca/mumford so that
you can finish it for homework.
13.Which part of a microscope should be used with the low-power objective, but NOT with the highpower objective?
A) coarse adjustment B) fine adjustment
C) diaphragm
D)
ocular
14.Which of the following statements about the high-power objective is TRUE? A)It can be used with
the coarse adjustment knob. B)It has a magnification of 10X in most student microscopes.
C)In
position, it lies close to the slide of the mounted specimen.
D) It is usually the only objective on a
compound microscope.
15.Which part of a light microscope would most likely be damaged if the coarse adjustment is
improperly used while a specimen is being observed under high power? A)objective lens B)light
source C)iris diaphragm D)eyepiece lens
16.While viewing a specimen under high power of the microscope, a student noticed that the specimen
was out of focus. Which part of the microscope should the student use to obtain a clearer image?
A)ocular lens B)fine adjustment C) arm
D)objective lens
17.A student is observing a specimen using a compound light microscope. The specimen appears at the
LEFT EDGE of the field of view. In which direction should the student move the SLIDE to center the
specimen in the field of view? A)up
B)down C)left D)right
18.A student used the low-power objective of a microscope to view the millimeter markings of a
transparent ruler. After changing to the high-power objective, the student would observe
A)fewer
millimeter markings in the microscope field.
B)the same number of millimeter markings in the
microscope field.
C)more millimeter markings in the microscope field.
D)millimeter markings
that are closer together.
19.A specimen on a slide can usually be found more easily by using the low-power objective rather than
the high-power objective, because with low power
A)the field is not as bright.
B)the organism
can be seen in a greater detail. C)smaller organisms can be seen.
D)a larger part of the slide can
be seen.
20.The field of view becomes darker when a compound microscope is switched from low to high power.
The field of view can then be made brighter by A)decreasing the size of the diaphragm opening.
B)increasing the size of the diaphragm opening. C)refocusing with the fine adjustment. D)refocusing
with the coarse adjustment.
21.A student was observing a specimen with the low power of a compound microscope switched to high
power, and the specimen was no longer in view. What did the student most likely fail to do before
switching to high power that resulted in the specimen's disappearance? A)change the ocular
B)clean
the low-power objective
C)measure the cell
D)center the specimen
22.A student is observing a specimen using a compound light microscope. The specimenl appears at the
RIGHT EDGE of the field of view. In which direction should the student move the SLIDE to center the
specimen in the field of view?
A)up B)down C)left
D)right
23.A VERY TINY specimen on a slide can usually be found LESS easily by using the medium or high-power
objective right after putting the slide on the stage, rather than the low-power objective, because with
higher power objectives
A)the field is not as bright.
B)the organism can be seen in a greater
detail. C)smaller organisms can be seen.
D)a larger part of the slide can be seen. E)a smaller part
of the slide can be seen
24. When viewed with a compound light microscope under low power, the letter "p" will appear as
A)q.
B)p.
C)d.
D)b.
DO NOT WRITE ON THIS PAPER!!!!!!Write your answers onto your paper and hand this page back to
your teacher.
For these cells to be flat? 3. Draw a biological drawing of your cheek cell that
fills the white paper provided. Label the cell membrane, nucleus, nuclear
membrane, cytoplasm, and organelle, following the drawing rules STRICTLY!!!
When you are finished, take a paper towel and push the coverslip off into the
garbage bins. Do not wash the slide this time, you can simply slip it into the
biohazard alcohol beaker( to disinfect it and avoid getting blue stains on your
hands or clothing.)
Cell LAB Summary and Conclusion
1.Tiny cells are usually measured in
a)millimeters. B)microns.
C)meters .
D)inches.
2.A cover slip should be used when preparing a A)frog for dissection. B)wet mount of cheek cells.
C)solution of iodine for food testing.
D)suspension of blood for centrifugation.
3.A student is making a wet mount of a cheek cell using a microscope slide, water, cheek scrapings, and
cover slip. Upon observing the wet mount of the cell, the student notices large numbers of air bubbles
on the slide under the cover slip. Bubbles can be avoided by
A)using a more spit and less water.
B)using a cover slip with holes in it.
C)holding the cover slip parallel to the slide and
dropping it directly onto the leaf.
D)bringing one edge of the cover slip into contact with the
water and lowering the opposite edge slowly.
4.A student prepared a stained wet mount of human cheek cells using a red stain. Upon observing the
slide, the student could see red-stained cells and also observed dark-rimmed circles with black edges
and colorless centers. The dark-rimmed circles were
A)nuclei.
B)red blood cells.
C)air
bubbles.
D)chloroplasts.
5.A student views some cheek cells under low power of a compound light microscope. Before switching
to high power, the student should
A)adjust the eyepiece. B)center the image being viewed.
C)remove the slide from the stage. D)remove the coverslip.
6.A microscope objective is changed from high power (40X) to low power (10X) and a group of cells is
brought into focus. Compared to the number of cells observed under high power, the number of cells
observed under low power would be A)less. B)greater. C)the same. D)none of the above.
7.If a student observes a human cheek cell under 450X using a compound light microscope, which
structures might be visible?
A)nucleus
B)centrioles
C)ribosomes
8.Methylene blue is used in microscope studies to help in the observation of
A)respiration of onion
cells. B)iron in hemoglobin. C)photosynthesis in elodea.
D)nuclei in cells.
9.Which part of a microscope should be used with the low-power objective, but NOT with the highpower objective?
A)coarse adjustment B)fine adjustment
C)diaphragm
D)ocular
10.Which of the following statements about the high-power objective is TRUE? A)It can be used with
the coarse adjustment knob. B)It has a magnification of 10X in most student microscopes.
C)In
position, it lies close to the slide of the mounted specimen.
D)It is usually the only objective on a
compound microscope.
11.Which part of a light microscope would most likely be damaged if the coarse adjustment is
improperly used while a specimen is being observed under high power? A)objective lens B)light source
C)iris diaphragm
D)eyepiece lens
12.While viewing a specimen under high power of the microscope, a student noticed that the specimen
was out of focus. Which part of the microscope should the student use to obtain a clearer image?
A)ocular lens B) fine adjustment C) arm
D)objective lens
13.The field of view becomes darker when a compound microscope is switched from low to high power.
The field of view can then be made brighter by A) decreasing the size of the diaphragm opening.
B)increasing the size of the diaphragm opening. C)refocusing with the fine adjustment.
D)refocusing with the coarse adjustment.
14. A student was observing a cheek cell with the low power of a compound microscope switched to
high power, and the cell was no longer in view. What did the student most likely fail to do before
switching to high power that resulted in the cell's disappearance?
A)change the ocular
B)clean
the low-power objective
C)measure the cell
D)center the specimen
15.A student is observing a cheek cell using a compound light microscope. The cell appears at the RIGHT
EDGE of the field of view. In which direction should the student move the SLIDE to center the cell in the
field of view? A) up B)down
C)left D)right
16.A compound microscope has four objectives labeled 4X, 10X, 43X, and 97X. Which objective, when
used in combination with a 10X ocular lens, provides the largest field of view? A)97X B)43X C)10X
D)4X
17.What is the highest magnification that can be obtained with a microscope that has a 10X eyepiece
with 10X and 43X objectives? A)43X B)100X C)430X D)4300X
18.A student determined the diameter of the low-power field of a compound microscope to be 1.20
millimeters. What portion of the field diameter would be occupied by an organism that is 600
micrometers long?
A)1/2 B)2/3 C)1/3 D)1/4
19.A student used the low-power objective of a microscope to view the millimeter markings of a
transparent ruler. After changing to the high-power objective, the student would observe
A)fewer
millimeter markings in the microscope field.
B)the same number of millimeter markings in the
microscope field.
C)more millimeter markings in the microscope field.
D)millimeter markings
that are closer together.
20.A cheek cell on a slide can usually be found more easily by using the low-power objective rather than
the high-power objective, because with low power
A)the field is not as bright.
B)the organism
can be seen in a greater detail. C)smaller organisms can be seen.
D)a larger part of the slide can
be seen.
21.What is the total magnification of a compound microscope whose ocular power is 5X and whose
objective power is 10X? A)2X B)15X C)25X D)50X
22.The diameter of the field of view of a compound light microscope is 2.0 millimeters. What is the
maximum number of cells that could fit along the diameter of this field if each cell has a diameter of
100 micrometers?
A)10 B)20 C)50 D)100
23.A student was observing cells with the microscope and noted that one cell occupied one fourth of the
diameter of the field of view. If the diameter of the field was 1.5 millimeters, what was the approximate
length of the cell?
A)1.5 millimeters
B)38 micrometers
C)375 micrometers
D)1,500
micrometers
24.A microscope is supplied with 10X and 15X eyepieces, and with 10X and 44X objectives. What is the
maximum magnification that can be obtained from this microscope?
A)59X B)150X C)440X D)660X
25.A compound light microscope has lenses that permit 100X under low power and 400X under high
power. While looking at some cells under high power, the student observes that four cells extend across
the diameter. How many cells could be seen under low power? A)1 B)8 C)16 D)4
26.A student is observing a cheek cell using a compound light microscope. The cell appears at the LEFT
EDGE of the field of view. In which direction should the student move the SLIDE to center the cell in the
field of view? A) up
B)down C)left D)right
27.A microscope objective is changed from high power (40X) to low power (10X) and a group of cheek
cells is brought into focus. Compared to the number of cells observed under high power, the number of
cells observed under low power would be
above.
A)less.
ALTERNATE EATING PRACTICES HS20-NM2 OUTCOME
B)greater.
C)the same.
D)none of the
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.[1] Dietary habits are the
habitual decisions an individual or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat. Each culture and
each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or
ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.
Proper nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, and food energy in the form of
carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life,
health and longevity. It can define cultures and play a role in religion.
ALTERNATE EATING PRACTICE
Ovo vegetarianism
Possible missing/low nutrition
components
Calcium, vitamin D, essential amino
acids, omega-3 fatty acids and
vitamin B12
Provides sufficient nutrition to
support healthy functioning??
-may require tuning or
supplementation such as vitamins to
meet ordinary nutritional needs.
- by eating a variety of
complementary plant sources that,
in combination, provide all eight
essential amino acids
ALTERNATE EATING PRACTICES HS20-NM2 OUTCOME
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat – red meat, poultry, seafood
and the flesh of any other animal; it may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
There are a number of vegetarian diets, which exclude or include various foods.
Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products.
Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products but not eggs.
Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal/dairy products such as eggs, milk,
and honey.
Veganism excludes all animal flesh and products, such as milk, honey, and eggs, as well as items refined
or manufactured through any such product, such as bone-char refined white sugar or animal-tested
baking soda.
Raw veganism includes only fresh and uncooked fruit, nuts, seeds, and vegetables. Vegetables can only
be cooked up to a certain temperature.[23]
Fruitarianism permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without
harming the plant.[24]
Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet), a plant based diet which may also include dairy (not eggs) and
honey, but excludes anything from the onion or leek family, red lentils, durian fruit, mushrooms, blue
cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, alcoholic drinks and often also excludes coffee, black or green tea,
chocolate, nutmeg or any other type of stimulant such as excess sharp spices.
Buddhist vegetarianism. Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also
vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the precept 'not to kill' to
require abstinence from meat, but not all. In Taiwan, su vegetarianism excludes not only all animal
products but also vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and
garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.
Jain vegetarianism includes dairy but excludes eggs and honey, as well as root vegetables.
Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans.
Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and
vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough
items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy).[citation needed] High levels of dietary
fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all
considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. Protein intake in vegetarian diets is only slightly
lower than in meat diets and can meet daily requirements for any person, including athletes and
bodybuilders.[49] Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States,
United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and various European countries, confirmed vegetarian
diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and
consumed.[50] Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired
from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesised
by the human body. While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for ovo-lacto vegetarian,
several vegetable sources have significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids, including
lupin beans, soy,[51] hempseed, chia seed,[52] amaranth,[53] buckwheat,[54] pumpkin seeds[55]
spirulina,[56] pistachios,[57] and quinoa.[58] However, the essential amino acids can also be obtained
by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential
amino acids (e.g. brown rice and beans, or hummus and whole wheat pita, though protein combining in
the same meal is not necessary[citation needed]). A 1994 study found a varied intake of such sources
can be adequate. These diets may require tuning or supplementation such as vitamins to meet ordinary
nutritional needs.
Scientific endeavors in the area of vegetarianism have shifted from concerns about nutritional adequacy
to investigating health benefits and disease prevention.[30] The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and
Dietitians of Canada have stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet is "healthful,
nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain
diseases".[31] Large-scale studies have shown that mortality from ischaemic heart disease was 30%
lower among vegetarian men and 20% lower among vegetarian women than in non-vegetarians.[32][33]
Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of
carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and
phytochemicals.[34][35]
Vegetarians tend to have lower body mass index,[36] lower levels of cholesterol, lower blood pressure,
and less incidence of heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, renal disease, metabolic
syndrome,[37] dementias such as Alzheimer's disease and other disorders
Carbohydrate Loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by
endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the
muscles.
Carbohydrate loading is also used in healthcare to optimise the condition of patients prior to colorectal
surgery.[1]
Carbohydrate loading is generally recommended for endurance events lasting longer than 90
minutes.[2] Many endurance athletes prefer foods with low glycemic indices for carbo-loading due to
their minimal effect on serum glucose levels. Low glycemic foods commonly include fruits, vegetables,
whole wheat pasta, and grains. Many marathoners and triathlon participants have large pasta dinners
the night before the race. Since muscles also use amino acids extensively when functioning within
aerobic limits, meals should also include adequate protein.[3] Large portions before a race can,
however, decrease race-day performance if the digestive system has not had the time to process the
food regimen.
Most dietary carbohydrates consist of varying proportions of two simple sugars, glucose and fructose.
Fructose may be metabolized into liver glycogen, but it is ineffective at raising muscle glycogen levels
(which is the objective of carbohydrate loading).[6] Consequently, sources of high-fructose
carbohydrates, such as fruit and sweets, are less than optimal for the task. The classic carb-loading meal
is pasta, whose caloric content is primarily due to starch, a glucose polymer. High-glucose meals which
include bread, rice, and potatoes are all part of the correct regimen.
The biggest downside to carbohydrate loading is that Glycogen is stored with additional water.
Generally, 2-5 grams of water are stored with each gram of Glycogen, so carbohydrate loading adds
extra weight. If the race does not require the extra Glycogen supplies, then the extra weight will
degrade performance.
