Course Guide SF2221 Global Security and Democracy (Global säkerhet och demokrati) 15 Higher education credits (15 högskolepoäng) January 2014 Course Coordinators Marco Nilsson, PhD, Department of Political Science Phone: 031-7864146, [email protected] Jan Bachmann, PhD, School of Global Studies, Phone: 031-786 6743 [email protected] General Course Content The pressing challenges posed by today’s global political landscape call for changing notions of both security and democracy. How can we provide security for people, states, regions, the globe, and still attend to the basic fundaments of democratic principles? And how can we ensure a democratization of new as well as old international actors and arenas, without risking a security loss? These questions evoke even more urgency as it becomes increasingly clear that danger, threat, and terror clearly transgress those borders that have been erected to protect, and to distinguish friend from foe. This module will address the interrelationship between security and democracy in an ever-changing global context. In particular, it will attend to the following questions as guide posts for creative reflection: What do we mean by security and democracy? What should be included as referent of security (e.g. the state, the individual, the globe; men, women, the environment), what should be included as threats (e.g. military attack, human rights abuses, environmental damage, economic dependence, and global terrorism), and what should be considered proper strategies (military deterrence/common security, intervention, economic sanctions, the enforcement of international law as well as human—and women’s—rights or, anti-terrorist measures). How can we organize and safeguard our political communities when the basic understandings of who ‘we’ are challenge traditional understandings of both political subjectivity and community? Is modern state sovereignty still the governing logic by which to attain security and achieve democracy? Has it ever been? What possibilities do we have to design international as well as national institutions in a way to promote global democracy? What are the implications of the security-development nexus for strategies for both security and the democratization of societies? What other alternative models for peaceful governance can we see already being established: networks of civil society, a strengthening of the traditional modern state, regional unions, increasing independence for global actors? The module presents and discusses theoretical and empirical encounters where the two concepts are both entangled and 2 contested. The lectures cover issues regarding cosmopolitan democracy, democratic peace theory, liberty and security, terrorism and democracy, private security, reconstruction and peacebuilding, security and identity, and the relationship between security and development. General aims of the course After completion of the course, the student shall be able to: Knowledge and understanding account for different theoretical approaches to the concept/practices of security and democracy, as well as their interrelationships; Skills and abilities analyse how different understandings of security, democracy and their interrelationships employ different logics, ontologies and methodologies; Judgment and approach critically assess the different theoretical approaches presented in the course and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. In order to meet the outcomes specified above, full-time engagement is required. This means: full attendance at lectures and seminars, an active and well-prepared participation in all seminars as well as accurate writing of the course papers. The students are expected to carefully read the literature connected to the course. Furthermore, for those students who plan to write a master thesis within the field of international relations, the course is supposed to serve as a support in the writing process. Organization of the course The course requires active engagement in its three complementary pillars: self-governed reading of the literature, group discussions and participation in lectures. Furthermore, the students are expected to critically reflect on the literature and come prepared to the discussion seminars. Taking part in the course presupposes an active and whole-hearted contribution throughout the duration of the whole course, as it is designed as a graduate-level seminar. The course is divided into 8 interrelated themes (see below). Each theme begins with a lecture which will provide the students with an overview of the field, introducing key concepts, research questions, as well as the empirical evidence that has been presented. The students are expected to read the literature carefully and critically reflect upon the main points of the theme introduced. Each lecture is followed by a student-led seminar in small groups. This seminar is designed to allow time to discuss and reflect on the topic’s literature and also to give the students creative room to connect the weekly theme to current events. 