# TRIZ Glossary by Vladimir Petrov

```TRIZ Glossary by Vladimir Petrov
Alphabet
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
P
Q
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U
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X
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Z
L
M
N
O
A
1. Additional Function (see Type of Function):

A Useful Function that acts on a Component of the Super-system that is
not a Target.

The contradiction between need and ability to satisfy it.
- It is known what to be done – but not how to do it.
- An inadequate parameter of the system should be improved.
- A certain defect should be avoided – but how to do it is unclear.
- The products manufactured are defective, but the reason is
unknown.
3. Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving (see ARIZ)
4. Altshullers’s Matrix:

A problem solving tool that recommends Inventive Principles for solving
5. Analogy:


Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, &quot;proportion&quot;) is a cognitive
process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject
(the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target).
One of Elementary Inventive Principles.
6. ARIZ:



A problem-solving tool that transforms a complex inventive situation into
a well-defined model of the problem, which can be solved effectively using
a wide spectrum of TRIZ tools.
A multi-step algorithm used for solving complex problems (exposing and
ARIZ is the Russian acronym for “Algorithm for Inventive Problem
Solving”.
TRIZ Glossary
7. Author of TRIZ:


Genrich Altshuller (1926-1998) – scientist, engineer and inventor.
Genrich Altov (pseudonym) – Science-fiction writer.
8. Auxiliary Function (see Type of Function):

A Useful Function that acts on a Component of the Analyzed Technical
System.
B
9. Basic Function (see Type of Function):

A Useful Function that acts on a Component of the Super-system that is
not a Target.
10.

AC  TC  IKR  PC  S
IFR – Ideal Final Result  PC – Physical contradiction  S – Solution).
11.


Brainstorming:
Process for generating creative ideas and solutions through intensive and
freewheeling group discussion. Every participant is encouraged to think
aloud and suggest as many ideas as possible, no matter seemingly how
outlandish or bizarre. Analysis, discussion, or criticism of the aired ideas
is allowed only when the brainstorming session is over and evaluation
session begins.
12.

Basic Line of Problem Solving:
Bottleneck:
A place in the flow channel where the resistance to flow is significantly
increased.
A Bottleneck is a typical disadvantage identified by Flow Analysis.
C
13.

A Disadvantage in the Cause-Effect Chain that is a direct cause of a given
14.

Cause-Effect Chain:
A graphical model of the Analyzed Technical System that reflects the
15.

2
TRIZ Glossary
16.

Different problems that have similar Physical Contradictions.
17.



Component Model:
The set of Components belonging to the Analyzed Technical System and
its Super-system. The Component Model can be built in graphical form
or as a table.
25.

Component Functionality:
The measure of a component’s contribution to the overall performance of
the system.
24.

Component Cost:
The monetary cost of the Component. Cost can be relative or absolute.
23.

Component Analysis:
The step in System-Oriented Analysis that identifies Components of the
analyzed Technical System and its Super-system.
22.

Component (Sub-system):
A Object (substance, field or substance-field combination) that constitutes
a part of the Technical System or Super-system.
21.

Completeness Law:
A necessary condition for the fundamental operability of a system is to
provide its mission and availability of workable basic system parts.
The main parts of the system are:
– Working unit,
– Substance, energy and information source,
– Converter,
– Control system,
– Connections:
 internal connection,
 external connection.
One of System Organization Laws.
20.

Completeness and Redundancy Law:
Completeness Law.
Redundancy Law.
Both of System Organization Laws.
19.

Competing Technical Systems:
Technical Systems with similar Main Functions.
18.



Clone Problems:
Components that require an improvement in the interaction between
them according to the formulation of the Mini-Problem.
3
TRIZ Glossary
26.




Conflicting Pair:
A conflicting pair consists of two elements, which are in conflict resulting
in an Undesirable Effect (UE).
In an inventive situation, there are usually several (at least one)
conflicting pairs.
Choosing one pair corresponds to transition from an inventive situation
to a problem.
Elements of a conflicting pair:
– Product – Object,
– Tool – Subject.
27.
Concepts of Contradictions (see Key Concepts of
28.

Contradiction is improvement of some parameters or parts at the expense
of others.
29.


Any system in its development aims to be more controlled and dynamic.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
30.




Corrective Function (see Type of Function):
A Useful Function directed towards a Defect. A Corrective Function is
identified by Flow Analysis.
34.

Coordination Law:
Any system in its development aims to be more coordinated.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
33.

Coordination – Mismatch Law:
Any system in its development aims to be more coordinated or
mismatched.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
32.


Controllability Degree Increase Law:
Any system in its development aims to be more controlled.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
31.