Maintaining this calorie intake for a day should not cause a significant gain in body fat, but longer
periods may be problematic.
Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered
unhelpful or harmful. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colourings or
preservatives, taking supplements, or drinking large amounts of water. The latter practise in particular
has drawn criticism, as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause
hyponatremia(water poisoning)
Juice fasting: A form of detox diet, in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices.
The health implications of such diets are disputed.
Low Carb diet: diet based on limiting carbohydrate consumption combined with low fat protein to
maintain muscle. Some clinicians[25] regard restricting a diet from all carbohydrates as unhealthy and
dangerous, as it results in ketosis. However, it is not necessary to completely eliminate all carbohydrates
from the diet in order to achieve a state of ketosis. Other clinicians regard ketosis as a safe biochemical
process that occurs during the fat-burning state. Type 1 diabetics and long-term type II diabetics, are
liable to enter an unsafe level of ketosis, causing an eventual comatose state that requires emergency
medical treatment.
Low Glycemic-Index diet: is one that selects foods on the basis of minimal alteration of circulating
glucose levels. Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are measures of the effect on blood glucose
level after a food containing carbohydrates is consumed. Glucose is one of the body's main sources of
energy; it is the fuel used by the brain, muscles, and other organs. Glucose is set at 100, and all foods are
indexed against that number. Low GI foods affect blood glucose and insulin levels less and have a slower
rate of digestion and absorption. Switching from a high glycemic index diet to a low glycemic index diet
is considered to be relatively easy. Switching from white bread and pastas to whole grain, from
breakfast cereals to oats, bran or barley, adding more fruits and vegetables when cooking, and reducing
potato consumption can all aid in lowering glycemic index. A diet based on foods with low glycemic
response has been associated with diabetes management, improved blood lipids (cholesterol), and
reduced risk of heart disease. [2][unreliable source?]. Not only will foods with a low glycemic index take
longer to digest (therefore prolonging satiety) they will also maintain blood glucose levels at a relatively
constant state. Foods with a high glycemic index not only digest quickly, but they also can cause extreme
fluctuations in blood glucose.
There are some specific factors to consider in foods that can indicate their glycemic index. Low glycemic
foods contain fat, protein, fiber, whole grains, raw starches, legumes, vegetables, fruits and dairy
products. High glycemic foods contain refined grains, refined sugars, and increased
amylopectin/amylose ratio.
There are other factors that contribute to a food's glycemic index, such as plant variety, ripeness, food
processing, cooking method, and the other foods served with it.
Low-calorie diets: the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully
monitoring calories consumed and used.
Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten, which is found in barley, rye and wheat. It is a
medical treatment for coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity.[
Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. Used as
a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy.[43]
Fasting: Fasting is primarily an act of willing abstinence or reduction from certain or all food, drink, or
both, for a period of time. During the overnight fast the body naturally switches into ketosis, and will
switch back to glycolysis after a carbohydrate-rich meal. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or
staying on a low-carbohydrate low-GI diet. Extended fasting has been recommended as therapy for
various conditions by health professionals of many cultures, throughout history, from ancient to
modern. Fasting is also a part of many religious observances like the Bahá'í Faith.
Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. May be administered by clinicians for medical
reasons, such as after a gastric bypass[44] or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike.
Junk food diet: A diet largely made up of food considered to be unhealthy, such as high-fat or processed
foods. fast foods are commonly high in fat content, and studies have found associations between fast
food intake and increased body mass index (BMI) and weight gain.[2] In particular many fast foods are
high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease.
Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut, the set of Jewish dietary laws, is said to be Kosher. Some
foods and food combinations are non-Kosher, and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut
can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher
Crash diet and fad diet are general terms. They describe diet plans which involve making extreme, rapid
changes to food consumption, but are also used as disparaging terms for common eating habits which
are considered unhealthy. Both types of diet are often considered to pose health risks.
Cabbage soup diet: A low-calorie diet based on heavy consumption of cabbage soup.
Considered a fad
diet.[24]
large
Grapefruit diet: A fad diet, intended to facilitate weight loss, in which grapefruit is consumed in
quantities at meal times.[25]
An eating disorder is a mental disorder that interferes with normal food consumption. It is defined by
abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive diet.
Anorexia nervosa (AN), characterized by lack of maintenance of a healthy body weight, an
obsessive fear of
gaining weight or refusal to do so, and an unrealistic perception, or non-
recognition of the seriousness, of
current low body weight. Anorexia can cause menstruation to
stop, and often leads to bone loss, loss of
skin integrity, etc. It greatly stresses the heart,
increasing the risk of heart attacks and related heart
problems. The risk of death is greatly increased
in individuals with this disease.[25] The most underlining
factor researchers are starting to take
notice of is that it may not just be a vanity, social, or media issue, but it could also be related to
biological and or genetic components.[26]
Bulimia nervosa (BN), characterized by recurrent binge eating followed by compensatory
behaviors such as
purging (self-induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives/diuretics, or excessive
exercise). Fasting and overexercising may also be used as a method of purging following a binge.
Binge eating disorder (BED), characterized by binge eating at least 2-3 times a week
Energy Drinks: the general population of healthy adults is not at risk for potential adverse effects from
caffeine if they limit their consumption to 400 mg per day. As is the case with other caffeinated
beverages, Red Bull drinkers may experience adverse effects as a result of overuse. Moderate caffeine
intake (less than 400 mg per day) does not adversely affect cardiovascular health. Combining
considerable amounts of caffeine and alcohol may cause negative side effects. When caffeine and
alcohol are combined, the consumer does not necessarily feel the effects of the alcohol as the caffeine
keeps them awake.[1] This often causes the consumer to drink more than they normally would because
of the delayed "drunk" feeling, as caffeine can mask some of the sensory cues individuals might
normally rely on to determine their level of intoxication.[2] The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has
looked at peer-reviewed studies and has come to the conclusion that risky behaviors which could lead to
life-threatening situations are directly correlated with the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic
beverages. In Canada, regulations restrict the manufacture and sale of caffeinated alcoholic drinks
unless the caffeine comes from natural sources such as guarana; manufactured caffeine cannot be
directly poured into an alcoholic beverage
The 100-Mile Diet or locavores(Local Eating movements): Canadians that restricting the diet to include
only foods grown within 100 miles of their residence. Finding little in grocery stores, they relied on
farmers' markets and visits to local farms. Staples in their diet included fish, beef,chicken, root
vegetable, berries,beans,greens, and corn. They lacked cooking oils, rice, and sugar. Honey replaced
sugar.
Food Type
Fruits and
Carnivorous Ketogenic Omnivorous Pescetarian Vegetarian Vegan
Raw
vegan
Islamic Hindu Jewish Paleolithic Fruitarian
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Greens
No
Maybe
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Vegetables
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
berries
Legumes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Tubers
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Grains
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Poultry
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Beef
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Pork
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Eggs
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Maybe
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Dairy
No
Maybe
Yes
Yes
Maybe
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Nuts
No
Maybe
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Alcohol
No
Maybe
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Fish
(scaled)
Seafood
(non-fish)
The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in
the Globally Harmonized System.
Carcinogens or mutagenic agents
Cosmic rays, X-rays, ultraviolet rays, and
radiation and X-rays, formaldehyde, and
asbestos fibers.
Non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos,
certain dioxins LIKE PCB's and tobacco smoke.
Diagnosis (HS20-DI2) Find the fractures and dislocations and circle them with a PENCIL on the X-ray
and identify
which bones they are:
1.
4.
2.
3.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. The doctor only heard one heartbeat in each case. How many babies are there in these ultrasound
images(sonograms)?
A.
Age and Blood Pressure Variation
B.
Systolic Blood Pressure Chart
Diastolic Blood Pressure Chart
11. Reading these blood pressure graphs find out if the following patients are in their healthy blood
pressure range. (Remember for the blood pressure 120/80 mmHg, the 120 is the systolic pressure and
the 80 is the diastolic)
A. is a 58 year old female, Hgt 5’4” ,wgt 110lbs. Her average blood pressure is 160/102 mmHg
B. is a 22 y/o male, blood pressure is 120/78, temperature 37°C Pulse rate 68 beats per minute.
C. is a 48-year-old male, temperature 37°C Pulse rate 78, blood pressure (BP) 148/94 mmHg , repeat BP
144/92 mmHg.
D. is a 47 year old female , with many blood pressures taken averaged 146/97
E. is a 55 y/o man , blood pressures average 121/79, Hgt 5’9” ,wgt 210lbs
F. is 35 y/o, and has an average blood pressure of 125/78.
G. is a 63 y/o woman with an average blood pressure reading of 140/87
H. is 15 years old with a blood pressure of 119/80.
Disease Assignment
1. Classify the following diseases under the headings 'Transmissible' and 'Non-transmissible'.
lung cancer, whooping cough, rickets, arthritis, appendicitis, food poisoning, tuberculosis,
measles, diabetes, anaemia, syphilis, influenza, AIDS, coronary heart disease, haemophilia
2 (a) In droplet infection (i) where do the droplets come from, (ii) what infective agents might
they contain?
(b) Give two examples of diseases normally spread by droplets.
3 (a) Give two examples of diseases which can be spread by contaminated drinking water.
(b) How can the spread of such diseases be prevented?
4 Suggest three ways in which food might become contaminated by harmful bacteria.
5. Complete the following sentences by selecting the appropriate words from the list below.
In many cases, when you catch an infectious disease, your blood produces ….. (A) …..
against the infective organism. These ….. (B) ….. remain in the blood or can be rapidly made so
that you are ….. (C) ….. to further attacks of the disease.
You can acquire ….. (D) …..by receiving injections of a …..(E) ….. form of the pathogen or its
inactivated …..(F) ….. The injected substance is called a ….. (G) …..
immune, immunity, pathogens, disease, vaccine, antibodies, toxin, harmless, antigens
6. Which of the following diseases can be prevented by inoculation?
rubella, syphilis, tuberculosis, polio, gonorrhoea, common cold, measles, haemophilia,
mumps, tetanus, AIDS
7. What is the purpose of the gauze mask worn by surgeons during an operation?
8. A person with a cough takes a patent cough syrup. In three days, the cough is better. Does this
mean that the syrup has cured the cough? Justify your answer.
9. What do antiseptics and disinfectants do?
Disease
The term disease broadly refers to any condition that impairs normal function, and is
therefore associated with dysfunction of normal homeostasis.[5] Commonly, the
term disease is used to refer specifically to infectious diseases, which are clinically
evident diseases that result from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents,
including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular organisms such as parasitic
worms, and aberrant proteins known as prions.
Illness
Illness and sickness are generally used as synonyms for disease.[6] However, this
term is occasionally used to refer specifically to the patient's personal experience of
his or her disease.[7][8] In this model, it is possible for a person to have a disease
without being ill (to have an objectively definable, but asymptomatic, medical
condition), and to be ill without being diseased (such as when a person perceives a
normal experience as a medical condition, or medicalizes a non-disease situation in
his or her life)
Disorder
In medicine, a disorder is a functional abnormality or disturbance. The term
disorder is often considered more value-neutral and less stigmatizing than the terms
disease or illness, and therefore is a preferred terminology in some circumstances.
Medical condition
A medical condition is a broad term that includes all diseases, any illness, injury,
and disorders.
Syndrome
A syndrome is the association of several medical signs, symptoms, and or other
characteristics that often occur together. Some syndromes, such as Down
syndrome, have only one cause; others, such as Parkinsonian syndrome, have
multiple possible causes. In other cases, the cause of the syndrome is unknown.
Non-communicable diseases
is a medical condition or disease which by definition is non-infectious and nontransmissible among people. NCDs may be chronic diseases of long duration and slow
progression, or they may result in more rapid death such as some types of sudden
stroke. They include autoimmune diseases, heart disease, stroke,
many cancers, asthma, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's
disease, cataracts, and more.
Lifestyle diseases
A lifestyle disease is any disease that appears to increase in frequency as countries
become more industrialized and people live longer, especially if the risk factors
include behavioral choices like a sedentary lifestyle or a diet high in unhealthful
foods such as refined carbohydrates, trans fats, or alcoholic beverages.
Acute disease
An acute disease is a short-lived disease, like the common cold.
Chronic disease
A chronic disease is one that lasts for a long time, usually at least six months. During
that time, it may be constantly present, or it may go into remission and periodically
relapse.
Progressive disease
Progressive disease is a disease whose typical natural course is the worsening of
the disease until death, serious debility, or organ failure occurs. Slowly progressive
diseases are also chronic diseases; many are also degenerative diseases. The
opposite of progressive disease is stable disease or static disease: a medical
condition that exists, but does not get better or worse
Degenerative disease is a disease in which the function or structure of the
affected tissues or organs will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal
bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.[1] Degenerative diseases
are often contrasted with infectious diseases.They include diseases of the heart, joints and
nervous system.
Genetic disorder is an illness caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome,
especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital). Most genetic disorders are
quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions.
Genetic disorders may or may not be heritable, i.e., passed down from the parents' genes.
In non-heritable genetic disorders, defects may be caused by new mutations or changes to
the DNA. In such cases, the defect will only be heritable if it occurs in the sperm or egg or
the cells that give rise to them.
Congenital disorder, or congenital disease, is a condition existing at birth and often
before birth, or that develops during the first month of life (neonatal disease), regardless of
causation. Of these diseases, those characterized by structural deformities are termed
"congenital anomalies" and involve defects in or damage to a developing fetus.
Metabolic disorders problems arise due to accumulation of substances which are toxic or
interfere with normal function, or to the effects of reduced ability to synthesize essential
compounds.
Infectious diseases is a sickness that happens when an organism (a living thing such as
a plant or animal) is attacked by a pathogen. Pathogens (such as bacteria, viruses, and
other germs) are too small to see. Some infectious diseases are contagious, which means
that the sick plant, animal, or person can get other things sick. The pathogen can get from
one organism to another through air, food, water, blood, or physical touch.
Contagious diseases is a subset category of infectious diseases (or communicable
diseases), which are easily transmitted by physical contact (hence the name-origin) with the
person suffering the disease, or by their secretions or objects touched by them.[1]
The non-contagious category of infectious/communicable diseases usually require a
special mode of transmission between hosts. These include need for intermediate vector
species (mosquito that cause malaria) or transfer of bodily fluid (such as transfusions,
needle-sharing or sexual contact).