1-2 students are assigned to prepare and lead the discussion based on the literature used for the lectures. You may relate the more theoretical discussions to everyday real life events, culture, reporting, etc. 3 Additionally there will be 5 seminars in which we will discuss your writing exercises and your essays, respectively. There will be two lectures each week with a break of one week after the first four lectures. Forms of examination During the course, everyone is expected to complete 2 writing exercises, to write 2 essays (each addressing one of the lecture topics) plus a final research paper (see below). There will be a particular emphasis on the writing process as part of the learning experience. Writing exercises In the first writing exercise, everyone is expected to write a comparative summary of two articles. You can chose between the texts of Held & Chandler (core reading lecture 1) or the texts by Burnell & Richmond (core reading lecture 2; max 1000 words, 12 font, 1½ line spacing). The purpose of the exercise is to critically discuss the arguments, guiding concepts and assumptions made in the articles and discuss points of overlap as well as diverging claims. In the second you will write a book review (max 1500 words, 12 font, 1½ line spacing). You are expected to find a book yourself on either private security (lecture 5) or democratic peace theory (lecture 6). It can be a monograph or an edited volume. In this exercise you will develop your capacity to assess the claims made and to position the arguments and the book itself in a larger debate. Try to address strengths and weaknesses of the article. Please motivate your choice of the book. The two writing exercises are mandatory but will only be grades with fail or pass. Two essays For the first essay (max 2000 words, 12 font, 1½ line spacing), you choose a research problem related to one of the lecture topics 1-4. For the second essay you may choose a research problem related to one of the lecture topics 5-8. Everyone will present his/her draft in a structured way at a seminar. During the seminar, you will receive feedback from a fellow student (peer review format) as well as comments by the lecturer. The student then has the opportunity to revise his/her essay. The second draft will be graded. The final submission should be accompanied by a brief reflection on how the feedback has been addressed. This process will be repeated for the second essay. Your papers should summarize the main arguments of the literature in relation to your arguments. It is not possible to discuss everything; you must be selective. Choose a ‘research’ question that you think is worth discussing. Feel free to formulate your own question, or relate to a question discussed in the literature. Your writing should be critical in the sense that you should question the theoretical and methodological foundations of the research. Seek to present arguments why you think something is worth pursuing and why it is not. In short: your paper should include a short summary of the main points in the literature. The main focus should be on presenting an argument for your critical standpoints. You might also want to indicate how we (as critical scholars) could further the debate, both theoretically and empirically! NOTE: All papers should include proper references to the literature with which you are directly engaging. Papers without proper referencing will NOT receive a ‘pass’. Final paper 4 The understanding and knowledge gathered through the engagement with the writing process and the effort to understand and critically engage with different theories, approaches and methods on security and democracy should then be used to outline a research proposal as the final paper (max 4000 words, 12 font, 1½ line spacing). This should include a problem specification, a research question, a literature review and theoretical framework, a brief discussion of methodological choices and an analytical part in which the argument is supported by the literature. The argument does not need to be supported by empirical evidence (the final paper is not a master thesis but a possible research proposal) but can e.g. be that some research question that you suggest is worth pursuing. The final paper can be about any of the lecture topics. This paper will be discussed at a final seminar. At the final seminar you are expected to present this imaginary research project to your fellow students (5-7 minutes/person). Grading The two essays, as well as the final paper, will be marked either with VG (“väl godkänd”/pass with distinction), G (“godkänd”/pass) or U (“underkänd”/fail). The two writing tasks will be marked either with G (“godkänd”/pass) or U (“underkänd”/fail). In order to receive a pass for the whole course the student has to complete all the tasks, that is, he/she needs to receive G (“godkänd”/pass) for the two writing tasks, the two essays and the final paper. To receive VG (“väl godkänd”) for the whole course, you additionally need to receive a VG in one of the first two essays plus a VG in the final paper. If any of the papers are marked U, additional work must be added to the paper to pass the course. For each paper, customary demands on form and bibliography are required. Also, the students are expected to have an independent relationship to the literature. All papers should be uploaded on the course’s GUL page. On the left-hand side of the course page (under ‘content’) you find places where to upload papers (“Writing task 1”, “Writing task 2”, “Essay 1 final version”, “Essay 2 final version”, “Final paper”). However, “Essay 1 draft” and “Essay 2 draft” must be uploaded to the your project group’s documents (you will find the link to project groups also on the left hand side at GUL but further down on the page) so that it can be retrieved by other students for peer review. It is vital that you upload your paper in time as the papers are central to seminar preparations. GUL will check the content of all the papers with the