Controllability and Dynamics Degree Increase Law:
Cost Analysis:
A step in System-Oriented Analysis that identifies the absolute and
relative costs of Components that constitute the Analyzed Technical
System.
4
TRIZ Glossary
35.



Creative Imagination is the creation of the image, things or signs
unparalleled.
Creative Imagination is an integral aspect of technical, artistic and other
creative work.
One kind of Inventive Thinking.
D
36.

A location in a flow in which the integral flow speed is significantly lower
than local flow speed. A Delay Zone is a typical disadvantage identified by
Flow Analysis.
37.







Dialectical Laws:
Unity and Conflict of Opposites Law.
Transformation of Quantity into Quality Law.
Negation of the Negation Law.
41.

Structural model of the Technical System, describing all types of
functions.
40.



Diagnostic Analysis:
Diagnostic Analysis is the stage of System-Oriented Analysis where a
Diagnostic Model of the Analyzed Technical System is built.
The Diagnostic Model describes types of functions and costs of the System
and Super-system Elements.
The Diagnostic Model identifies the system’s shortcomings.
39.

Degrees of Ideality:
The ideal system: emerges in the proper place at the proper moment to
perform the function.
Self-fulfillment. The ideal system should be able to perform all the
processes (actions) on its own, without human intervention.
A more ideal system should not exist, and its function should be carried
out
The most ideal system: the function is no longer needed.
38.

Delay Zone:
Parametrical Operator):
The purpose of DTC (Dimensions-Time-Cost) operator is to break
breaking the psychological stereotypes regarding the object to be
improved.
The Rules of DTC operator. Imagine changing Dimensions, Working
Time or Cost of the object. Can the problem be solved now? If so, how?
5
TRIZ Glossary
42.


Dynamics Degree Increase Law:
Any System in its development aims to be more dynamic.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
E
43.
Effect (see Scientific Effect)
44.

Disadvantage in the Cause-Effect Chain that is directly caused by a given
45.




Analogy,
Inversion,
Empathy,
Imagination.
46.




Excessive Function (see Type of Function):
Excessive is something that’s good but too much, for example heats
excessively.
50.

Evolutionary thinking is thinking through the identification and use of
laws, patterns and trends.
One kind of Inventive Thinking.
49.

Energy Source:
The part of a Technical System or its Super-system that generates energy
to operate the system. For example, the engine in an automobile.
48.

Empathy:
Empathy )from Greek εμπάθεια( is commonly defined as one's ability to
recognize, perceive, and directly feel the emotion of another
Often characterized as the ability to &quot;put oneself into another's shoes&quot;, or
experiencing the outlook or emotions of another being within oneself, a
sort of emotional resonance
One of Elementary Inventive Principles.
47.

Elementary Inventive Principles:
Expansion Functions Pattern:
Expansion Function is:
- by giving necessary and desirable functions to a system;
- by identifying and using new functions to existing systems.
6
TRIZ Glossary
F
51.


Fantasy (Greek φαντασία — &quot;Imagination&quot;) is a situation represented by
an individual or group that does not correspond to reality, but expressed
their desire.
Fantasy is a necessary component of human creativity.
52.




Function Analysis:
An analytical tool that identifies Functions, their characteristics, and the
Cost of System and Super-system Components.
One of the stages of System-Oriented Analysis.
60.

Function:
An action performed by one Object (Function Carrier) to change or
maintain a parameter of another Object (Object of Function).
59.

Flow Partition Analysis:
A part of Flow Analysis that identifies allocation of flows.
58.

A Disadvantage of the Analyzed Technical System identified during Flow
Analysis. These Disadvantages include, for example, “Bottlenecks”,
“Gray Zones”, “Stagnant Zones”, etc.
57.

Flow Conduction Law:
A necessary condition for the fundamental operability of a System is to
passage flows of substance, energy and information to the desired systems
element.
One of System Organization Laws.
56.

Flow Analysis:
An analytical tool that identifies Disadvantages in flows of energy,
Substances, and information in a Technical System.
One of the stages of System-Oriented Analysis.
55.

Flow:
A movement of Substance, energy (Field), and information within a
Technical System.
54.

Field:
An entity without rest mass that transmits interaction between
Substances. Examples include magnetic, electric, thermal, and acoustic
fields.
53.

Fantasy:
Function Carrier:
A Object performing a Function.
7
TRIZ Glossary
61.

A characteristic of a function that describes its usefulness. A function can
be Useful, Harmful, or Neutral.
62.





A Disadvantage of the Analyzed Technical System identified during
Function Modeling. These Disadvantages include Harmful Functions, as
well as inadequately (i.e., excessively or insufficiently) performed Useful
Functions.
65.

Function Changes Laws:
Function Idealization Law.