The boundary between contagious and non-contagious infectious diseases is not perfectly
drawn, as illustrated classically by tuberculosis, which is clearly transmissible from person
to person, but was not classically considered a contagious disease. In the present day,
most sexually transmitted diseases are considered contagious, but only some of them are
subject to medical isolation
Communicable diseasesillnesses caused by microorganisms and transmitted from an
infected person or animal to another person or animal.
Airborne diseases
is any disease that is caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air. The
relevant pathogens may be viruses, bacteria, or fungi, and they may be spread through
coughing, sneezing, raising of dust, spraying of liquids, or similar activities likely to
generate aerosol particles or droplets. Strictly speaking airborne diseases do not include
conditions caused simply by air pollution such as dusts and poisons, though their study and
prevention may be related.
Food borne illness
Food borne illness or food poisoning is any illness resulting from the consumption of
food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites.
Vector-borne disease

In epidemiology, a vector is any agent (person, animal or microorganism) that
carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism. There is often
a reservoir species important in epidemiology. Natural reservoir or nidus (the latter
from the Latin word for "nest") refers to the long-term host of the pathogen of
an infectious disease.[1] It is often the case that hosts do not get the disease carried by
the pathogen or it is carried as a subclinical infection and so asymptomatic and nonlethal. Once discovered, natural reservoirs elucidate the complete life cycle of infectious
diseases, providing effective prevention and control. eg. Deer mice are the natural
reservoir for hantaviruses. They do NOT get the hemorrhagic fevers but can trasmit
them to humans.
Endocrine systems
COMPLETlON
synapse
cerebrum
tongue
cones
medulla
thyroid
Hormones
parathyroid
motor
synapse
hypothalamus
brain
lens
cell body
reflex
negative
skin
cerebrum
dendrites
feedback
Interneurons
semicircular
testes
larynx.
positive
Using the word list above fill in the word or number that best completes each statement on the
answer sheet.
41. The nervous system is made up of the
?
, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
42. The three major parts of a neuron are the dendrites, axon, and
?
.
43. The
?
neuron carries messages from the central nervous system to the effectors.
44. The
?
canals in the inner ear alert the brain to a change in position of the body.
45. The gap that exists between an axon and a dendrite is called a(an)
46. The
?
47. In the
?
.
is the organ associated with the sense of touch.
?
mechanism, the production of a hormone is controlled
by the concentration of another hormone in the blood.
48.
?
connect sensory and motor neurons.
49. The ovaries and
?
are sex glands.
50. Nerve impulses enter the cell body of a neuron through the
51. The
?
?
.
focuses light rays entering the eye.
52. The three parts of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and ?
.
53. The light-sensitive cells in the eye that react to color and bright light are the
54. n automatic reaction to the environment is called a(an)
55.
?
?
?
.
.
are chemical messengers that travel through the blood.
56. The part of the brain that controls thinking, speaking, and hearing is the ?
57. The receptors for taste are located on the
?
.
.
58. The is the major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
59. The gland is located at the base of the neck slightly below the
60. The
?
glands increase the calcium level of blood by releasing calcium from bone tissue.
Government Mandated Diet for the Public Good(hypothetical)
I would like to begin by telling a little story. The story begins with the Health Products and Food Branch
(HPFB), which has a little known advisory committee known as the ACNF - Advisory Committee for
Nutritional Food. And their mission is to promote the most nutritional diet in the interest of the public
good. After a period of study and deliberations, they came up with Recommended Daily Amounts of
each type of food to include at least 3 servings of meat per day, preferably Big Macs, Whoppers and
Chicken Dinners. They've called this optimal diet FAD which stands for Federally Approved Diet. They
have published their FAD diet and other recommendations in a special government report. Before long,
your state legislators took note of this official government report and acting in what they felt was the
public's best interest, they passed a law which made the FAD diet mandatory. And, just to make sure
that all citizens follow this government approved diet, the law mandates that neither you nor your
children can attend school (including college) unless you eat the government's FAD diet.
So, one day during a class discussion on nutrition your daughter or granddaughter happens to mention
that she and her family are.....VEGETARIANS. Well, within a few days her parents receive a very
threatening letter from school officials which makes it clear that the little girl will be expelled from
school unless her parents start feeding her the FAD diet. School officials also make it clear that if her
parents are particularly stubborn in refusing to comply with the government-mandated FAD diet, that
Child Protective Services will be called and they will likely take the little girl away from her parents based
on "NUTRITIONAL NEGLECT" of a child.
Well, being vegetarians, a very bright and independent thinking group of people, the parents said "Hey,
wait a minute.... this is Canada, not communist China. Government has no right to tell me what I put
into my body or into my child's body." And these inquisitive vegetarians began asking some questions
that made school and government officials very very uncomfortable. They asked "Who are the members
of this government advisory committee on nutritional foods that have advocated that my child eat Big
Macs, Whoppers and Chicken Dinners? And, will you show us the scientific data which supports their
conclusions?" "If this is all being done for the public good, then the public should have the right to know
who is making these decisions that affect everyone and what does the process entail?" Well, the
government bureaucrats did not like this line of questioning one bit. Because, what the vegetarians
found out was that the ACNF, the advisory committee on nutritional foods, was composed of
representatives from..... McDonalds, Burger King and Kentucky Fried Chicken. And, despite their request
to see the actual scientific data that was used to develop this government-mandated FAD diet, the
government refused to give this information to the vegetarians because members of the committee said
that the data contained proprietary, trade secrets that were protected by patent and could, therefore,
not be divulged to the public. It thus became clear to the vegetarians that there was something very
rotten about the government's compulsory FAD diet. Can you imagine what this mandatory FAD diet
would do for the sales of McDonalds, Burger King and Kentucky Fried Chicken? A government mandate
which would require people to eat this FAD diet would constitute a guaranteed market, a veritable
goldmine for the purveyors of red and white meat.
Now having told that little story, I want to emphasize to you that the story is pure fiction
Health Problems(in order of study in HS 20)
A disease is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of an organism. It is often
construed as amedical condition associated with specific symptoms andsigns.[1] It may be caused by
factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal
dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. In humans, "disease" is often used more broadly to refer to
any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or
similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes
includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and
atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be
considered distinguishable categories
1. Non-transmissable diseases are all other diseases, including most forms of cancer, heart disease, degenerative
diseases (Diseases of the heart, joints and nervous system), genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases , injuries,
disabilities, endocrine/metabolic disorders, allergies , or high blood pressure.
eg. DIABETES(don't forget recombinant DNA to get bacteria to make human insulin!!!)
syndromes (eg. SAVANT SYNDROME AND AQUIRED SS)
Virulence (the tendency of a pathogen to cause damage to a host's fitness) and 2.Pathogens(usually a
microorganism - not viruses and prions that cause kuru and CJD = Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease) = BACTERIAL and
food borne illness (Typhoid Mary story of person who prepares food for large groups of people refrigeration,
preservation, cooking, sanitary habits), VIRAL including chronic carrier state may occur in the following:
Hantavirus Infection Hepatitis A B and C +Smallpox, ANTIBIOTICS SUPERBUGS PARASITIC, FUNGAL, PRION
MYTHBUSTERS OUTBREAKS/EPIDEMICS/PANDEMICS *****http://healthmap.org/en/ to follow global/local
outbreaks!!!!! [Transmissible diseases: Transmission of pathogens occurs through many different routes, including
airborne, droplet dispersal of a sneeze/cough/talking/breathing, vector borne, Zoonoses (=transmissible
between man and one or more other species) with an animal reservoir(that does not die of the disease!!!!),
water or food borne(Some diseases are caused by drinking water that is contaminated by human or animal feces,
which may contain disease-causing microbes. Clean water, hygiene and good sewerage systems prevent the
spread of water-borne diseases such as typhoid and cholera.), direct or indirect contact with infected people, on
surfaces or materials, through contact with objects contaminated with infected body fluids like contaminated
syringes and needles , sexual contact, through blood to blood, through breast milk or other body fluids, or
ingesting prions, and through the fecal-oral route. ]
also infectious diseases Contagious diseases Communicable diseases:
Zoonotic or vector-borne Infectious Diseases (VIDEOS) (A vector‐borne disease is one in which the
pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an
arthropod or other agent like a syringe, sometimes with other animals serving as intermediary hosts.
Zoonotic means that these viruses naturally reside in an animal reservoir carrier host or arthropod vector that
does not die of the disease. They are totally dependent on their hosts for replication and overall survival. Smallpox
and poliomyelitis virus have no animal reservoir. The lack of a non-human reservoir makes these viruses good
candidates for eradication efforts.
For the most part, rodents and arthropods are the main reservoirs for viruses . The multimammate rat, cotton rat,
deer mouse, house mouse, and other field rodents are examples of reservoir hosts. Other zoonoses reservoirs
include cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, cats, dogs, chickens, native birds like house sparrows, crows and ravens,
Chimpanzee, Gorillas, Bank voles, Copepods, Fish, Foxes, Flies, Geese, Goats, Hamsters, Hyraxes, Lizards, Komodo
dragon, Monkeys like the Macaque and Sooty mangabey, Opossums, Rabbits and hares, Raccoons, Sloths, Snails,
Turtles, Whales, Wolves, masked civits, raccoon dogs, feret badgers, tortoises, and bats. Examples of natural
reservoirs are:
 Field mice, for hantaviruses and Lassa fever
 Marmots, black rats, prairie dogs, chipmunks and squirrels for bubonic plague
 Armadillos and opossums for Chagas disease and several species of New World Leishmania
 Ticks for babesiosis and Rocky Mountain spotted fever
 Ground squirrels, porcupines, and chipmunks for Colorado tick fever
 Snails for schistosomiasis and swimmer's itch
 Pigs for cestode worm infections
 Raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats for rabies
 Shellfish for cholera
 Fowl (ducks and geese) for avian influenza
 Bats, the reservoir for Nipah and Hendra virus, rabies and severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS)
 Dogs and wild canids for Leishmania infantum, the cause of infantile visceral leishmaniasis
 Cats, for Bartonella (aka Cat scratch disease)
 Gerbils for Leishmania major, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World
 Rock hyrax for Leishmania aethiopica and, probably, certain strains of Leishmania tropica, the causative
agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Old World
 Mosquitoes, for malaria, West Nile virus, Yellow fever and Dengue fever
The viruses carried in rodent reservoirs are transmitted when humans have contact with urine, fecal matter,
saliva, or other body excretions from infected rodents. The viruses associated with arthropod vectors are spread
most often when the vector mosquito, assassin bug, lice, flea, sandfly, blackfly, or tick bites a human, or when a
human crushes a tick. Insects are responsible for spreading many diseases. Malaria is spread from person to
person by certain species of female mosquito carrying the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. The parasite enters
the human host when an infected mosquito takes a blood meal. Bubonic plague (Black Death) is a bacterial disease
of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis. It can be spread to humans and other animals by infected rat fleas. People
usually get plague from being bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium. However, some of
these vectors may spread virus to animals, livestock, for example. Humans then become infected when they care
for or slaughter the animals. Insects can also transmit pathogens to food; house flies are very good at spreading
Salmonella and E.coli O157. They feed on fecal waste and transfer microbes from their feet and other body parts
to food. The microbe does not invade or multiply inside the fly. Schistosomiasis, river blindness, and elephantiasis
are not zoonotic, even though they may be transmitted by insects or use intermediate hosts vectors, because they
depend on the human host for part of their life-cycle.
Health Perspective
Explanation
Advantages
Disadvantages
Eg. Complementary
medicine
Combining
traditional and
western medicine
Combining medical
approaches to treat
patients
Some methods
unproven, and are
being forgotten
Traditional medicine
Alternative medicine
Western Medicine
Chiropactic
Naturopathy
Homeopathy
Herbology
Dietary supplements
Acupuncture
Massage Therapy
Aromatherapy
Reflexology
Iridology
Tai Chi
Yoga
Placebo Studies
Home Birthing
Blood Transfusions
Organ Donations
Autopsies
Refusal of Treatment
Euthanasia
HS20-HP1+HP2 Assignment
HEALTH PERSPECTIVES:
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises knowledge systems
that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as:
"Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories,
beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the
maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical
and mental illness."
In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for
their primary health care needs. When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine
is often called complementary and alternative medicine.
The WHO also notes, though, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have
negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and
safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems. Core
disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalism, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, and
medical anthropology.
Traditional medicine may include formalized aspects of folk medicine, i.e. longstanding remedies
passed on and practiced by lay people. Practices known as traditional medicines include Ayurveda,
Siddha medicine, Unani, ancient Iranian medicine, Irani, Islamic medicine, traditional Vietnamese
medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, acupuncture, Muti, Ifá,
traditional African medicine, and many other forms of healing practices.
"Western medicine" is a term sometimes used to describe evidence-based medicine, which, for
various historical reasons, emerged from "Western" civilisation (i.e. countries originally populated by
or settled by Europeans), though it is now practised throughout the world. It involves the use of
pharmacologically active agents or physical interventions to treat or
suppress symptoms or pathophysiologic processes of diseases or conditions. Additionally the
epistemological virtues of particular aspects of clinical trial methodology have been examined,
mostly notably the special place that is given to randomisation,[13][14][15] the notion of a blind
experiment and the use of a placebo control.
Limitations of western medicine include dealing with: fibermyalgia, chronic pain, lower back pain,
cancer, who gets an organ transplant, long waiting lists, creating superbugs, less strengthening of
natural immunity, and potential awful side effects.
