Methylamphetamine Methylamphetamine is a synthetic stimulant drug and type of amphetamine-type stimulant. Methylamphetamine comes in several forms, including tablet, powder, crystal and oil. The most commonly available form in Australia is crystal (ice) followed by powder (speed). EXTENT Australian drug users now prefer crystal methylamphetamine over the powder form. Crystal methylamphetamine is more desired by users as it can be smoked as well as injected, and is perceived to be ‘purer’ than the powder form. Methylamphetamine is addictive and often used in conjunction with other drugs. These factors, and the ready availability of methylamphetamine in all its forms, have created new demand in areas where the drug has not previously been present. This includes in regional, rural and disadvantaged communities. HARMS Users of methylamphetamine are at increased risk of a range of health-related harms, particularly increased risk of psychosis and mental illness. Long-term use can result in memory loss and an increased risk of heart failure and stroke. Users also display higher levels of aggression and violent behaviour, including assaults and sexual assaults. these harms have placed significant demands on the resources of the health care system which treats both users and victims of of the violent behaviour. TRENDS Since 2010, there has been significant growth in the Australian methylamphetamine market, including growth in the detected importation, manufacture and supply of the drug. Methylamphetamine is currently the third most commonly used illicit drug in Australia, following cannabis and MDMA. LINKS TO ORGANIZED CRIME More than 60 per cent of Australia’s highest risk criminal targets, including transnational targets, are involved in the Australian methylamphetamine market. The majority of these targets are involved in multiple drug markets. The growth in scale of serious and organised crime involvement is the result of the significant profits to be made. Australian users of methylamphetamine pay a premium price compared to those in other countries, making importations to Australia attractive and profitable. The average street price per gram of crystal methylaphetamine in China is is USD$80. In Australia it is USD$500. The precursor chemical market is also characterised by high demand and high profits.