Function Dynamic Law.
Function Transition to Mono- functionality Law.
Function Transition to Poly-functionality Law.
Function Coordination Law.
64.

Function Coordination Law:
Function Coordination can be performed:
- in time;
- in space;
- by conditions.
In particular, can be a dynamic coordination.
One of the Function Changes Laws.
63.





Function Category:
Function Dynamic Law:
Function Dynamic law provides for a change of functions in time and
space, depending on certain conditions.
Functions adapted for specific need, specific conditions, a group of people,
a particular person, activities, etc. Function changes at the time, the place
and form in which it is necessary in a particular case.
One of the Function Changes Laws.
66.
Properties):


Functions Idealization Law would increase the quantity and quality
functions and reducing the time and cost to their satisfaction.
One of the Function Changes Laws.
67.

Function Model:
A model of the Technical System that identifies and describes the
Functions performed by the Components of the System and its Supersystem. Functions are characterized by category (Useful or Harmful),
quality of performance (Insufficient, Normal and Excessive), cost level
(Insignificant, Acceptable and Unacceptable) and cost of corresponding
Components.
8
TRIZ Glossary
68.

A part of System-Oriented Analysis that builds a Function Model.
69.



Function Transition to Mono-functionality Law:
Function Transition to Mono-functionality Law is through the
mechanism of Trimming function.
One of the Function Changes Laws.
70.

Function Modeling:
Function Transition to Poly-functionality Law:
Function Transition to Poly-functionality Law is through the mechanism
of expansion function.
One of the Function Changes Laws.
71.
Functions of TRIZ (see Key Functions of TRIZ)
72.
Function Redistribution:

Redistribution of Useful Functions of a trimmed Element to other
Elements of the Analyzed Technical System, or its Super-system, done as
a part of Trimming.
G
73.


Needs Development Laws.
Function Changes Laws.
74.


Gray Zone:
A location in a flow whose parameters are difficult to predict.
A Gray Zone is a typical disadvantage identified by Flow Analysis.
75.

General laws:
Functionality:
A measure of a Component’s contribution to the overall performance of
the System. Functionality depends on: the number of Useful Functions a
Component performs, importance of these Functions, and how well these
Functions are performed
H
76.

A flow whose Object (Substance, Energy, or Information) performs a
Harmful Function.
77.


Harmful Flow:
Harmful Function (see Type of Function):
A Function that worsens the Parameters of its Object.
Harmful is something you would like to eliminate.
9
TRIZ Glossary
78.



Main Function.
Basic Function.
Auxiliary Function.
79.




Hierarchy of Functions:
Hierarchy of Systems:
Environment,
Super-system,
System,
Sub-system.
I
80.


Ideality Degree Increase Law:
Any System in its development aims to be the ideal.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
81.
Using IFR):

A model of the best solution to an inventive problem, whereby the
problem is fully eliminated with minimal changes to the System and
without any deterioration of System parameters (used in ARIZ).
82.
Law):






Ideal function has to operate, at the right time, in the correct place and
moment in the necessary conditions
The closer the function is to the ideal, the better it is performed (quality
and quantity)
The more ideal the function is, the less effort (time, forces and means for
realization) is needed
The more ideal the function is, the less negative effects and harmful
factors are produced
An ideal function is not needed
An ideal function performed by itself
83.

A System that has an infinite Value. For example, it may have no
Components or associated Costs, but still deliver the intended
Functionality.
84.

The process of making the system more ideal.
85.

Ideal Technical System:
Insufficient is useful but not enough.
10
TRIZ Glossary
86.

A Disadvantage in the Cause-Effect Chain that is not a Target or a Key
87.




Inventive Problem:
Inventive problem is a problem containing a contradiction.
91.

Inventive Principles (Principles):
A problem-solving tool that provides generalized recommendations for
modifying a system to solve a problem formulated as a Technical or
Physical Contradiction (an Inventive Principle is an abstract model of the
solution to the problem).
Element of the Knowledge Base.
90.

Interaction Matrix:
A table that identifies interactions between Components of an Analyzed
Technical System and its Super-system.
89.

A stage of System-Oriented Analysis that identifies interactions between
the Components included in a Component Model.
88.

Inventive Situation:
An Inventive Situation is an indistinct description of a system or situation
indicating the deficiencies.
One inventive situation usually contains several different inventive
problems.
These may be maxi-problems or mini-problems.
92.
Innovative Situation Questionnaire –ISQ (see
Questionnaire):

Tool for problem formulation.
93.


It is a set of different types of thinking, allowing to think more creatively
– Inventively (?).
Types of inventive thinking:
– Systems Thinking.
– Evolutionary Thinking.
– Thinking through identifying and resolving contradictions.