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine[1] that emphasizes diagnosis, treatment and
prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine, under the
belief that these disorders affect general health via the nervous system.[2] Many chiropractors reject
being characterized as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).[3] It is a healthcare
profession,[4] and although chiropractors have many similarities to primary care providers, they are
more similar to a medical specialty like dentistry or podiatry.[5] The main chiropractic treatment
technique involves manual therapy, especially manipulation of the spine, other joints, and soft
tissues; treatment may also include exercises and health and lifestyle counseling.[6] Traditional
chiropractic assumes that a vertebral subluxation or spinal joint dysfunction interferes with the body's
function and its innate intelligence.[7] A large number of chiropractors want to separate themselves
from the traditional vitalistic concept of innate intelligence.[4]
Many studies of treatments used by chiropractors have been conducted, with conflicting results.[8]
Systematic reviews of this research have not found evidence that chiropractic manipulation is
effective, with the possible exception for the treatment of back pain.[9] A critical evaluation found that
collectively, spinal manipulation was ineffective for any condition.[10] A Cochrane review found very
low to moderate evidence that spinal manipulation therapy was no more effective than inert
interventions, sham SMT or as an adjunct therapy for acute low back pain.[11] Spinal manipulation
may be cost-effective for sub-acute or chronic low back pain but the results for acute low back pain
were insufficient.[12] The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of maintenance chiropractic care are
unknown.[13] The evidence suggests that spinal manipulation therapy is safe[14] but the rate of
adverse events is unknown[15] as there is under-reporting.[16] It is frequently associated with mild to
moderate adverse effects, with serious or fatal complications in rare cases.[15] There is controversy
surrounding the level of risk of stroke from cervical manipulation.[17] It has been suggested that the
relationship is causative,[18] but this is disputed by many chiropractors, who believe the association
between chiropractic therapy and vertebrobasilar artery stroke is unproven.[19]
Chiropractic is well established in the U.S., Canada and Australia.[20] It overlaps with other manualtherapy professions, including massage therapy, osteopathy, and physical therapy.[21] Back and
neck pain are the specialties of chiropractic but many chiropractors treat ailments other than
musculoskeletal issues.[9] Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain.[22]
D.D. Palmer founded chiropractic in the 1890s, and his son B.J. Palmer helped to expand it in the
early 20th century.[23] It has two main groups: "straights", now the minority, emphasize vitalism,
innate intelligence and spinal adjustments, and consider vertebral subluxations to be the cause of all
disease; "mixers", the majority, are more open to mainstream views and conventional medical
techniques, such as exercise, massage, and ice therapy.[4] Throughout its history, chiropractic has
been controversial.[8][24] For most of its existence it has been at odds with mainstream medicine,
sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation and innate intelligence[25] that are not
based on solid science.[9] Despite the general consensus of public health professionals regarding
the benefits of vaccination, among chiropractors there are significant disagreements over the
subject,[26] which has led to negative impacts on both public vaccination and mainstream
acceptance of chiropractic.[27] The American Medical Association called chiropractic an "unscientific
cult" in 1966[28] and boycotted it until losing an antitrust case in 1987.[29] Chiropractic has had a
strong political base and sustained demand for services; in recent decades, it has gained more
legitimacy and greater acceptance among medical physicians and health plans in the U.S.,[29] and
evidence-based medicine has been used to review research studies and generate practice
guidelines.[30] The practice remains at a crossroads between science and ideological dogma.[31]
Herbalism ("herbology" or "herbal medicine") is use of plants for medicinal purposes, and the
study of such use. Plants have been the basis for medical treatments through much of human
history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine recognizes
herbalism as a form of alternative medicine, as the practice of herbalism is not strictly based on
evidence gathered using the scientific method. Modern medicine, does, however, make use of many
plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-tested pharmaceutical drugs, and phytotherapy
works to apply modern standards of effectiveness testing to herbs and medicines that are derived
from natural sources. The scope of herbal medicine is sometimes extended to include fungal and
bee products, as well as minerals, shells and certain animal parts. The World Health Organization
(WHO) estimates that 80 percent of the population of some Asian and African countries presently
use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care.[7] Pharmaceuticals are prohibitively
expensive for most of the world's population, half of which lives on less than $2 U.S. per day.[8] In
comparison, herbal medicines can be grown from seed or gathered from nature for little or no cost.
Many of the pharmaceuticals currently available to physicians have a long history of use as herbal
remedies, including opium, aspirin, digitalis, and quinine. According to the World Health
Organization, approximately 25% of modern drugs used in the United States have been derived from
plants.[9] At least 7,000 medical compounds in the modern pharmacopoeia are derived from
plants[10] Among the 120 active compounds currently isolated from the higher plants and widely
used in modern medicine today, 80 percent show a positive correlation between their modern
therapeutic use and the traditional use of the plants from which they are derived. In a 2010 survey
of the most common 1000 plant-derived compounds, only 156 had clinical trials published.
Preclinical studies (tissue-culture and animal studies) were reported for about one-half of the plant
products, while 12% of the plants, although available in the Western market, had "no substantial
studies" of their properties. Strong evidence was found that 5 were toxic or allergenic, so that their
use ought to be discouraged or forbidden. Nine plants had considerable evidence of therapeutic
effect. The U.S. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National
Institutes of Health funds clinical trials of the effectiveness of herbal medicines and provides “fact
sheets” summarizing the effectiveness and side effects of many plant-derived preparations.
Naturopathy, or naturopathic medicine, is a form of alternative medicine based on a belief in
vitalism, which posits that a special energy called "vital energy" or "vital force" guides bodily
processes such as metabolism, reproduction, growth, and adaptation. Naturopathy favors a holistic
approach with non-invasive treatment and generally avoids the use of surgery and drugs.
Practitioners of naturopathy often prefer methods of treatment that are not compatible with evidencebased medicine, and in doing so, reject the tenets of biomedicine and modern science. Naturopathic
medicine is considered replete with pseudoscientific, ineffective, unethical, and possibly dangerous
practices.[1]
The term "naturopathy" is derived from Latin and Greek, and literally translates as "nature disease".
Modern naturopathy grew out of the Natural Cure movement of Europe. The term was coined in
1895 by John Scheel and popularized by Benedict Lust, the "father of U.S. naturopathy". Beginning
in the 1970s, there was a revival of interest in the United States and Canada, in conjunction with the
holistic health movement. Today, naturopathy is primarily practiced in the United States and
Canada. Naturopathy comprises many different treatment modalities, including nutritional and herbal
medicine, lifestyle advice, counseling, flower essence, homeopathy and remedial massage.
Much of the ideology and methodological underpinnings of naturopathy are in conflict with the
paradigm of evidence-based medicine. Many naturopaths oppose vaccination based in part on the
early views that shaped the profession. According to the American Cancer Society, "scientific
evidence does not support claims that naturopathic medicine can cure cancer or any other disease,
since virtually no studies on naturopathy as a whole have been published."
Naturopaths aim to prevent illness through stress reduction and changes to diet and lifestyle, often
rejecting the methods of evidence based medicine. Naturopaths do not generally recommend
vaccines and antibiotics, based in part on the early views that shaped the profession, and they may
provide alternative remedies even in cases where evidence-based medicine has been shown
effective.
Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann based on
his doctrine of like cures like: a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people
will cure similar symptoms in sick people. Homeopathy is considered a pseudoscience, and its
remedies have been found to be no more effective than placebos.
Diseases have spiritual, as well as physical causes. Hahnemann believed the underlying causes of
disease were phenomena that he termed miasms, and that homeopathic remedies addressed these.
Medicines may cure symptoms, but the underlying imputed miasm still remains, and deep-seated
ailments can be corrected only by removing the deeper disturbance of the vital force. The remedies
are prepared by repeatedly diluting a chosen substance in alcohol or distilled water, Claims: dilution
increases potency.
The postulated mechanisms of action of homeopathic remedies are both scientifically implausible
and not physically possible. Although some clinical trials produce positive results, systematic reviews
reveal that this is because of chance, flawed research methods, and reporting bias. Continued
homeopathic practice, despite the evidence that it does not work, has been criticized as unethical
because it increases the suffering of patients by discouraging the use of real medicine, with the
World Health Organisation warning against using homeopathy to try to treat severe diseases such
as HIV and malaria. The continued practice, despite a lack of evidence of efficacy, has led to
homeopathy being characterized within the scientific and medical communities as nonsense,
quackery, or a sham.
The British House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has stated: "In our view, the
systematic reviews and meta-analyses conclusively demonstrate that homeopathic products perform
no better than placebos.
Acupuncture is the stimulation of specific acupoints along the skin of the body involving various
methods such as penetration by thin needles or the application of heat, pressure, or laser light.[1]
Traditional acupuncture involves needle insertion, moxibustion, and cupping therapy.[2] It is a form
of complementary and alternative medicine[3] and a key component of traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM).[4] According to TCM, stimulating specific acupuncture points corrects imbalances in the flow
of qi through channels known as meridians.[5] Acupuncture aims to treat a range of conditions,[4]
though is most commonly used for pain relief.[6][7]
Acupuncture has been the subject of active scientific research, both in regard to its basis and
therapeutic effectiveness, since the late 20th century.[8] Any evidence on the effectiveness of
acupuncture is "variable and inconsistent" for all conditions.[9] An overview of high-quality Cochrane
reviews suggested that acupuncture may alleviate some but not all kinds of pain,[10] while a
systematic review of systematic reviews found little evidence that acupuncture is an effective
treatment for reducing pain.[6] Although minimally invasive, the puncturing of the skin with
acupuncture needles poses problems when designing trials that adequately control for placebo
effects.[8][11] Some of the research results suggest acupuncture can alleviate pain but others
consistently suggest that acupuncture's effects are mainly due to placebo.[12] A systematic review of
systematic reviews highlighted recent high-quality randomized controlled trials which found that for
reducing pain, real acupuncture was no better than sham acupuncture.[6] It remains unclear whether
acupuncture reduces pain independent of a psychological impact of the needling ritual.[13]
Acupuncture is generally safe when done using clean technique and single use needles.[2][14]
When properly delivered, it has a low rate of mostly minor adverse effects.[1][2] Between 2000 and
2009, at least ninety-five cases of serious adverse events, including five deaths, were reported to
have resulted from acupuncture.[6] Many of the serious events were reported from developed
countries and many were due to malpractice.[6] Since serious adverse events continue to be
reported, it is recommended that acupuncturists be trained sufficiently to reduce the risk.[6] A metaanalysis found that acupuncture for chronic low back pain was cost-effective as a complement to
standard care, but not as a substitute for standard care except in cases where comorbid depression
presented,[15] while a systematic review found insufficient evidence for the cost-effectiveness of
acupuncture in the treatment of chronic low back pain.[16]
Scientific investigation has not found any histological or physiological evidence for traditional
Chinese concepts such as qi, meridians, and acupuncture points,[n 1][20][21] and some
contemporary practitioners use acupuncture without following the traditional Chinese
approach[22][23] and have abandoned the concepts of qi and meridians as pseudoscientific.[24][25]
TCM is largely pseudoscience, with no valid mechanism of action for the majority of its
treatments.[26] Acupuncture is currently used widely throughout China and many other countries,
including the United States.
MassageTherapy is the manipulation of superficial and deeper layers of muscle and connective
tissue using various techniques, to enhance function, aid in the healing process, decrease muscle
reflex activity, inhibit motor-neuron excitability,[1] promote relaxation and well-being. Massage
involves working and acting on the body with pressure – structured, unstructured, stationary, or
moving – tension, motion, or vibration, done manually or with mechanical aids. Target tissues may
include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, skin, joints, or other connective tissue, as well as
lymphatic vessels, or organs of the gastrointestinal system. Massage can be applied with the hands,
fingers, elbows, knees, forearm, or feet.
The main professionals that provide therapeutic massage are massage therapists, athletic trainers,
physical therapists and practitioners of many traditional Chinese and other eastern medicines.
Massage practitioners work in a variety of medical settings and may travel to private residences or
businesses. Contraindications to massage include deep vein thrombosis, bleeding disorders or
taking blood thinners such as Warfarin, damaged blood vessels, weakened bones from cancer,
osteoporosis, or fractures, bruising, and fever. Anyone suffering from these conditions should not
use massage therapy.
Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as
essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a person's mind, mood,
cognitive function or health. Other stated uses include pain and anxiety reduction, enhancement of
energy and short-term memory, relaxation, hair loss prevention, and reduction of eczema-induced
itching.[11][12]
Two basic mechanisms are offered to explain the purported effects. One is the influence of aroma on
the brain, especially the limbic system through the olfactory system.[13] The other is the direct
pharmacological effects of the essential oils.[14] While precise knowledge of the synergy between
the body and aromatic oils is often claimed by aromatherapists, the efficacy of aromatherapy
remains unproven. However, some preliminary clinical studies of aromatherapy in combination with
other techniques show positive effects. Aromatherapy does not cure conditions, but it is suggested
that it helps the body to find a natural way to cure itself and improve immune response.
Some essential oils such as tea tree[1] have demonstrated anti-microbial effects, but there is still a
lack of clinical evidence demonstrating efficacy against bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. Evidence
for the efficacy of aromatherapy in treating medical conditions remains poor, with a particular lack of
studies employing rigorous methodology,[2] but some evidence exists that essential oils may have
therapeutic potential.
Reflexology, or zone therapy, is an alternative medicine involving the physical act of applying
pressure to the feet, hands, or ears with specific thumb, finger, and hand techniques without the use
of oil or lotion. It is based on what reflexologists claim to be a system of zones and reflex areas that
they say reflect an image of the body on the feet and hands, with the premise that such work affects
a physical change to the body. The Reflexology Association of Canada defines reflexology as:
"A natural healing art based on the principle that there are reflexes in the feet, hands and ears and
their referral areas within zone related areas, which correspond to every part, gland and organ of the
body. Through application of pressure on these reflexes without the use of tools, crèmes or lotions,
the feet being the primary area of application, reflexology relieves tension, improves circulation and
helps promote the natural function of the related areas of the body."[7]
Reflexologists posit that the blockage of an energy field, invisible life force, or Qi, can prevent
healing.[3] Another tenet of reflexology is the belief that practitioners can relieve stress and pain in
other parts of the body through the manipulation of the feet. One claimed explanation is that the
pressure received in the feet may send signals that 'balance' the nervous system or release
chemicals such as endorphins that reduce stress and pain.[8] These hypotheses are rejected by the
general medical community, who cite a lack of scientific evidence and the well-tested germ theory of
disease.[4]
Reflexology's claim to manipulate energy (Qi) has been highly controversial, as there is no scientific
evidence for the existence of life energy (Qi), 'energy balance', 'crystalline structures,' or 'pathways'
in the body
A 2009 systematic review of randomised controlled trials concludes that
"The best evidence available to date does not demonstrate convincingly that reflexology is an
effective treatment for any medical condition."[2]
There is no consensus among reflexologists on how reflexology is supposed to work; a unifying
theme is the idea that areas on the foot correspond to areas of the body, and that by manipulating
these one can improve health through one's qi.[3] Reflexologists divide the body into ten equal
vertical zones, five on the right and five on the left.[4] Concerns have been raised by medical
professionals that treating potentially serious illnesses with reflexology, which has no proven
efficacy, could delay the seeking of appropriate medical treatment.