help of Urkund that is a program for uncovering plagiarism. You upload your final paper on GUL where it says “final paper”. The final paper will be automatically anonymized by GUL, i.e. your identity is not visible for the lecturer grading the final paper. See the schedule (Course Portal / GUL) for further details and information about the course. All venue and date changes (should they be necessary) will be communicated via the message board in GUL. Course literature The course literature will mostly be made up of articles from academic journals (available through UB). The suggested reading list after each lecture description includes recent, as well as established articles which address the theme of the lecture. You are expected to read the core reading listed for 5 each lecture (if applicable) and to pick and choose from the additional readings. Making this choice is PART OF the assignment (reading the abstracts of many articles, or swiftly glancing through them will undoubtedly help you with this choice.) Detailed Course description Introduction: Security and Democracy Marco Nilsson/Jan Bachmann This lecture will introduce the course. We will cover the organization of the course, requirements and literature. Thereafter we will introduce the core concepts and how the content of the course has been conceived. Lecture 1 Global Democracy? Göran Duus-Otterström Over the last decade and half, scholars have argued that globalisation undermines the sovereign nation-state – and with it, democracy. In addition, some theorists argue that the proper response to globalisation and the erosion of state sovereignty is transnational democracy in some form. In this seminar, we approach a particular problem in transnational democratic theory: Who ought to be included in the demos of transnational democracy? A common, intuitively appealing answer is that everyone who is affected has a legitimate claim to inclusion in transnational decision-making. We’ll consider the merits of this answer as well as some suggested alternative solutions for determining the boundaries of democratic entities. We shall also consider the relevance of these theoretical issues for current discussions about globalisation and security, for example in terms of border control and migration, or of secession. Core reading: Chandler, David 2003: “New Rights for Old? Cosmopolitan Citizenship and the Critique of State Sovereignty”, Political Studies 51 (2), 332–349. Held, David 2002: “Law of states, law of peoples: Three models of sovereignty”, Legal Theory 8, 1–44. Additional reading: Abizadeh, Arash, 2008: »Democratic theory and border coercion: No right to unilaterally control your own borders«, Political Theory 36 (1), 37-65. Goodin, Robert E., 2007: »Enfranchising all affected interests, and its alternatives«, Philosophy & Public Affairs 35 (1), 40-68. Nakano, Takeshi 2006: “A Critique of Held’s Cosmopolitan Democracy”, Contemporary Political Theory 5 (1), 33–51. Miller, David, 2010, 'Why Immigration Controls are not Coercive: a reply to ArashAbizadeh', Political Theory, 38 (1), 111-20. 6 Lecture 2 Post-Conflict Democratization and Peace-Building: A Contradiction? Joakim Öjendal In the beginning of the 1990s, international interventions became increasingly common. These were often led by the UN and almost always contained a dimension of democratization. Typically elections were rapidly held followed by a package of "peacebuilding" measures which would consolidate peace and deepen democracy. However, these interventions are beset by complications where the contradictions of, for instance, short-term needs for conflict resolution and long-term need for in-depth democratization become evident. This lecture analyses critically this dilemma and other real-life difficulties inherent in "peacebuilding". It presents a case and discusses ways to overcome these difficulties. Core reading: Burnell, Peter 2006, ‘The Coherence of Democratic Peace-Building’, Research Paper No. 2006/147, UNU-Wider. http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/working-papers/researchpapers/2006/en_GB/rp2006-147/ Marquette, Heather & Danielle Beswick, 2011 ‘State Building, Security and Development: State building as a new development paradigm?’, Third World Quarterly, 32 (10); 1703-1714. Öjendal, Joakim & Sivhuoch Ou, 2013 ‘From Friction to Hybridity in Cambodia: 20 years of unfinished peacebuilding’, in Peacebuilding 1 (3), 365380. Paris, Roland & Timothy D. Sisk, 2007, Managing Contradictions: The Inherent Dilemmas of, Postwar Statebuilding. New York: International Peace Academy. http://www.ipinst.org/media/pdf/publications/iparpps.pdf Richmond, Oliver P. 2010, ‘Resistance and the Post-liberal Peace’, Millennium Journal of International Studies 38 (3), 665-692. Lecture 3 The Security-Development Nexus Jan Bachmann It has become increasingly evident that the complex pressing problems that societies face in today’s globalized political, economic and cultural landscape demand serious reflection. Simply put, it matters that—for instance—people continue to die globally in almost unimaginable numbers from povertyrelated illnesses; violent conflict, ecological disasters or terrorist attacks. Additionally, safety in the daily lives of people’s in recently ‘liberated’ societies remains at best a pipe dream, and at worse, an impossibility. The interwoven intricacies of problems like these belie the limits of both academic discourses and policy programs. Specifically, their persistence loudly attests that any conceptualization or enactment