– Resources Thinking.
– Modeling.
– Creative Imagination.
94.


Inventive Thinking:
Inversion:
Inversion (from Lat. Inversio - turning, moving) is turning point, carry
out something conversely
Typical expressions:
11
TRIZ Glossary

- turn inside out;
- to turn upside down;
- reverse the normal order (swap around);
- replacing the &quot;white&quot;, &quot;black.&quot;
One of Elementary Inventive Principles.
95.




Imagination:
Imagination is the ability to form new images and sensations that are not
perceived through sight, hearing, or other senses.
Imagination is connected with the desire to receive what you wish.
Reflection of some fantastic solutions where unreal things or supernatural
processes are used
One of Elementary Inventive Principles.
K
96.





Technical systems were and are being created to satisfy certain human
needs.
Human needs grow much faster than the ability to satisfy them.
The contradiction between growing needs and insufficient ability to
satisfy them is the main trigger of technical development.
Designing novel techniques implies improvement of the system’s technical
parameters.
Complex inventive problems include contradictions, where improvement
of certain parameters of the system worsens other parameters excessively.
97.



Key Problem:
A problem to be solved in order to achieve project goals within the
specified constraints.
100.

Key Functions of TRIZ (Functions of TRIZ):
Reach Inventive Solutions – through systematic way of thinking (avoiding
trials and error).
Predict System Evolution.
Develop an Inventive Thinking.
99.

A disadvantage to be eliminated to achieve the project goal. Usually, Key
Disadvantages appear at the root of a Cause-Effect Chain.
98.

Knowledge Base:
A database of:
– Standards.
– Scientific Effects.
– Inventive Principles.
– Resources.
12
TRIZ Glossary
L
101.
Laws (see System Development Laws, Technical System
Development Laws):
102.







Altshuller divided all solutions into 5 levels. The first level is the lowest
level solutions. The fifth level is the highest level of solutions.
Levels considered in accordance with the process of obtaining solutions:
– Choosing the problem,
– Choosing search concept,
– Gathering data,
– Searching for idea,
– Idea found,
– Practical implementation.
Level 1 – 10 trials – Conventional Solution. Using a finished object
without or almost without selection.
Level 2 – 100 trials – Improvement. Choice of one object from several.
Level 3 – 1,000 trials – Invention inside paradigm. The partial
modification of the selected object.
Level 4 – 10,000 trials – Invention outside paradigm. Creating a new
object (or complete change of source).
Level 5 – ≥ 1,000,000 trials – Discovery / Pioneering Invention. Creating a
new set of objects.
103.
–
–
–
–
–
Levels of Solutions:
Logic of ARIZ:
AC: A
TC: A – Anti-B
IFR: A,B
PC: p  B, anti-p A
PC1: p1  p, anti-p1  anti-p,
…
…
…
– PCn: pn  pn - 1, anti-pn  anti-pn - 1,
– S:
p | anti-p
…
pn | anti-pn – 1






AC
TC
IKR
PC
S
p
104.

– Ideal Final Result – IFR.
– Solution.
– Properties.
Long flow:
Long Flow is a typical disadvantage identified by Flow Analysis.
13
TRIZ Glossary
M
105.

Main Function (see Type of Function):
A Function for which a Technical System is assigned.
106.
Using IFR):





Bad parameter is improved, without deteriorating good parameters A, B.
Parameters are improved, without complicating the system.
Parameters are improved, without causing harmful effects.
Parameters are improved at the proper moment and in the proper place.
All actions must be carried out on its own.
107.


A maxi-problem is a problem for the design of a fundamentally new
System.
A maxi-problem has the following levels:
- The same Operation Principle. The system is replaced by an
alternative system based on the same operation principle.
- The same Function. The operation principle of the system is replaced
by another one performing the same function.
- The same Need. The function is replaced by another one satisfying
the same need.
108.




Mini-Problem:
The objective of a mini-problem is opposite to that of a maxi-problem.
It is necessary to preserve the existing System, but to provide the missing
useful effect or remove the present harmful properties (effect) with
minimal changes.
A mini-problem is derived from an inventive situation by introducing
constraints:
- “The system remains unchanged, or even simplified, but the required
useful effect (action, property) is obtained, or the harmful effect
(action, property) is eliminated”.
When solving a mini-problem, it is necessary to maximally preserve the
system's design, but by no means change the operation principle of the
system’s functioning.
110.

A Providing Function that reveals information about Components.
109.


Maxi-problem:
Minimum Coordination Law:
A necessary condition for the fundamental operability of a system is a
Minimum Coordination of a system components and system with supersystem.
One of System Organization Laws.
14
TRIZ Glossary
111.