Iridology (also known as iridodiagnosis[1] or iridiagnosis[2]) is an alternative medicine
technique whose proponents claim that patterns, colors, and other characteristics of the iris can be
examined to determine information about a patient's systemic health. Practitioners match their
observations to iris charts, which divide the iris into zones that correspond to specific parts of the
human body. Iridologists see the eyes as "windows" into the body's state of health.
Iridologists believe they can use the charts to distinguish between healthy systems and organs in the
body and those that are overactive, inflamed, or distressed. Iridologists believe this information
demonstrates a patient's susceptibility towards certain illnesses, reflects past medical problems, or
predicts later health problems.
As opposed to evidence-based medicine, Iridology is not supported by quality research studies[3]
and is widely considered pseudoscience.[4] Iris texture is a phenotypical feature which develops
during gestation and remains without significant change after birth.[citation needed] The stability of
iris structures is the foundation of the biometric technology which uses iris recognition for
identification purposes.[5][6]
In 1979, Bernard Jensen, a leading American iridologist and two other iridology proponents failed to
establish the basis of their practice when they examined photographs of the eyes of 143 patients in
an attempt to determine which ones had kidney impairments. Of the patients, forty-eight had been
diagnosed with kidney disease, and the rest had normal kidney function. Based on their analysis of
the patient's irises, the three iridologists could not detect which patients had kidney disease and
which did not.
T'ai chi or tai chi in English usage, is an internal Chinese martial art practised for both its defense
training and its health benefits. It is also typically practised for a variety of other personal reasons: its
hard and soft martial art technique, demonstration competitions, and longevity. T'ai chi's health
training and meditation techniques concentrate on relieving the physical effects of stress on the body
and mind.
T'ai chi has been reported as being useful in treating a number of ailments, and is supported by a
number of associations, including the National Parkinson Foundation and Diabetes Australia.
However, medical evidence of effectiveness was lacking and in recent years research has been
undertaken to address this.[2]
A comprehensive overview of all the existing systematic reviews of t'ai chi ch'uan's health effects,
found that as of 2011, "the evidence is conclusively or tentatively positive for fall prevention, general
healthcare in older people, improving balance and enhancing psychological health"; the overview's
authors thus recommended t'ai chi ch'uan to older people for its various physical and psychological
benefits. There was no conclusive evidence of benefit for any of the other conditions researched,
including Parkinson's disease, diabetes, cancer and arthritis.
Yoga as exercise or alternative medicine is a modern phenomenon which has been influenced by
the ancient Indian practice of hatha yoga. It involves holding stretches as a kind of low-impact
physical exercise, and is often used for therapeutic purposes.[1][2][3] Yoga in this sense often
occurs in a class and may involve meditation, imagery, breath work and music.[4][5]
Both the meditative and the exercise components of hatha yoga have been researched for both
specific and non-specific health benefits. Hatha yoga has been studied as an intervention for many
conditions, including back pain, stress, and depression. In general, it can help improve quality of life,
but does not treat disease.[6]
A survey released in December 2008 by the US National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine[7] found that hatha yoga was the sixth most commonly used alternative therapy in the
United States during 2007, with 6.1 percent of the population participating.
Yoga is a core component of the Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program. Drawing
from recent research on the mental and physical benefits of practicing yoga, positive psychologists
have begun to look deeper into the possibilities of utilizing yoga to improve life for people even in the
absence of disease.
A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in
sufficient quantities.
Supplements as generally understood include vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids, or amino acids,
among other substances. U.S. authorities define dietary supplements as foods, while elsewhere they
may be classified as drugs or other products.
There are more than 50,000 dietary supplements available. More than half of the U.S. adult
population (53% - 55%) consume dietary supplements with most common ones being
multivitamins.[1][2]
These products are not intended to prevent or treat any disease and in some circumstances are
dangerous, according to the U.S. National Institutes of Health. For those who fail to consume a
balanced diet, the agency says that certain supplements "may have value."[3]
Most supplements should be avoided, and usually people should not eat micronutrients except
people with clearly shown deficiency because many are a waste of money. Some vitamins are fat
soluble so they are not absorbed unless eaten with lipids. Most excess vitamins are eliminated by
the body, making expensive urine. People should first consult a doctor before taking supplements.
An exception is vitamin D, which is recommended in Nordic countries[6] due to weak sunlight.
Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group
of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham
"placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most
commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or
placebo treatment. Often, there is also a further "natural history" group that does not receive any
treatment at all.
The purpose of the placebo group is to account for the placebo effect, that is, effects from treatment
that do not depend on the treatment itself. Such factors include knowing one is receiving a
treatment, attention from health care professionals, and the expectations of a treatment's
effectiveness by those running the research study. Without a placebo group to compare against, it is
not possible to know whether the treatment itself had any effect.
Patients frequently show improvement even when given a sham or "fake" treatment. Such
intentionally inert placebo treatments can take many forms, such as a pill containing only sugar, a
surgery where nothing efficacious is actually done (just an incision and sometimes some minor
touching or handling of the underlying structures), or a medical device (such as an ultrasound
machine) that is not actually turned on. Also, due to the body's natural healing ability and statistical
effects such as regression to the mean, many patients will get better even when given no treatment
at all. Thus, the relevant question when assessing a treatment is not "does the treatment work?" but
"does the treatment work better than a placebo treatment, or no treatment at all?" As one early
clinical trial researcher wrote, "the first object of a therapeutic trial is to discover whether the patients
who receive the treatment under investigation are cured more rapidly, more completely or more
frequently, than they would have been without it."[1]p.195 More broadly, the aim of a clinical trial is to
determine what treatments, delivered in what circumstances, to which patients, in what conditions,
are the most effective.[2][3]
Therefore, the use of placebos is a standard control component of most clinical trials, which attempt
to make some sort of quantitative assessment of the efficacy of medicinal drugs or treatments. Such
a test or clinical trial is called a placebo-controlled study, and its control is of the negative type. A
study whose control is a previously tested treatment, rather than no treatment, is called a positivecontrol study, because its control is of the positive type.
Government regulatory agencies approve new drugs only after tests establish not only that patients
respond to them, but also that their effect is greater than that of a placebo (by way of affecting more
patients, by affecting responders more strongly, or both). As a result, "placebo-controlled studies
often are designed in such a way that disadvantages the placebo condition"
Home birthing in developed countries is attended or an unattended childbirth in a non-clinical
setting, typically using natural childbirth methods, that takes place in a residence rather than in a
hospital or a birth centre, and usually attended by a midwife or lay attendant with experience in
managing home births. Home birth was, until the advent of modern medicine, the de facto method of
delivery. Since the beginning of the 20th century, home birth rates have drastically fallen in most
developed countries, generally to less than 1% of all births. Infant and mother mortality rates have
also dropped drastically over the same time period.
Women with access to high-quality medical care may choose home birth because they prefer the
intimacy of a home and family-centered experience or desire to avoid a medically-centered
experience typical of a hospital. Professionals attending home births can be obstetricians, certified or
uncertified midwives, and doulas. In developing countries, where women may not be able to afford
medical care or it may not be accessible to them, a home birth may be the only option available, and
the woman may or may not be assisted by a professional attendant of any kind.
Multiple studies have been performed concerning the safety of home births for both the child and the
mother; as standard practices, licensing requirements, and access to emergency hospital care
differs between regions it can be difficult to compare studies across national borders. A 2014 US
survey of medical studies found that perinatal mortality rates were triple that of hospital births, and a
US nation-wide study over 13 million births on a 3-year span (2007-2010) found that births at home
were roughly 10 times as likely to be stillborn (14 times in first-born babies) and almost four times as
likely to have neonatal seizures or serious neurological dysfunction when compared to babies born
in hospitals, while a 2007 UK survey found that perinatal mortality rates were only slightly higher in
that country than planned hospital births for low-risk pregnancies. Both baby's and mother's higher
mortalities are associated with the inability to timely assist mothers with emergency procedures in
case of complications during labour.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood products into
one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost
components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice
commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood
cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.
Units of packed red blood cells are typically only recommended when either a patient's hemoglobin
level falls below 10 g/dL or hematocrit falls below 30%; recently, this 'trigger' level has been
decreased to 7-8 g/dL, as a more restrictive strategy has been shown to have better patient
outcomes.[1] This is in part due to the increasing evidence that there are cases where patients have
worse outcomes when transfused.[2] One may consider transfusion for people with symptoms of
cardiovascular disease such as chest pain or shortness of breath.[1] Globally around 85 million units
of red blood cells are transfused in a given year
Objections to blood transfusions may arise for personal, medical, or religious reasons. For example,
Jehovah's Witnesses object to blood transfusion primarily on religious grounds—they believe that
blood is sacred, as the Bible says "abstain from blood" (Acts 15:28,29). They have also highlighted
complications associated with transfusion.
Organ donation is the donation of biological tissue or an organ of the human body, from a living or
dead person to a living recipient in need of a transplantation. Transplantable organs and tissues are
removed in a surgical procedure following a determination, based on the donor's medical and social
history, of which are suitable for transplantation. While views of organ donation are positive there is
a large gap between the numbers of registered donors compared to those awaiting organ donations
on a global level.
Certain groups, like the Roma (gypsies), oppose organ donation on religious grounds, but most of
the world's religions support donation as a charitable act of great benefit to the community.[40]
Issues surrounding patient autonomy, living wills, and guardianship make it nearly impossible for
involuntary organ donation to occur.
The primary issues surrounding the morality of organ donation are semantical in nature. The debate
over the definitions of life, death, human, and body is ongoing. For example, whether or not a braindead patient ought to be kept artificially animate in order to preserve organs for procurement is an
ongoing problem in clinical bioethics. In addition, some have argued that organ donation constitutes
an act of self-harm, even when an organ is donated willingly.
Further, the use of cloning to produce organs with an identical genotype to the recipient has issues
all its own. Cloning is still a controversial topic, especially considering the possibility for an entire
person to be brought into being with the express purpose of being destroyed for organ procurement.
While the benefit of such a cloned organ would be a zero-percent chance of transplant rejection, the
ethical issues involved with creating and killing a clone may outweigh these benefits. However, it
may be possible in the future to use cloned stem-cells to grow a new organ without creating a new
human being.
A relatively new field of transplantation has reinvigorated the debate. Xenotransplantation, or the
transfer of animal (usually pig) organs into human bodies, promises to eliminate many of the ethical
issues, while creating many of its own.[citation needed] While xenotransplantation promises to
increase the supply of organs considerably, the threat of organ transplant rejection and the risk of
xenozoonosis(animal diseases becoming human diseases), coupled with general anathema to the
idea, decreases the functionality of the technique. Some animal rights groups oppose the sacrifice of
an animal for organ donation and have launched campaigns to ban them.
the moral status of "black market organ donation" relies upon the ends, rather than the
means.[citation needed] In so far as those who donate organs are often impoverished[citation
needed] and those who can afford black market organs are typically well-off,[citation needed] it
would appear that there is an imbalance in the trade. In many cases, those in need of organs are put
on waiting lists for legal organs for indeterminate lengths of time — many die while still on a waiting
list.
Organ donation is fast becoming an important bioethical issue from a social perspective as well.
While most first-world nations have a legal system of oversight for organ transplantation, the fact
remains that demand far outstrips supply. Consequently, there has arisen a black market trend often
referred to as transplant tourism.[citation needed] The issues are weighty and controversial. On the
one hand are those who contend that those who can afford to buy organs are exploiting those who
are desperate enough to sell their organs. Many suggest this results in a growing inequality of status
between the rich and the poor. On the other hand are those who contend that the desperate should
be allowed to sell their organs and that preventing them from doing so is merely contributing to their
status as impoverished.
An autopsy — also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy (particularly as to nonhuman bodies), autopsia cadaverum, or obduction — is a highly specialized surgical procedure
that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death and
to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. It is usually performed by a specialized
medical doctor called a pathologist.
Some religions including Judaism and Islam usually discourage the performing of autopsies on their
adherents. They outright object, because bodily intrusion violates beliefs about the sanctity of
keeping the human body complete. Organizations such as Zaka in Israel and Misaskim in the USA
generally guide families how to ensure that an unnecessary autopsy is not made.
Refusal of medical assistance is the term for when a patient refuses any or all parts of medical
treatment. Informed refusal is linked to the informed consent process, as a patient has a right to
consent, but also may choose to refuse.[3]
The individual needs to be in possession of the relevant facts as well as of his reasoning faculties,
such as not being intellectually disabled or mentally ill and without an impairment of judgment at the
time of refusing. Such impairments might include illness, intoxication, drunkenness, using drugs,
insufficient sleep, and other health problems.[2] In cases where an individual is considered unable to
give informed refusal, another person (guardian) may be authorized to give consent on their behalf.
The pregnant patient represents a specific dilemma in the field of informed refusal as her action may
result in harm or death to the fetus. Ethicists disagree on how to handle this situation.
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices including that sickness is an illusion that can be
corrected by prayer alone, believing that reality is purely spiritual and the material world an illusion.
This includes the view that disease is a mental rather than physical disorder, that there is no death,
and that the sick should be treated, not by medicine, but by a form of prayer that seeks to correct the
beliefs responsible for the illusion of ill health.[10]
The church does not require that Christian Scientists avoid all medicine – adherents use dentists,
optometrists, obstetricians, physicians for broken bones, and vaccination when required by law – but
maintains that Christian Science prayer is most effective when not combined with medical care.[11]
The avoidance of medical treatment was blamed for the deaths of several adherents and their
children; parents and others were prosecuted for manslaughter or neglect and in a few cases
convicted.
Euthanasia refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering.
In some countries there is a divisive public controversy over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of
euthanasia. Those who are against euthanasia may argue for the sanctity of life, while proponents of
euthanasia rights emphasize alleviating suffering, bodily integrity, self-determination, and personal
autonomy.[6] Jurisdictions where euthanasia or assisted suicide is legal include the Netherlands,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Estonia, Albania, the US states of Washington, Oregon and
Montana,[7] and, starting in 2015, the Canadian Province of Quebec.
The difficulty of justifying euthanasia when faced with the notion of the subject's "right to life".
Euthanasia may be classified according to whether a person gives informed consent into three
types: voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary.[24][25]
There is a debate within the medical and bioethics literature about whether or not the non-voluntary
(and by extension, involuntary) killing of patients can be regarded as euthanasia, irrespective of
intent or the patient's circumstances. However, others see consent as essential: Euthanasia has to
be voluntary, and that "involuntary euthanasia is, as such, a great wrong".
