EAP2 Lesson 3

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English for Academic Purposes II
l
Lesson 3: Science
The Power of the Brain



Skills Focus – predicting, skimming and scanning,
identifying topic sentences, note taking, summarizing,
Language Focus – using present simple for facts;
using can and should.
Vocabulary Development – health and lifestyle.
What do you know about the brain?
Work in groups. Predict the answers to these questions.
1) How much does the human brain weigh?
a) Less than 2 kilos b) 2-3 kilos c) 3-4 kilos
d) More than 4 kilos
2) Which of these has the heaviest brain?
a) a human
b) a dolphin
c) an elephant
d) a cow
3) How many neurons (nerve cells) are there in the brain?
a) 1 million
b) 100 milion
c) 1 billion
d) 100 billion
4) The brain is one part of the central nervous system. What is the other part called?
a) the skin
b) the spine
c) the heart
d) the hands
5) What protects the brain?
a) the ribs
b) the spine
c) the skull
d) the jaw
Now read the text on Brain Facts that your teacher will give you and check
your answers. Which answer surprised you most?
Language Focus: present simple for facts.
When we talk about states (…is/am/are… have/has…) and facts that are always true such as those in science and academic subjects – we use the present simple.
Examples: State: Doha is in Qatar. They are cold. Ahmed has a brother.
Facts: Water boils at 100˚c. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
Sometimes the subject of the sentence does not do the action. This is the passive.
Example: The Earth is heated by the sun.
Read the passage again and underline all the examples of the present
simple. There is ONE example of the passive. Underline that sentence in a
different colour
1
English for Academic Purposes II
Lesson 3: Science
Heart Facts
Draw lines to link this information:
1
Heart
A
300 grams
2
Weight
B
760 liters
3
Beats per minute
C
ribs
4
Blood pumped per day
D
muscle
5
Protection
E
70
Use the information above to write sentences about the heart.
1. The heart ___ a muscle.
2. _____________________________ 300 grams.
3. _____________________________ 70 times per minute.
4. _____________________________ 760 liters of blood around the body every day.
5. _____________________________ by the ribs.
Now use this information about the lungs to write a paragraph.
Facts about the Lungs
Lungs: organs of respiration
Weight: 2,300 grams
Surface area: 70 sq meters
Protection: ribs
Amount of air per day (take in): 11,000 liters
The lungs _______________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
2
English for Academic Purposes II
Lesson 3: Science
Skills Focus: Skimming, scanning, identifying topic sentences.
The topic sentence is the sentence that gives the main idea of the paragraph.
It is usually at the beginning. The topic sentence is followed by evidence and an explanation.
This is called P.E.E: Point – Evidence - Explain.
Read the text ‘How to Keep the Brain Healthy’ and choose one of these
topic sentences for each of the paragraphs:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Physical activity is also important.
Finally, we should eat a ‘brain-healthy’ diet.
Another thing we can do is to be socially active.
Most people know how to keep their bodies healthy.
First of all, it is important to stay mentally active.
How to Keep the Brain Healthy
1) ______________________________________________. They know
they should eat a good diet and get plenty of exercise and sleep. They should also avoid smoking
and try not to drink the wrong things. However, do you know that we can also take steps to keep
our brains healthy? Experts recommend the following tips to keep our brains in good shape.
2) _________________________________________________________ .
We exercise our bodies by walking, swimming or going to the gym, but we can also do workouts
for our brains. For example, we can try quizzes or puzzles, or solve mathematical problems. This
will keep the nerve cells sharp. It may also help to create new cells.
3) _________________________________________________________.
This means we should socialize by joining clubs and social groups. We can also mix with other
people by travelling to other countries, or learning new skills. For example, we can do courses to
learn skiing, dancing or a new language.
4) __________________________________________________________.
We know that exercise is beneficial for the body. However, it is also good for the brain. It keeps a
good flow of blood to the brain and encourages new cells. Of course, the brain is a very delicate
organ. It is easily damaged, so people who like dangerous activities should be very careful. Rock
climbers, cyclists and cricket players should all protect their heads.
5) ________________________________________________________.
This means we should avoid fatty foods. We should also stay away from food that is high in
cholesterol. Instead we should eat nutritious foods such as green vegetables, fruit, fish and nuts.
Foods which are good for you will protect the brain from disease. Certain foods, however, may
actually improve brainpower. Research suggests that the nutrient ‘chlorine’, which is found in
foods such as liver, eggs and red meat, helps the brain work better.
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English for Academic Purposes II
Lesson 3: Science
What kind of text is this? ( the correct one)
a) Informative __
b) Informative and persuasive __
c) Persuasive __
Draw lines to match these words from the text with their meanings.
1
Workouts (para 2)
A
Good for your health
2
Socialize (para 3)
B
Stay away from something
3
Beneficial (para 4)
C
Useful, helpful, of use
4
Delicate (para 4)
D
Mix with people
5
Nutritious (para 5)
E
Exercises
6
Avoid (para 1 & 5)
F
Sensitive and fragile
Scan the text and complete the notes below.
Put ONE word from the text in each of the gaps.
Notes
Keep your brain healthy

Mental Activity
- Quizzes
-
1) ………………………
-
Maths problems
= keeps cells sharp (creates new cells?)


Social activity
-
2) Join …………………… / social groups.
-
Travel
-
3) Learn new …………………………. (e.g. skiing, …………………………, new lang. )
Physical activity
-
Exercise
= blood flow to brain (+ creates new cells)

Remember! The brain’s 4) ………..………….…….. , so …………………………... it!
Brain-healthy diet
-
No fatty foods!
-
Eat 5) ………………..……………food, e.g. green veg, fruit,…………….…., nuts
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English for Academic Purposes II
Lesson 3: Science
Use your notes to answer these questions. Do NOT look at the text.
Write complete sentences.
1) What are the four kinds of activities and actions we can do
to keep our brain healthy?
The four key activities to keep the brain healthy are mental activity,
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
2) What can I do to stay mentally active and socially active?
To stay mentally active, you can ___________________________
_____________________________________________
_______________________ and you can be socially active by (…ing)
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
3) What are the benefits of physical activity? What food should I eat?
Physical activity will ____________________________________
________________________________________________
______________. In addition, you should eat …_________________
________________________________________________
Use the information in your answers to write a summary of the text.
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
5
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