Any System in its development aims to be more mismatched.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
112.



Mismatch Law:
Modeling is thinking through the construction of simple models of the
system or problem.
One kind of Inventive Thinking.
TRIZ is used types of modeling:
– Function Modeling (building a functional model).
– Su-Field modeling.
– Modeling with little people.
N
113.

A need is something that is necessary for the person or the System.
114.




Needs Development Laws:
Need Idealization Law.
Need Dynamic Law.
Need Integration Law.
Need Specialization Law.
Need Coordination Law.
116.

Need Coordination Law:
Coordination of the needs may be:
- by itself needs (coordination with each other);
- the parameters;
- in the structure;
- the conditions;
- in the space;
- in time.
In particular, can be a dynamic coordination.
One of the Needs Development Laws.
115.





Need:
Need Dynamic Law:
Need Dynamic Law provides for the changing needs:
- in time;
- in space;
- in the structure;
- by certain condition.
One of the Needs Development Laws.
15
TRIZ Glossary
117.


Need Idealization Law would increase the number, quality improvement
needs, reducing the time and cost to their satisfaction, and reducing
harmful effects (factors of reckoning).
One of the Needs Development Laws.
118.
•
•




Negation of the Negation Law:
The essence of negation of the negation law is that the process of gradual
development occurs in three stages:
– the initial state of the system,
– denial of this state and move to another state,
– denial of the condition (negation of negation) and return to the
original state, but usually at a higher level with new features,
materials, technologies, etc.
The process of development is the relative frequency of occurrence, as if
by a past stage - in a spiral.
One of the Dialectical Laws.
122.

Neutral Flow:
A flow that has an irrelevant or insignificant influence on the Technical
System.
121.

Need Specialization Law:
Need Specialization Law aimed at a narrower selection need, which more
accurately and better satisfy the needs.
One of the Needs Development Laws.
120.

Need Integration Law:
The integration is performed in such a way that useful (necessary) quality
The integration is carried out in several ways:
– Integration of homogeneous (similar) needs.
– Homogeneous integration needs with shifted parameters. Shifted
parameters (characteristics) are called homogeneous needs with
unequal parameters or properties.
– The formation of the competing (alternative) needs.
– Integration of antagonistic (opposing) needs.
One of the Needs Development Laws.
119.

Need Idealization Law:
Neutral Function (see Type of Function):
A Function that either has an insignificant influence on the Parameter of
its Object, or changes it in a way that is irrelevant according to current
requirements.
16
TRIZ Glossary
O
123.
Object (in ARIZ) – (see Product in ARIZ)
124.
Object of Function:

A Object, the parameter of which is changed as a result of performing a
Function.
125.


Operability is the ability to keep equipment (or “a piece of equipment”), a
system or a whole industrial installation in a safe and reliable functioning
condition, according to pre-defined operational requirements.
The minimal necessary and sufficient number of subsystems for technical
systems providing operability:
– Working unit;
– Source and converter of substance, energy and information;
– Control system;
– Connections.
126.

Operation Time:
Operation time is the time interval of a conflict (Contradiction
requirements).
129.

Operation Principle:
Operation Principle is the principle by which system works.
128.

Operation:
An action within a Technological Process.
127.

Operability:
Operation Zone:
Operation zone is the space where there is a conflict (Contradiction
requirements).
P
130.


The purpose of Parametrical Operator is to break the psychological
stereotypes regarding the object to be improved.
The Rules of Parametrical Operator. Imagine changing parameter of the
object from nominal to 0, to infinity, and to minus infinity. Can the
problem be solved now? If so, how?
131.

Two opposite requirements placed upon a single physical parameter of an
object.
17
TRIZ Glossary

Applying of opposite properties (for example, physical) to a certain part
of technical system.
132.

A Poorly transferable flow is a typical disadvantage identified by Flow
Analysis.
133.



Poorly transferable flow:
Postulates (TRIZ Fundamental Postulates):
All technical systems evolve according to objective laws and patterns.
Solving difficult problems requires overcoming conflicting requirements
(without compromise).
Difficult problems can be classified and solved methodically using
inventive tools.
134.
Principles (see Inventive Principles)
135.
Problem Model (PM):

Problem Model (PM) includes:
- Conflicting Pair (CP), Technical Contradiction (TC) and
X-element.
- PM = CP + TC + X-element.
136.

A sequence of actions (Operations) on Objects.
137.




Providing Function (see Type of Function):
A Useful Function that helps performs other Useful Functions.
140.
•
Productive Function (see Type of Function):
A Useful Function that irreversibly (permanently) changes a Parameter
of the Product.
139.

Product (in ARIZ):
The product is a component of the conflicting pair.