When the patient brings about his or her own death with the assistance of a physician, the term
assisted suicide is often used instead. Assisted suicide is legal in Switzerland and the U.S. states of
Oregon, Washington and Montana. The "right to die" is often understood to mean that a person with
a terminal illness should be allowed to commit suicide or assisted suicide or to decline life-prolonging
treatment, where a disease would otherwise prolong their suffering to an identical result. The
question of who, if anyone, should be empowered to make these decisions is often central to
debate.The right to die is sometimes associated with the idea that one's body and one's life are
one's own, to dispose of as one sees fit. However, a legitimate state interest in preventing irrational
suicides is sometimes argued. A debate exists within bioethics over whether the right to die is
universal, only applies under certain circumstances—such as terminal illness, or if it exists at all.
Hinduism accepts the right to die for those who are tormented by terminal diseases or those who
have no desire, ambition or no responsibilities remaining; and allows death through the non-violent
practice of fasting to the point of starvation (Prayopavesa).[2] Jainism has a similar practice named
Santhara. Other religious views on suicide vary in their tolerance, and include denial of the right as
well as condemnation of the act. In the Catholic faith, suicide is considered a grave sin. Japanese
health insurance will even pay out to families of suicides because it is a traditionally honorable way
to die.
Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments with patient consent (voluntary) is almost
unanimously considered, at least in the United States, to be legal.[58] The use of pain medication in
order to relieve suffering, even if it hastens death, has been held as legal in several court
decisions.[56]
Some governments around the world have legalized voluntary euthanasia but generally it remains as
a criminal homicide. In the Netherlands and Belgium, where euthanasia has been legalized, it still
remains homicide although it is not prosecuted and not punishable if the perpetrator (the doctor)
meets certain legal exceptions.
On Monday, Eva went to the emergency room following a
fall from her bike. Fortunately, her only broken bone was a
fi nger. But she suffered scrapes and cuts, including some
deep cuts on her legs. After spending several hours in the
emergency room having her wounds cleaned, stitched, and
bandaged, Eva returned home.
Tuesday morning, one of the deeper cuts on Eva’s legs was
red and felt warm. She had a few pills of an antibiotic left
over from her bout with strep throat that previous winter.
Thinking it might help to prevent infection, she took them
according to the prescription instructions.
Throughout Tuesday, the cut on Eva’s leg became
increasingly red, swollen, and painful. Eva felt awful and
returned to the hospital on Tuesday night. Her cut had
become infected. The doctors cleaned and restitched her
leg and prescribed a daily dose of Antibiotic A, a stronger
version of the same antibiotic Eva had taken at home just
that morning.
By Thursday, Eva’s infection had spread to the point where it was too painful to walk. In addition, Eva felt ill.
She
returned to the hospital and this time was admitted. The doctors immediately administered a different kind of
antibiotic, Antibiotic C, directly into Eva’s bloodstream through an intravenous tube.
Friday, Eva felt better, and her leg became less painful and swollen. But on Saturday, it was clear that Eva had
taken a turn for the worse. The infection on her leg continued to spread, and she had become feverish. The
medical staff involved with Eva’s case held a meeting to plan the next steps in Eva’s treatment.
GOING FURTHER: Identify the Genes Carrying Antibiotic Resistance
WELL
NUMBER
SAMPLE
1
2
3
4
5
6
DNA size marker
Monday, immediately after arriving at the hospital
Monday evening, just before leaving the hospital
Tuesday night after returning to the hospital
Thursday evening, after being admitted to the hospital
Saturday morning
In bacteria, the genes for antibiotic resistance are often carried on plasmids (small circles of DNA) rather than
in the main bacterial chromosomal DNA. Plasmid DNA can be prepared and viewed using gel electrophoresis.
Dr. Hincapie wanted to determine which gene was responsible for the antibiotic resistance he observed in the
bacteria causing Eva’s infection. First, he isolated plasmid DNA from each of Eva’s original samples. Then, he
separated the plasmid DNA samples using gel electrophoresis. Here’s a photograph of his gel.
Dr. Hincapie recognized that the two larger pieces of DNA—
2100 base pairs and 1800 base pairs—were from plasmids found
in bacteria that cause infections. The brightness of a piece of DNA
on a gel reveals two things: larger pieces of DNA are brighter
than smaller pieces and larger amounts of DNA appear brighter
than smaller amounts. Knowing this, which bands on this gel do
you think contain a gene for resistance to:
Antibiotic A:
Antibiotic B:
Antibiotic C:
Antibiotic D:
1
2
WELL NUMBER
3
4
5
6
IMMUNE SYSTEM
Matching
Write the best match letter on your answer sheet.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Inflammatory
Interferon
Antibody
Antigen
Active immunity
Vaccine
Passive immunity
Allergy
AIDS
Infectious
Noninfectious
Cancer
Diabetes
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
I.
j.
k.
l.
m.
diabetes is ___ (can’t transmit)
non-self protein invader warning
T-shaped puzzle-like chemical weapon
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
tumors from uncontrolled cell division
histamines produced in overreaction
natural antivirus cell protector
diseases that are transmitted
memory cells and antibody protection
lack insulin control of blood sugar
blood rushes to cuts in response
injection to induce active immunity
injecting antibodies so the body doesn’t have to produce it’s own produced by the infected bod
The Excretory System
Matching Write the best match letter on your answer sheet.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
respiration
nose
epiglottis
trachea
larynx
vocal cord
g.
h.
I.
j.
k.
bronchus
lung
alveolus
diaphragm
pharynx
Part I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Item which vibrates to make noise
throat
windpipe
one of the tiny moist end air sacs
pulls down to inhale (pushes out ex)
getting energy from food using 02
one of the 2 branching bronchi tubes
voice box
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
excretion
kidney
nephron
capsule
ureter
urinary bladder
g.
h.
I.
j.
k.
l.
urethra
liver
Skin
epidermis
dermis
wastes
Part II
1.
2.
living lower layer of skin (glands here and heat)
excretes excess salt, water
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
organ that creates urine
tube that carries urine to bladder
getting rid of wastes (not feces)
excesses or poisons not undigestibles
outermost dead layer of skin
body’s urinary exit sphincter
converts toxins to less harmful form
microscopic kidney blood waste filter
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
l.
excretion
kidney
nephron
capsule
ureter
urinary bladder
urethra
liver
Skin
epidermis
dermis
wastes
Part I
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
living lower layer of skin (glands here and heat)
excretes excess salt, water
organ that creates urine
tube that carries urine to bladder
getting rid of wastes (not feces)
excesses or poisons not undigestibles
outermost dead layer of skin
body’s urinary exit sphincter
converts toxins to less harmful form
microscopic kidney blood waste filte
CIRCULATION
Do NOT write on this exam. Put your answers on the answer sheet provided.
Fill in the blanks
transport
food
homeostasis
heart
Use words from below but write them on the answer sheet!!!
body
lungs
hemoglobin
plasma
invading
oxygen
enzyme
wastes
white blood cells
platelets
red blood cells
disposal
The main task of the circulatory system is to ___ materials through the body.
Among the materials carried by the circulatory system are ___, carbon dioxide, ___, wastes, diseasefighting cells, and chemical messengers.
Blood moves from the heart to the ___ and back to the heart. Then the blood travels to all parts of the
body and returns again to the ___.
The four main components of blood are ___, red blood cells, white blood cells, and ___.
The numerous pale round cells ( R ) are the ___ (corpuscles). They are flat disks, very thin in the center
and around the edge. They contain a substance called ___ which combines with oxygen when it enters
the lungs.
___ are part of the body’s defense against ___ bacteria, viruses, and other microscopic organisms..
Matching
Write the best match letter on your answer sheet.
1.
Hardening of the arteries
2.
Circulatory/respiratory disease
3.
Thin vessel for exchange with cells
4.
Vessel carries blood toward the heart
5.
Vessel carries blood away from heart
6.
Pumping lower heart chamber
7.
Cholesterol blocking artery
8.
Upper heart chamber
9.
Disease invader fighter cell
10.
Liquid portion of the blood
11.
Red frisbee-like oxygen carrier
12.
Forms a net in cuts to stop blood loss
13.
Oxygen binder chemical in red cells
14.
Blood clotter and scab former
plasma
red blood cell
hemoglobin
white blood cell
platelet
fibrin
atrium
ventricle
artery
capillary
vein
cardiovascular
atherosclerosis
high blood pressure
Using the word list below, choose the correct term to write into YOUR ANSWER
SHEET..write your answers on the answer sheet!!!
nutrient
calorie protein amino acid
Minerals
ptyalin esophagus
carbohydrate
peristalsis
fats
stomach
vitamin
pepsin small
intestine
Liver
pancreas
villus large intestine
rectum
anus
The six groups of nutrients are proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, ___ and water.
After leaving the mouth, food enters the esophagus and is pushed downward into the
stomach by ___.
The salivary glands release saliva, which contains the enzyme ___ (breaks down some
starches into simple sugars)
The ___ releases gastric juice, which contains hydrochloric acid, mucus, and pepsin.
Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins into amino acids.
After leaving the stomach, food enters the small intestine, where it is acted upon by
intestinal juice that digests proteins, starches, and ___.
Undigested food substances are stored in the rectum and then eliminated from the body
through the ___.
MATCHING
1.
stomach
2.
saliva
3.
digestion
4.
epiglottis
5.
large intestine
6.
small intestine
7.
anus
8.
peristalsis
9.
liver
10.
appendix
11.
pancreas
12.
saturated
13.
unsaturated
14.
proteins
15.
vitamins
16.
calcium
17.
calories
18.
cholesterol
19.
acids
20.
carbohydrates
21.
teeth
22.
tongue
23.
esophagus
24.
gall bladder
25.
duct
a.
digests the most and absorbs
b.
makes digestive enzymes and insulin
c.
breakdown of proteins, carbos and fats
d.
begins carbohydrate digestion
e.
sugars and starchy pastas
f.
found in milk products and your bones
g.
type of bad fats
h.
covers windpipe when swallowing
I.
makes bile and maintains blood sugar
j.
contractions move food through
k.
eliminates feces after water is absorbed
l.
digests proteins only
m.
lots can block artery blood flow
n.
___fats don’t raise cholesterol
o.
___and minerals are in veggies and fruits
p.
found in meat and nuts
q.
in stomach this fluid helps digests protein
r.
perform mechanical digestion by chewing or grinding
s.
units of measuring energy in food
t.
has no known function
u.
stores bile
v.
transports bile and pancreatic juices to the small intestine
w.
moves food around in the mouth
x.
no digestion but absorbs water from the undigestibles
y.the bolus slides down this mucusy tube to the stomach
Choose and Investigate a Career in a Health Care Related Field(HS20-CE1) . Write all information from the website and hand it in to your teacher.
http://www.studyincanada.com/english/careers/catelist.asp?Category=12&Preference=elementary (Alternate
source for other health careers: http://educationportal.com/article_directory/q_p/page/Medical%20and%
20Health%20Professions/q_p/Careers_and_Occupations_List.html)
Acupuncturists
Addiction Counsellors
Anesthetists
Biological Technologists and Technicians
Biologists
Biomedical Engineers
Cardiologists
Central Supply Aides
Chinese Medical Practitioners
Chiropractors
Community and Social Service Workers
Dental Assistants
Dental Hygienists and Dental Therapists
Dentists
Denturists
Dietitians
Emergency Medical Technicians (Paramedics)
Family, Marriage and Other Related Counsellors
Forensic Scientists
General Practitioners and Family Physicians
Head Nurses and Supervisors
Health Inspectors
Industrial Pharmacists
Kinesiologists
Massage Therapists
Medical Laboratory Technologists
Medical Radiation Technologists
Medical Records Technicians
Medical Secretaries
Medical Transcriptionists
Microbiologists
Midwives
Morgue Attendants
Nurses (RNs)
Nurses Aides and Orderlies
Nutritionists
Occupational Therapists
Opticians
Optometrists
Orthopedic Technologists
Pathologists
Pathologists' Assistants
Pediatricians
Pharmacists
Physicians and Surgeons
Physiotherapists
Practitioners of Natural Healing
Psychologists
Radiotherapy Technologists
Registered Nursing Assistants (RNAs)
Rehabilitation Teachers
Respiratory Therapists
Shiatsu Therapists
Specialist Physicians
Speech-Language Pathologists
Toxicologists
Ultrasound Technologists (Medical Sonographers)
Veterinarian
Diagnostics HS20-DI1
Diagnostic Tool or
Procedure
Operating Principles
Advantages
Disadvantages
Medical Procedures (black ones are on the final!!!)
Types of diagnostic tools and tests: analysis of body fluids, Imaging, Endoscopy, Analysis of Body Functions,
Biopsy, Analysis of Genetic Material
Recombinant DNA uses bacteria to make human insulin and human growth hormone, In Vitro fertilization,
sterilization, biopsy, amniocentesis , diagnosis, blood urine ,cerebrospinal fluid,
Fluid within a joint =synovial fluid, semen sputum stool sample tests(less often, sweat, and fluid from the
digestive tract), etc.
Pap test for cervical cancer,
serology for antibodies eg. ELISA and Western blot tests for AIDS
Angiography is a test used to detect blockages of the arteries or veins. A cerebral angiogram can detect the
degree of narrowing or obstruction of an artery or blood vessel in the brain, head, or neck. It is used to diagnose
stroke and to determine the location and size of a brain tumor, aneurysm, or vascular malformation. This test is
usually performed in a hospital outpatient setting and takes up to 3 hours, followed by a 6- to 8-hour resting
period. The patient, wearing a hospital or imaging gown, lies on a table that is wheeled into the imaging area.
While the patient is awake, a physician anesthetizes a small area of the leg near the groin and then inserts a
catheter into a major artery located there. The catheter is threaded through the body and into an artery in the
neck. Once the catheter is in place, the needle is removed and a guide wire is inserted. A small capsule
containing a radiopaque dye (one that is highlighted on x-rays) is passed over the guide wire to the site of
release. The dye is released and travels through the bloodstream into the head and neck. A series of x-rays is
taken and any obstruction is noted. Patients may feel a warm to hot sensation or slight discomfort as the dye is
released.