of development necessarily implies attention to that which has been understood to belong to the realm of ‘security’ and vice versa. Indeed the hope of effective attention 7 to how the threads which weave these problems are entwined therefore poses critical challenges to those working in the distinct (and until recently delineated) fields of security and development. In this lecture we will introduce the ways these interconnections have been conceived and practiced in the socalled ‘security development nexus’. Core reading: Duffield, Mark 2010. The liberal way of development and the development-security impasse: Exploring the global life-chance divide. Security Dialogue 41 (1), 53-76. Stern, Maria and Joakim Öjendal 2010. Mapping the security-development nexus: Conflict, Complexity, Cacophony, Convergence, Security Dialogue 41 (1), 5-29. Reid, Julian (2012). The disastrous and politically debased subject of resilience, Development Dialogue 58, 67-79. Williams, Paul and Joanna Spear (2012). Conceptualising the security-development relationship. An overview of the debate. In: Paul Williams & Joanna Spear (Eds). Security and development in global politics. A critical comparison. Washington/DC: Georgetown University Press, 7-33. Additional reading: Duffield, M. (2007) Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples, Cambridge, UK, Polity Press. Lecture 4 Democracy and Terrorism Marco Nilsson This lecture will deal with the relationship between democracy and terrorism. The two concepts can be connected and problematized in various ways. I will first discuss the general causes of terrorism and problems with defining terrorism. I will then discuss whether democracy increases or decreases terrorist incidents and what democracies can do to fight terrorism. Much research remains to be done in the field and the students are encouraged to find new ways to look at the interrelationship between democracy and terrorism. Core Reading Brooks Risa, 2009: ”Researching Democracy and Terrorism: How Political Access Affects Militant Activity” Security Studies, 18:756–788. Eubank W. and L. Weinberg. 1994:“Does Democracy Encourage Terrorism?” Terrorism and Political Violence 6 (4): 417-435 Li Quan, 2005: ”Does Democracy Promote or Reduce Transnational Terrorist Incidents?” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49 (2), pp.1-20 Findley, Michael, and Joseph Young. 2011. Terrorism, Democracy, and Credible Commitments. International Studies Quarterly 55:357-378. Pape , Robert A., 2003: ”The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism” The American Political Science Review, 97 (3), pp. 343-361 8 Additional reading Crenshaw, Martha, 2000: ”The Psychology of Terrorism: An Agenda for the 21st Century” Political Psychology, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 405-420 Turk, Austin T., 2004: ”Sociology of Terrorism” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 30, pp. 271-286 Crenshaw, Martha, 1981: ”The Causes of Terrorism” Comparative Politics, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 379-399 Nilsson, Marco. 2012. “To Die or not to Die. The Logic of Suicide Terrorism.” A paper presented at the IR seminar series. University of Gothenburg. (Available at GUL). Turk, Austin T., 2004: ”Sociology of Terrorism” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 30, pp. 271-286 Berribi C, and E.F. Klor. 2006:“On Terrorism and Electoral Outcomes: Theory and Evidence from the Palestinian Conflict”. Journal of Conflict Resolution 50. Seung-Whan, Choi, 2010: “Fighting Terrorism through the Rule of Law?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 54: 940-966 Kibris A. 2011: Funerals and Elections: The Effects of Terrorism on Voting Behavior in Turkey. Journal of Conflict Resolution 55: 220-247. Schmidt A.P. 1992:“Terrorism and Democracy”. Terrorism and Political Violence 4. Lecture 5 Democratic Peace Theory and its Critics Marco Nilsson The theory of the democratic peace (DP) suggests that democratic or liberal states never or very rarely go to war with each other and that they are less likely to become involved in militarized disputes among themselves. Its proponents claim that the DP thesis is the most robust, law like finding that the discipline of international relations has generated, but institutionalism, realist and other critics suggest that the DP thesis is both theoretically flawed and relies on dubious statistical evidence. In this seminar, we’ll cover both the various theoretical explanations given in support of the DP thesis and the critique launched from different IR positions. Core reading Caprioli, Mary, 2004: “Democracy and human rights versus women’s security: A contradiction?”Security Dialogue 35 (4): 411–28. Dabros, Matthew S and Mark W Petersen. 2013. Not created equal: Institutional constraints and the democratic peace. International Politics Review 1, 27–36. Farber, Henry S. and Joanne Gowa 1995: “Polities and Peace” International Security 20 (2), 123-146. Rosato, Sebastian, 2003: “The flawed logic of democratic peace theory”, American Political Science Review, 97 (4), 585–602. Russett, Bruce &ZeevMaoz, 1993: “Normative and structural causes of the democratic peace, 1946–1986”, American Political Science Review 87, 624–38. 