The product is an element of the technical system which, by the conditions
of the problem, must be processed to detect or measure its parameters.
– E.g., make, move, change, improve, protect against harmful effects,
detect, monitor, measure, etc. This is the element, towards which
action is directed, or which emits a signal.
The product may comprise a processed element or signal; an element
whose parameters are measured, or detected, etc.
In the tasks concerning the detection and measurement of the product
there may be an element, which is, by its primary function, a tool.
138.

Process:
Psychological Inertia
Psychological inertia is the intuitive desire to apply what the problem
solver knows: known solutions, methodologies, and old knowledge. It
limits the search to known solutions. (Thinking inside the box).
18
TRIZ Glossary
•
Psychological inertia is useful for routine operations, but harmful in the
preparation of new solutions.
Q
141.
Questionnaire (see Innovative Situation Questionnaire)
142.
Redundancy Law:
R




Redundancy is a pattern, according to which about 20% of the system's
functions, elements and interfaces, perform 80% of the work.
Upon building workable systems, it is necessary to consider the fact that
in addition to the core 20% of functions, elements and interfaces,
necessary to perform the required work, another 80% of complementary,
facilitating functions, elements and interfaces are needed, even though the
latter fulfill only 20% of the required work.
Therefore whilst building a system, it is necessary to plan for some
additional resources of material, energy and information.
- 20% of these resources will assure the main functionality.
- The rest 80% ascertain that additional and supporting functions will
be accomplished.
One of System Organization Laws.
143.


Resources are the source for system improvement (Idealization).
Element of the Knowledge Base.
144.


Responsiveness:
Responsiveness, in Su-Field Analysis (?), is a property of a substance ‘S’
to react (respond) to the action of the field ‘F’, i.e. perform the necessary
(given) action or a substance ‘S’ to generate the required field ‘F’.
146.

Resource thinking is thinking through the identification and use of
resources.
One kind of Inventive Thinking.
145.

Resources:
Root Cause Analysis:
An analytical tool that identifies the Key Disadvantages of the Analyzed
Technical System. This is accomplished by building Cause-Effect Chains
causes.
19
TRIZ Glossary
S
147.

An S-shaped curve that represents the typical dependence of a Main
Functional Parameter of an evolving Technical System on time.
148.




A set of 76 typical solutions in the form of Substance-Field (Su-Field)
Models, to typical problems that are also expressed in the form of SuField Models.
The Standard Inventive Solutions are a set of rules that allow a unique
high-level solution solving a wide class of inventive problems
Each standard must satisfy three conditions:
– It must refer to a wide class of problems;
– These problems must be solved in exactly the same way;
– Solutions must necessarily be of high-level.
155.

Stagnant Zone:
A place where the flow stops temporarily or permanently.
A Stagnant Zone is a typical disadvantage identified by Flow Analysis.
154.

Special laws:
Artificial System Development Laws.
Technological System Development Laws.
153.


Secondary Problem:
A problem that addresses a new disadvantage that arises from a proposed
solution.
152.


A natural phenomenon or combination of such that could be used for
problem solving. For example, Bernoulli’s Principle is used to control
pressure in fluids.
Element of the Knowledge Base.
151.

S-curve Law
As a Technical System evolves, the evolution of each parameter describes
an S-shaped curve in time.
150.

S-Curve Analysis:
An analytical tool based on the Trend of S-Shaped Evolution that
determines where a Technical System is in its development and what steps
should be taken to improve it
149.

S-Curve:
Standard (see Standard Inventive Solutions)
Element of the Knowledge Base.
20
TRIZ Glossary
156.


Stage identification system structure.
One of the stages of System-Oriented Analysis.
157.


Substance-Field Model (Su-Field Model, Su-Field):
Su-Field – model of system structure.
Su-Field – model of minimally controlled technical system consisting of
two objects and their actions.
The conventional term used for cooperating objects is &quot;substances&quot;
designated S1 and S2, while actions (energy or information) by a field is
designated F.
159.

Substance-Field Analysis (Su-Field Analysis):
Su-Field Analysis is a TRIZ tool for building models (Su-Field Model) for
problems related to existing or new technical system.
158.


Structure Analysis:
Substances, Fields, and their Parameters that can be used to solve a
problem.
160.
Sub-system (see Component)
161.
Su-Field Degree Increase Law:


Any system in its development aims to use more Su-Field.
One of System Evolution Law
162.
Su-Field (see Substance-Field Model)
163.
Su-Field Analysis (see Substance-Field Analysis)
164.
Su-Field Model (see Substance-Field Model)
165.
Super-system:

The System that contains the Analyzed Technical System as a
Component.
166.
Supporting Function (see Type of Function, Flow
Analysis):

A Providing Function that temporarily changes a Parameter of the
Product.
167.