Medical Imaging from Wikipedia
projectional radiography(X-Rays), X-Ray Fluoroscopy, Computed Tomography (CT Scan), Computed Axial
Tomography (CAT Scan), magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), sonograph, medical ultrasonography or ultrasound,
endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography and nuclear medicine functional
imaging techniques as positron emission tomography(PET Scan), or Scintigraphy ("scint"),or SPECT(Singlephoton emission computed tomography), thermography, echocardiography, NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy),
Diagnostic tools: Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images,
such as electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electrocardiography(ECG)
Diagnostic Procedure
Body Area or
Description
Sample Tested
Amniocentesis
Fluid from the sac
Analysis of fluid, removed by a
surrounding the
needle inserted through the
fetus
abdominal wall, to detect an
abnormality in the fetus
Arteriography (angiography)
Any artery in the
X-ray study using radiopaque dye
body, commonly in
injected through a thin tube
the brain, heart,
(catheter), which is threaded to
kidneys, aorta, or
the artery being studied, to detect
legs
and outline or highlight a
blockage or defect in an artery
Audiometry
Ears
Assessment of the ability to hear
and distinguish sounds at specific
pitches and volumes using
headphones
Auscultation
Heart
Listening with a stethoscope for
abnormal heart sounds
Barium x-ray studies
Esophagus, stomach,
intestine, or rectum
Biopsy
Any tissue in the
body
X-ray study to detect ulcers,
tumors, or other abnormalities
Removal and examination of a
tissue sample under a
microscope to check for cancer or
another abnormality
Blood pressure measurement Usually an arm
Test for high or low blood pressure,
usually using an inflatable cuff
wrapped around the arm
Blood tests
Usually a blood
sample from an arm
Measurement of substances in the
blood to evaluate organ function
and to help diagnose and monitor
various disorders
Bone marrow aspiration
Hipbone or
breastbone
Removal of a bone marrow sample
by a needle for examination
under a microscope to check for
abnormalities in blood cells
Bronchoscopy
Airways of the lungs
Direct examination with a viewing
tube to check for a tumor or other
abnormality
Cardiac catheterization
Heart
Study of heart function and
structure using a catheter
inserted into a blood vessel and
threaded to the heart
Chorionic villus sampling
Placenta
Removal of a sample for
examination under a microscope
to check for abnormalities in the
fetus
Chromosomal analysis
Blood
Examination under a microscope to
detect a genetic disorder or to
determine a fetus's sex
Colonoscopy
Large intestine
Direct examination with a viewing
tube to check for a tumor or other
abnormality
Colposcopy
Cervix
Direct examination of the cervix
with a magnifying lens
Computed tomography (CT)
Any part of the body
Computer-enhanced x-ray study to
detect structural abnormalities
Cone biopsy
Cervix
Removal and examination of a
cone-shaped piece of tissue,
usually using a heated wire loop
or a laser
Culture
Dilation and curettage (D and
A sample from any
Growth and examination of
area of the body
microorganisms from the sample
(usually a fluid such
to identify infection with bacteria
as blood or urine)
or fungi
Cervix and uterus
C)
Examination of a sample under a
microscope to check for
abnormalities in the uterine lining
using a small, sharp instrument
(curet).
Dual x-ray absorptiometry
(DEXA)
Skeleton, focusing on
specific regions,
Low-dose x-ray study to determine
the thickness of bones
usually the hip,
spine, and wrist
Echocardiography
Heart
Study of heart structure and
function using sound waves
Electrocardiography (ECG)
Heart
Study of the heart's electrical
activity using electrodes attached
to the arms, legs, and chest
Electroencephalography
Brain
(EEG)
Study of the brain's electrical
function using electrodes
attached to the scalp
Electromyography
Muscles
Recording of a muscle's electrical
activity using small needles
inserted into the muscle
Electrophysiologic testing
Heart
Test to evaluate rhythm or
electrical conduction
abnormalities using a catheter
inserted into a blood vessel and
threaded to the heart
Endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreatography
Biliary tract
X-ray study of the biliary tract done
after injection of a radiopaque dye
(ERCP)
Endoscopy
and using a flexible viewing tube
Digestive tract
Direct examination of internal
structures using a flexible viewing
tube
Enzyme-linked
Usually blood
Test that involves mixing the
immunosorbent assay
sample of blood with substances
(ELISA)
that can trigger allergies
(allergens) or with
microorganisms to test for the
presence of specific antibodies
Fluoroscopy
Digestive tract, heart,
or lungs
A continuous x-ray study that
enables a doctor to see the inside
of an organ as it functions
Hysteroscopy
Uterus
Direct examination of the inside of
the uterus with a flexible viewing
tube
Intravenous urography
Kidneys and urinary
tract
X-ray study of the kidneys and
urinary tract after a radiopaque
dye is injected into a vein
(intravenously)
Joint aspiration
Laparoscopy
Joints, especially
Removal and examination of fluid
those of the
from the space within joints to
shoulders, elbows,
check for blood cells, crystals
fingers, hips, knees,
formed from minerals, and
ankles, and toes
microorganisms
Abdomen
Direct examination using a viewing
tube inserted through an incision
in the abdomen to diagnose and
treat abnormalities in the
abdomen
Magnetic resonance imaging
Any part of the body
(MRI)
Imaging test using a strong
magnetic field and radio waves to
check for structural abnormalities
Mammography
Breasts
X-ray study to check for breast
cancer
Mediastinoscopy
Chest
Direct examination of the area of
the chest between the lungs
using a viewing tube inserted
through a small incision just
above the breastbone
Myelography
Spinal column
Simple or computer-enhanced xray study of the spinal column
after injection of a radiopaque dye
Nerve conduction study
Nerves
Test to determine how fast a nerve
impulse travels using electrodes
or needles inserted along the
path of the nerve
Occult blood test
Large intestine
Test to detect blood in stool
Ophthalmoscopy
Eyes
Direct examination using a
handheld device that shines light
into the eye to detect
abnormalities inside the eye
Papanicolaou (Pap) test
Cervix
Examination of cells scraped from
the cervix under a microscope to
detect cancer
Paracentesis
Abdomen
Insertion of a needle into the
abdominal cavity to remove fluid
for examination
Percutaneous transhepatic
Liver and biliary tract
cholangiography
X-ray study of the liver and biliary
tract after a radiopaque dye is
injected into the liver
Positron emission
Brain and heart
tomography (PET)
Imaging test using particles that
release radiation (positrons) to
detect abnormalities in function
Pulmonary function tests
Lungs
Tests to measure the lungs'
capacity to hold air, to move air in
and out of the body, and to
exchange oxygen and carbon
dioxide as people blow into a
measuring device
Radionuclide imaging
Many organs
Imaging test using particles that
release radiation (radionuclides)
to detect abnormalities in blood
flow, structure, or function
Reflex tests
Tendons
Tests using a physical stimulus
(such as a light tap) to detect
abnormalities in nerve function
Retrograde urography
Bladder and ureters
X-ray study of the bladder and
ureters after a radiopaque dye is
inserted into the ureter
Sigmoidoscopy
Skin allergy tests
Rectum and last
Direct examination using a viewing
portion of the large
tube to detect tumors or other
intestine
abnormalities
Usually an arm or the
back
Tests for allergies done by placing
a solution containing a possible
allergen on the skin, then pricking
the skin with a needle
Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
Spinal canal
Removal of spinal fluid, using a
needle inserted into the hipbone,
to check for abnormalities in
spinal fluid
Spirometry
Lungs
Test of lung function that involves
blowing into a measuring device
Stress testing
Heart
Test of heart function during
exertion using a treadmill or other
exercise machine and
electrocardiography (if people
cannot exercise, a drug is used to
simulate exercise's effects)
Thoracentesis
The space between
Removal of fluid from this space
the pleura, a two-
with a needle to detect
layered membrane
abnormalities
that covers the
lungs and lines the
chest wall (pleural
space)
Thoracoscopy
Lungs
Examination of the lung surfaces,
pleura, and pleural space through
a viewing tube
Tympanometry
Ears
Measurement of the resistance to
pressure (impedance) in the
middle ear using a device
inserted in the ear and sound
waves to help determine the
cause of hearing loss
Ultrasonography (ultrasound
Any part of the body
scanning)
Imaging using sound waves to
detect structural or functional
abnormalities
Urinalysis
Kidneys and urinary
tract
Chemical analysis of a urine
sample to detect protein, sugar,
ketones, and blood cells
Venography
Veins
X-ray study using a radiopaque
dye (similar to arteriography) to
detect blockage of a vein
Milestones in Medical Technology
(Outcome HS20-HP1)
From the stethoscope to imaging the brain at work, a long list of inventions and innovations have changed
medicine. Use these to make your Timeline of Milestones of Medical Tech.
1668
Microscope
Dr. Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch draper and scientist, and one of the pioneers of microscopy who in the late 17th century became
the first man to make and use a real microscope.
1798
Vaccination
Edward Jenner invents the world's first vaccine against the deadly disease, smallpox
Dec. 31, 1815
Stethoscope
René Laënnec, a French physician, invented the stethoscope, a trumpet-shaped wooden tube, to examine a woman whose heart he could
not hear by pressing his ear to her chest.
Dec. 31, 1841
Anesthesia
Dr. Crawford W. Long performed the first operation using diethyl ether as an anesthetic. He pressed an ether-soaked towel against the
patient's face to put him to sleep, then removed one of two tumors from his neck. He billed the patient $2, itemizing the cost of the ether
as well as the operation.
1862
Pasteurization
The process is named after Louis Pasteur. He was the first person to learn how to do it successfully. The first pasteurization was done by
Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April 20, 1862. It is a process of heating food, which is usually a liquid, to a specific temperature for
a predefined length of time and then immediately cooling it after it is removed from the heat. This process slows spoilage caused by
microbial growth in the food.
1865
Antiseptic
Joseph Lister was instrumental in developing practical applications of the germ theory of disease with respect to sanitation in medical
settings and aseptic surgical techniques—partly through the use of carbolic acid (phenol) as an antiseptic.
1873
Compound Microscope Resolution
Ernst Abbe worked out the solution to the blurry compound microscope problem in the 1870's. He determined the physical laws that
govern the collection of light by an objective and maximised this collection by using water and oil immersion lenses. (viewing of
pathogens)
Dec. 31, 1874
Brain Waves
Using a galvanometer, the British scientist Richard Caton noted electrical impulses from the brains of animals, laying down the principles
that would lead to the development of the electroencephalogram, or EEG.
1895
X-Ray
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, a German physicist, discovered the X-ray, an invention so remarkable that many did not believe the first
reports of its use. The New York Times referred to it mockingly as Dr. Röntgen's "alleged discovery of how to photograph the invisible."
1903
Electrocardiogram
Dr. Willem Einthoven of the Netherlands invented the first practical electrocardiogram. The original weighed 600 pounds, had a water
cooling system for its gigantic electromagnets and needed five operators. In 1924 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
for his invention.
1910
Laparoscopy
Dr. Hans Christian Jacobaeus, a Swedish internist, performed the first laparoscopy on a human. He punctured the abdominal walls of 17
patients, using cocaine as a local anesthetic, and removed fluid from their abdomens. After removing the fluid, he examined the cavities
with a cytoscope.
1924
Electroencephalogram
Dr. Hans Berger of Germany recorded the first human electroencephalogram, or EEG. His assertion that the brain's electrical impulses
could be recorded was generally met with derision, and five years passed before Dr. Berger published his technique for recording the
electrical activity of the human brain from the surface of the head.
1931
Electron Microscope
The invention of the electron microscope by Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska at the Berlin Technische Hochschule in 1931 finally overcame the
barrier to higher resolution that had been imposed by the limitations of visible light. The electron microscope allowed us to view viruses,
pathogens of many human diseases
1936
Pacemaker
Dr. Albert S. Hyman demonstrated a heart pacemaker. The device was about 10 inches long and weighed less than a pound; it supplied
the heart with a current with adjustable voltage. The device, Dr. Hyman said, had been used in seven cases, although the results were
good in only two of them.
1943
Dialysis
Willem J. Kolff, a Dutch physician, built the first dialysis machine, working with tin cans and parts from washing machines during the Nazi
occupation of the Netherlands. Although his first few attempts were failures, Dr. Kolff did finally develop a useful machine in the 1950s
while working with colleagues at the Cleveland Clinic.
1947
Cardiac Defibrillation
A Cleveland cardiovascular surgeon, Claude Beck, successfully defibrillated the heart of a 14-year-old boy during cardiac surgery, bringing
an apparently dead person back to life. Although the principle of defibrillation had been known for decades, this was probably its first
successful clinical application.
1952
Mechanical Heart
Henry Opitek, 41, was operated on using an artificial heart, the Dodrill GMR heart machine, manufactured by General Motors and
generally considered the first mechanical heart. The surgeon, Dr. Forest Dewey Dodrill, successfully repaired the patient's mitral valve,
and Mr.
Opitek lived until 1981.
1952
Magnetic Resonance
The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell for their work in developing nuclear magnetic
resonance, the principle behind M.R.I. machines.
1953
Heart-Lung Bypass
Dr. John Heysham Gibbon used his new invention, the heart-lung bypass machine, for the first time in open-heart surgery,
supporting a patient's heart and lung functions for about half the time of the surgery. It was the culmination of his decades
of work in developing the machine.
1954
Kidney Transplant
In the first successful kidney transplant, after at least nine failures, a team of surgeons at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in
Boston transplanted a kidney from a 24-year-old man to his twin brother. The recipient lived 11 years more, and in 1990 the
lead surgeon, Dr. Joseph E. Murray, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology.
1958
Pacemaker
Dr. Seymour Furman, a cardiologist at Montefiore Hospital in the Bronx, succeeded in extending a patient's life by more than
two months using a cardiac pacemaker, a large machine to which the patient was attached by a 50-foot extension cord. By the
next year, portable versions of the machine were in use.
Fetal Ultrasound
Dr. Edward Hon of Yale reported using a Doppler monitor on a woman's abdomen to detect fetal heartbeat. Ultrasound's
principles had been known for more than a century (a Swedish physicist, Christian Andreas Doppler, gave his name to the
phenomenon in 1842), but this was its first use in prenatal care.
1961
Minimally Invasive Surgery
Dr. Thomas J. Fogarty came up with the idea for the balloon embolectomy catheter for removing blood clots, and used it on a
patient six weeks later. It was the first minimally invasive surgery technique.
1963
Artificial Heart
Paul Winchell, the ventriloquist and inventor, patented the first artificial heart, developed in collaboration with Dr. Henry J.
Heimlich, later famous for the Heimlich maneuver.
Liver Transplant
The first human liver transplant was performed by Dr. Thomas E. Starzl. The patient, a 3-year-old child, rapidly bled to death.