System:
System (Latin systēma, Greek σύστημα systēma) is a set of the elements
interconnected and interact among themselves which form a integrated
whole possessing properties, not inherent (available) at it elements taken
separately.
21
TRIZ Glossary
168.

Objective laws by which systems are developing:
- Universal laws,
- General laws,
- Special laws.
169.











System-Oriented Synthesis:
System-Oriented Synthesis is designed to develop a balanced new system
System-Oriented Synthesis stage:
- Need  Function  Operation Principle  System.
175.

System-Oriented Approach:
System-Oriented Approach is an area of research methodology.
174.

System-Oriented Analysis:
System-Oriented Analysis is designed to research existing system in order
System-Oriented Analysis stage:
– Component Analysis Structural Analysis Function Analysis
Diagnostic Analysis.
173.

System Object:
The object will be classified (?) as systemic when and only when it meets
its intended purpose, is viable, and does not adversely affect nearby
objects and the environment.
The system should function properly in the given conditions under the
impact of the Super-system and environment and should not adversely
affect the latter two.
172.

System Organization Laws:
Completeness and Redundancy Law.
Flow Conduction Law.
Minimum Coordination Law.
171.

System Evolution Laws:
Ideality Degree Increase Law.
Unequal System’s Part Evolution Law.
Controllability and Dynamics Degree Increase Law.
Coordination – Mismatch Law.
Transition to Super-System and Sub-System Law.
Transition to Macro-level and Micro-level Law.
Trimming – Expansion Law.
Su-Field Degree Increase Law.
170.



System Development Laws:
Systems Thinking is the process of understanding how things, regarded as
systems, influence one another within a whole.
22
TRIZ Glossary

One kind of Inventive Thinking.
176.


Systemity:
Systemity is a coordinated interaction between all objects, including the
environment where the objects are located.
This interaction must be fully balanced.
T
177.

A disadvantage in the Analyzed Technical System, the elimination of
which is the goal of a project.
178.






Technical System:
A Technical System (TS) is a set of artificial and / or natural elements
(Components) interconnected and interact among themselves which form
an integrated whole possessing properties, not inherent (available) in it
elements taken separately.
A TS is created to satisfy specific Need.
A TS is designed to perform a Function, carrying out the process, which is
based on a certain Operation Principle.
181.


Technological Process:
A Process that uses Objects, such as raw materials, equipment, tools,
energy, parts, assemblies, people, etc., to create a Product.
180.

A contradiction between certain parts, qualities or parameters of system.
Technical Contradictions (TC) occur due to improvement of certain parts
(qualities or parameters) at the expense of unacceptable deterioration of
other parameters.
deepening it.
179.

Technological System Development Laws:
System Organization Laws.
System Evolution Laws.
182.
Thinking through identifying and resolving

One kind of Inventive Thinking.
183.

Tool (in ARIZ):
A Conflict Component that performs a function (term originated in
ARIZ; corresponds to Function Carrier).
23
TRIZ Glossary





A tool is an element which interacts directly with the product.
- a cutter, rather than the entire lathe
- soldering tip, rather than soldering iron
- soldering wave in wave soldering
- hot gas in a gas burner
- an electron beam or laser beam in electron-beam or laser welding
- a transistor, rather than the entire chip
- an individual algorithm, rather than the entire program, etc.
In particular, the tool may be environmental, such as the effect of climatic
conditions on the product – moisture, fog, temperature, pressure.
Sometimes the tool may comprise standard parts used to build products:
functional modules, micro-modules, integrated circuits (IC) – a tool for
creating various equipment units
Transition to Macro-level and Micro-level Law:
The development of system develops to micro-level or micro-level.
184.



Transition to Macro-level and Micro-level Law is the basic of System
Evolution Laws.
Transition to Macro-level and Micro-level Law includes two laws:
– Transition to Macro-level.
– Transition to Micro-level Law.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
185.





Transition to Super-System and Sub-System Law:
A system that has exhausted all its development potential can be merged
into a super-system or transferred to subsystem.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
189.

Transition to Sub-System Law:
A system that has exhausted all its development potential can be
transferred to subsystem.
One of the System Evolution Laws
188.

Transition to Micro-level Law.
Technology in its development tends to go to the Micro-level.
Most often, it refers to the working unit.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
187.

Transition to Macro-level Law.
Technology in its development tends to go to the Macro-level. It is the
trend of increasing system parameters.
One of the System Evolution Laws.
186.



Transition to Macro-level and Micro-level Law.
Transition to Super-System Law:
A system that has exhausted all its development potential can be merged
into a super-system.
One of System Evolution Laws.
24
TRIZ Glossary
190.