1965
Portable Defibrillator
Dr. Frank Pantridge installed the first portable defibrillator in an ambulance in Belfast, Northern Ireland. It weighed 150 pounds
and was powered by car batteries.
Commercial Ultrasound
Walter Erich Krause of the Siemens Corporation filed a patent for the first practical commercial ultrasound machine. According to
the patent, his machine could be "used for practical ultra-sonic-optical examination to achieve a lifelike reproduction of the body
part under examination."
1967
Heart Transplant
Dr. Christiaan Barnard, performed the first human heart transplant. The patient, a 53-year-old man, died 18 days later.
1971
CT Scanner
The first commercial CT scanner, developed by Dr. Godfrey Hounsfield, was used on a patient in London. Dr. Hounsfield shared
the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his invention.
1973
Insulin Pump
An inventor and entrepreneur, Dean L. Kamen, patented the first insulin pump. He became perhaps even better known for a
later invention, the Segway transporter.
1978
M.R.I.
Dr. Raymond V. Damadian announced that he had patented a technique using nuclear magnetic resonance to distinguish
between normal and cancerous tissue. In 2003, two other researchers won a Nobel Prize for further discoveries.
1989
Synthetic Blood
The first synthetic blood, Fluosol-DA, was approved for human use. It was withdrawn from the market in 1994. The search for a
blood substitute goes on, and there is none in use in clinical practice.
1992
DNA Sequencing
Dr. Leroy E. Hood patents his invention of the automated DNA sequencing technique. The patent is owned by the California
Institute of Technology.
Imaging Thought
A paper in the journal Magnetic Resonance Medicine by a group of researchers at the Medical College of Wisconsin announced
the first use of functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect brain blood flow in conjunction with a human mental activity.
2000
Human Genome
The first draft of the human genome was announced. Three years later, it was declared complete three years later.
2004
Adaptive Artificial Knee
The Rheo knee, a plastic prosthetic joint that adapts to a user's walking style and changes in terrain, was produced by the Ossur
Corporation.
2006
Artificial Liver
Dr. Colin McGucklin and Dr. Nico Forraz of Newcastle University developed a liver grown from stem cells. The size of a small coin,
it was not an organ that could be implanted in a human.
Nervous systems
COMPLETlON
l. The part of the brain that controls balance is the
2. Your thinking, on this test, takes place in your
?
?
.
.
3. The gap between one neuron and the next is called a(an)
4.
?
3. The
?
.
is an automatic response to a stimulus.
?
is the fluid found between the cornea and the lens of the eye.
PATHOGENS A pathogen is a disease CAUSER. Each number below gets two letters. Put the letter B for
bacterial pathogen, V for viral pathogen, P for other parasites like protists or worms, F for fungal(caused by
fungi) C for chemical called a prion. Also List A if you can use antibiotics to cure it, and X if you cannot use
antibiotics to cure it. Look them up using the glossary or index of the textbook Biology: The Study of Life
*****(if no page is listed and it's not in the back try p.639 and 657)
1.amebic dysentery ___ ___ 2.boils (p.639) ___ ___ 3.warts(p.657) ___ ___ 4.carbuncles ___ ___
5.African sleeping sickness ___ ___ 6.herpes___ ___ 7.gonorrhea ___ ___ 8.malaria ___ ___ 9.scarlet
fever ___ ___ 10.ergot poisoning(p.668 )___ ___ 11.chicken pox___ ___ 12.strep throat___ ___
13.ringworm( p.669)___ ___ 14.smallpox___ ___ 15.athlete's foot( p.669)___ ___ 16.anthrax ___ ___
17.polio ___ ___ 18.schistosomiasis___ ___ 19.the common cold ___ ___ 20.influenza(flu) ___ ___
21.botulism ___ ___ 22.trichinosis___ ___ 23.diphtheria___ ___ 24.measles ___ ___ 25.elephantiasis___
__ 26.plague___ ___ 27.mumps___ ___ 28.hookworm___ ___ 29.tetanus___ ___ 30.AIDS ___ ___
31.lyme disease___ ___ 32.typhoid___ ___ 33.rabies___ ___ 34.cholera ___ ___ 35.slow progressive
creutzfeldt jakob disease(CJD)p.654 ___ ___ 36.rubella ___ ___ 37.syphilis___ ___
Using p.714 and 724 List the biting insect vector that transmits the following diseases to humans: plague,
Lyme disease, elephantiasis, typhus, yellow fever, African Sleeping Sickness, and malaria. Which insect can be
a carrier in transmitting typhus and dysentery to us without biting us?
Preventing Food Contamination and Food Bourne Illness
Wash hands the right way—for 20 seconds with soap and running water. Be sure to scrub the backs of your
hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
Wash surfaces and utensils after each use. Rinsing utensils, countertops, and cutting boards with water won’t
do enough to stop bacteria from spreading. Clean utensils and small cutting boards with hot, soapy water. Clean
surfaces and cutting boards with a bleach solution.
Wash fruits and veggies—but not meat, poultry, or eggs. Even if you plan to peel fruits and veggies, it’s
important to wash them first because bacteria can spread from the outside to the inside as you cut or peel
them.
Don't cross-contaminate: Use separate cutting boards, plates, and utensils for raw (uncooked) produce and for
raw (uncooked) meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs.
Cook to the right temperature: While many people think they can tell when food is “done” simply by checking
its color and texture, Use a food thermometer. Make sure food reaches its safe minimum cooking temperature.
For example, internal temperatures should be 145°F for whole meats (allowing the meat to rest for 3 minutes
before carving or eating), 160°F for ground meats, and 165°F for all poultry. Eggs should be cooked until the yolk
is firm. Microwave food thoroughly (to 165 ˚F).
During meal times, while food is being served and eaten, keep it hot (at 140 ˚F or above). After meals are over,
refrigerate leftover food quickly.
Refrigerate the foods that tend to spoil more quickly (like fruits and vegetables, milk, eggs, and meats) within
two hours. Warm foods will chill faster if they are divided into several clean, shallow containers.
Thaw or marinate foods in the refrigerator, never on the counter or in the kitchen sink.
Know when to throw food out.
Food Preserving Methods

Traditional techniques
o 1.1 Drying
o 1.2 Refrigeration
o 1.3 Freezing
o 1.4 Salt
o 1.5 Sugar
o 1.6 Smoking
o 1.7 Pickling
o 1.8 Lye
o 1.9 Canning and bottling
o 1.10 Jellying
o 1.11 Jugging
o 1.12 Subterrannean Burial

2 Curing
o 2.1 Fermentation

3 Industrial/modern techniques
o 3.1 Pasteurization
o 3.2 Vacuum packing
o 3.3 Artificial food additives
o 3.4 Irradiation
o 3.5 Pulsed electric field electroporation
o 3.6 Modified atmosphere
o 3.7 Nonthermal plasma
o 3.8 High-pressure food preservation
o 3.9 Biopreservation
o 3.10 Hurdle technology
The Story of Typhoid Mary (don't read aloud the first sentence!!!)
ZOONOSES
Anthrax
Avian Flu
Babesiosis
Balantidiasis
Barmah Forest virus
Bartonellosis
Bilharzia
Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
Brucellosis
Borrelia (Lyme disease and others)
Borna virus infection
Bovine tuberculosis
Campylobacteriosis
Cat Scratch Disease
Chagas disease
Chikungunya
Chlamydophila psittaci
Cholera
Cowpox
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD),
a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)
from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease"
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Cryptosporidiosis
Cutaneous larva migrans
Dengue fever
Ebola
Echinococcosis
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Western equine encephalitis virus
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
Giardia lamblia
H1N1 flu
Hantavirus
Helminths
Hendra virus
Henipavirus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Korean hemorrhagic fever
Kyasanur forest disease
Lábrea fever
Lassa fever
Leishmaniasis
Leptospirosis
Listeriosis
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Malaria
Marburg fever
Mediterranean spotted fever
Mycobacterium marinum
Monkey B
Nipah fever
Ocular larva migrans
Omsk hemorrhagic fever
Ornithosis (psittacosis)
Orf (animal disease)
Oropouche fever
Pappataci fever
Pasteurellosis
Plague
Puumala virus
Q-Fever
Psittacosis, or "parrot fever"
Rabies
Rift Valley fever
Ringworms (Tinea canis)
Salmonellosis
Sodoku
Sparganosis
Streptococcus suis
Swine Flu
Toxocariasis
Toxoplasmosis
Trichinosis
Tularemia, or "rabbit fever"
Typhus of Rickettsiae
Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever
Visceral larva migrans
West Nile virus
Yellow fever
Yersiniosis
POSSIBLE OTHER ZOONOSES
Glanders
SARS
Reproduction and Development
COMPLETION
Complete each statement on the line on the answer sheet
l. Organisms produce more of their own kind by a process called
2.
?
?
are organs that produce eggs.
3. The four stages of development after birth are infancy ,
?
4. The embryo is connected to its mother's placenta by a(an )
5. .Males sex cells are called ? .
,adolescence, and adulthood.
? .
COMPLETION .
Fill in the word or number from this list that best completes each statement.
menstrual
testes
placenta
sperm
testosterone
childhood
adulthood
fertilization
uterus
puberty
menopause
labor
egg
adolescence
46
estrogen
blood vessels
23
uterus
ovulation
41. The process by which a baby is forced out of the mother through the contractions of the uterus is ealled ?
42. A fertilized egg contains
?
chromosomes.
43. The monthly cycle of change that occurs in the female reproductive system is the
44. The male reproductive organs that produce sperm are the
45. The
?
?
?
cycle.
.
is the structure through which a developing baby receives food and oxygen while in the mother.
46. The testes produce a hormone called
47. The word
?
? .
comes from the Latin word meaning "growing up."
48. The female hormone that causes the eggs to mature in the ovaries is
49. At two years old, infancy ends and
?
51. During the menstrual cycle, the lining of the
52. An ovum is also known as a(an)
?
53. The beginning of adolescence is called
54. A sperm cell contains
?
?
?
thickens.
.
?
.
chromosomes.
?
?
.
, menstruation stops and ovulation no longer occurs.
57. The umbilical cord contains
58. 'The
.
? .
55. The process by which a mature egg is released into the ovary is called
56. After
?
begins.
50. The joining of an egg cell with a sperm cell is known as
?
that transport food, oxygen, and wastes between the embryo and the placenta.
is the male sex cell.
59. The stage in a person's life when all the body systems are fully matured and full height has been reached is ? .
60. The
.
?
is the pear-shaped structure in which early development of a baby takes place.
SUPER HUMAN STRENGTH: MYTH?
Have mothers really hoisted cars? Has anyone actually seen this happen or is it an urban legend? Are we
talking about a Yugo here or a 1956 Caddy? Let me know soon, Unca Cecil--I'm trying to walk more these
days, and if I get run over I need to know whether to call mom or a tow truck.
— Eric Rapp, Los Angeles
Always smart to be prepared, Eric. I haven't gotten to the bottom of this yet, but my interim judgment is: (1)
This sure sounds like an urban legend. (2) But maybe it's not. I just got off the phone with a woman who
lifted, if not an entire car, at least a nontrivial fraction of the weight of one off her trapped son.
The woman's name is Angela Cavallo, and she still lives in Lawrenceville, Georgia, where the incident
happened on April 9, 1982. (An Associated Press account didn't appear till April 14, but Angela remembers
the date because it was Good Friday.) Her then-teenage son Tony had a 1964 Chevy Impala jacked up in the
driveway--he'd removed a rear tire and was working on the suspension. A neighbor kid came to the kitchen
door to tell Angela there'd been an accident. She rushed out to find Tony pinned under the car--something
had been stuck and in trying to loosen it he'd rocked the car off the jack. Now he was caught in one of the
rear wheel wells; all she could see of him was from the waist down. Ancient Chevies being big ol' cars with a
lot of room around the wheels, Tony wasn't immediately crushed. But he was out cold.
Hollering to the neighbor kid to get help, Angela grabbed the side of the car with both hands and pulled up
with all her strength. The AP account said she raised the car four inches; she doubts it was that much but
believes it was enough to take the pressure off. She recalls nothing about the rescue, but the AP said two
neighbors reinserted the jack and dragged the boy out. (Tony recovered OK.) Angela, then in her late 50s,
guesses she kept the car propped up for five minutes. She describes herself as 5-foot-8, large-framed and
strong, but figures she couldn't have picked the car up under normal circumstances, attributing her feat to
adrenaline. (Thanks to journalist Mariana Minaya for providing the AP story.)
Some may quibble that lifting a car a couple inches is hardly the same as picking it up. A doctor friend says
an adrenaline rush (norepinephrine rush, whatever) wouldn't last five minutes and suggests what we're
seeing here wasn't so much superhuman strength as endurance in the face of otherwise overwhelming pain.
Maybe; my point is, car-lifting stories have a basis in fact. I've got a line on a couple similar tales but no
details yet. In the meantime, a few other tidbits:

Laurence Gonzales, in Deep Survival: Who Lives, Who Dies, and Why(2003), writes, "On Mother's
Day 1999, Saint John Eberle and his partner, Marc Beverly, were climbing in New Mexico's Sandia
Mountain Wilderness when a rock weighing more than 500 pounds fell on Eberle, pinning him.
Beverly watched as Eberle lifted the rock off of himself." Gonzales tells me he got this story from an
annual summary entitled Accidents in North American Mountaineering. I'm trying to reach the
men for more details.

From Ikai and Steinhaus, "Some Factors Modifying the Expression of Human Strength," Journal of
Applied Physiology, 1961, we learn the following: "The maximal pull of forearm flexors was
increased and, in some instances, decreased in predictable fashion by a loud noise, by the subject's
own outcry, by certain pharmacologic agents (alcohol, adrenaline, and amphetamine), and by
hypnosis. Significant average changes ranging from +26.5% to 31% were observed." The authors
suggest that the normal human inability to exert oneself to one's physiological maximum is the
result of "acquired inhibitions that in turn are subject to disinhibition by pure Pavlovian procedures,
by anesthetization of inhibitory mechanisms, or by pharmacologically induced symptoms serving as
stimuli for disinhibition." In other words, you're always capable of great feats; it just takes a crisis
for you to actually perform them.

In a 1990 interview the late comic book artist Jack Kirby said he created the Incredible Hulk after
seeing a mom lift a car off a kid. However, Kirby's former assistant Mark Evanier doubts the story,
saying Kirby never mentioned it privately. Let it not be said the Straight Dope suppresses negative
results.
— Cecil Adams
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