In the development of quantitative changes occur in the system
continuously. Upon reaching a certain limit are made qualitative changes.
New quality accelerates growth.
Quantitative changes occur gradually (evolutionary), and quality - jump
(revolutionary). The nature and duration of the jump can be diverse long and short, rapid and relatively quiet, with the explosion and without
him, and so on.
One of the Dialectical Laws.
191.

Trimming Problem:
A problem that must be solved to realize the Trimming Model.
198.

Trimming Model:
A model of an improved Technical System developed through Trimming.
197.

Trimming Functions Pattern:
Systems development is through the integration (or trim) function.
Trimming function is carried out:
- Elimination of superfluous and harmful functions.
- Transfer of functions to another element of the system or super-system.
- Implementation only required function.
- The function is no longer needed.
196.

Trimming – Expansion Law:
Any system in its development aims to trim or expand.
One of System Evolution Laws.
195.


Trimming:
An analytical tool for improvement of the Technical System by removing
(trimming) certain Components and redistributing their Useful Functions
among the remaining System or Super-system Components.
194.


Trial-and-Error Method:
Trial and error is a primitive method of solving problems. It is
characterised by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until
success, or until the agent stops trying. It is an unsystematic method,
which does not employ insight, theory or organised methodology.
193.

Transport Function (see Type of Function):
A Providing Function that changes a position of its Object in space.
192.

Transformation of Quantity into Quality Law:
Trimming Rule:
An option for eliminating a Component of the Technical System by either
eliminating its Useful Function or redistributing its Useful Functions to
other system Components.
– Rule A: Subject (function carrier) can be trimmed if we remove
the Object of its useful Function.
25
TRIZ Glossary
– Rule B: Subject (function carrier) can be trimmed if the Object
performs the Useful Function itself.
– Rule C: Subject (function carrier) can be trimmed if another
Element performs its useful function.
199.


TRIZ:
An applied scientific discipline that deals with directions of development
and methods for improvement of Technical Systems.
TRIZ is the Russian acronym for the Theory of Inventive Problem
Solving.
200.
TRIZ Fundamental Postulates (see Postulates)
201.


Improvement (I) – it is necessary to improve something, but how to do it
is unclear. It is necessary to create parameter A – good.
(anti-A).
202.



203.













Type of Function:
Auxiliary Function.
Basic Function.
Corrective Function.
Excessive Function.
Harmful Function.
Main Function.
Neutral Function.
Productive Function.
Providing Function.
Supporting Function.
Transport Function.
Useful Function.
U
204.


Unequal System’s Part Evolution Law:
Development of the system parts has been uneven; the more complex the
system, the development is less uniform. (?)
One of System Evolution Laws
26
TRIZ Glossary
205.


S-curve Law.
Dialectical Laws.
206.



Useful Flow:
A flow whose Object (Substance, Energy, or Information) performs a
Useful Function or is an Object of a Useful Function.
208.

Unity and Conflict of Opposites Law
It defines a situation in which the existence or identity of a thing (or
situation) depends on the co-existence of at least two conditions which are
opposite to each other, yet dependent on each other and presupposing
each other, within a field of tension.
One of the Dialectical Laws.
207.

Universal laws:
Useful Function (see Type of Function):
A Function that changes the Parameter of its Object in the required
direction.
Useful is good, exactly what you want.
209.
Properties of IFR):






Directed search (orienteering to IFR).
Narrowing a field of search.
Identification of Problems.
Evaluation of the Received Problem Solution.
Analysis of System Development Level.
Identification of problems, Evaluation of the Received Problem Solution
and Analysis of System Development Level is carried out by comparison
of the existing system or the solution with IFR.
V
210.

A ratio between the Technical System’s (or System Component’s)
Functionality and Cost: V = F/ C.
211.

Value Analysis:
An analytical tool that compares the relative Functionality and Relative
Cost of System Components.
212.

Value:
Value Analysis Model:
System Components distributed on the graph which plots Component’s
Functionality vs. its Cost.
27
TRIZ Glossary
213.

Process of establishing the validity and practical viability of the developed
Concepts.
214.

Verification:
Viability:
Viability is the ability of a System to be operable and competitive.
W
215.

A flow that is characterized by losses of Substance, Energy, or
Information.
216.

Working unit:
Part of the System (Sub-system) that performs the Main Function of the
system.
X
217.


X-element:
Imaginary element to eliminate bad action and does not to interfere the
implementation of good action (used in ARIZ).
Any change in the Technical System (e.g., change in its Components,
Parameters, etc.) that should be incorporated into the System in order to
solve a problem.
Z
218.




Zone:
Delay Zone.
Gray Zone.
Operation Zone.
Stagnant Zone.