9 Additional reading Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, James D. Morrow, Randolph M. Siverson& Alastair Smith, 1999: “An institutional explanation of the democratic peace”, American Political Science Review 93:4, 791–807. Fearon, James, 1994:“Domestic Political Audiences and the Escalation of International Disputes.”The American Political Science Review 88:3, 577-592. Mansfield, Edward, and Jack Snyder, 1995: “Democratization and the Danger of War.” International Security 20:1, 5-38. Oren, I 1995: “The Subjectivity of the "Democratic" Peace: Changing U.S. Perceptions of Imperial Germany. International Security, vol 20(2), pp 147-184. Risse, T 1995:“Democratic Peace- Warlike Democracies? A Social Constructivist Interpretation of the Liberal Argument”. European Journal of International Relations, vol 1 (4), pp. 491-517. Slantchev, Alexandrova, and Gartzke, 2005: "Probabilistic Causality, Selection Bias, and the Logic of the Democratic Peace" American Political Science Review 99/3: 459-462. Lecture 6 Democracy, Private Security, and the State Joakim Berndtsson In recent decades, the use of private security companies (PSCs) to provide a wide range of security- and military-related services has increased. Importantly, many of the services and technologies provided by private companies have conventionally been associated more or less exclusively with the state and (ideally democratically controlled) institutions such as the police, the military or the intelligence services. While PSCs operate in nearly all societies around the world, the most conspicuous and in many ways the most problematic representations of this trend are found in armed conflicts such as the ones in Afghanistan and Iraq. Departing from a brief introduction to the global privatisation of security, this lecture will introduce a series of different yet interconnected challenges and questions associated with this development: o In what ways does security privatisation challenge conventional images of the sovereign state as a monopolist of violence and provider of protection and how does this development fit (or not) within conventional and contemporary thinking on security and war? o How can we understand the privatisation of security within a larger framework of global (and security) governance, globalisation, and marketization of state activities and functions? o How does privatisation change the organisation and role of violence-using institutions and how does it change the ability and willingness of states to secure democratic control over their activities? 10 o What roles do PSCs play in the formulation and mitigation of insecurity and risk and what are the possible implications of privatisation in terms of growing commercial and transnational networks of security professionals? Core Readings Abrahamsen, R., & Williams, M. C. (2009). 'Security Beyond the State: Global Security Assemblages in International Politics'. International Political Sociology, 3(1), pp. 1-17. Avant, Deborah D., 2006: “The Implications of Marketized Security for IR Theory: The Democratic Peace, Late State Building, and the Nature and Frequency of Conflict”, Perspectives on Politics, 4 (3), pp. 507-528. Berndtsson, Joakim 2012: "Security Professionals for Hire: Exploring the Many Faces of Private Security Expertise." Millennium-Journal of International Studies 40 (2), 303-20. Heinecken, Lindy: 2013 "Outsourcing Public Security: The Unforeseen Consequences for the Military Profession." Armed Forces & Society; online; doi: 10.1177/0095327X13489974 (http://afs.sagepub.com/content/early/recent) Singer, P. W. 2007: "Can't Win with 'Em, Can't Go to War without 'Em Private Military Contractors and Counterinsurgency." At: http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2007/9/27military contractors/0927militarycontractors.pdf Lecture 7 Identity, Security and Democracy Maria Stern In this lecture we discuss the relevance of identities in international politics. How, for example, are identities and national interest interconnected? How are notions of democratic representation tied to the ways in which we think about identity? Does who we are matter in terms of how we identify threat and seek security? Does how we identify threat and seek security inform how we identify ourselves? Core reading Gartzke, Erik and Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2006). Identity and Conflict: Ties that Bind and Differences that Divide. European Journal of International Relations, 12 (1), 53-86. Jackson, Richard, (2005). Security, Democracy, and the Rhetoric of CounterTerrorism, Democracy and Security, 1 (2), 147-171. Mitzen, Jennifer (2006). Ontological Security in World Politics: State Identity and the 11 Security dilemma. European Journal of International Relations 12 (3), 341-370. Roe, Paul, (2004). Securitization and Minority Rights, Security Dialogue 35 (3), 279– 294. Stern, Maria, (2006). ‘We’ the Subject’: The Power and Failure of (In)Security, Security Dialogue, 37 (2), 187-205. Additional readings: Aradau, Claudia (2004). Security and the Democratic Scene: Desecuritization and Emancipation, Journal of International Relations and Development 7 (4), 388–413. Bially Mattern, Janice (2001). The Power Politics of Identity. European Journal of International Relations, 7 (3), 349-397. Burke, Anthony (2002). Aporias of Security, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 27(1), 1–27. Campbell, David, (1992). Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. Doty, R. L. (2007), States of Exception on the Mexico–U.S. Border: Security, “Decisions,” and Civilian Border Patrols. International Political Sociology, 1 (2), 113–137. Greenhill, Brian (2008). Recognition and Collective Identity Formation in International Relations. European Journal of International Relations, 14 (2), 343-368. Gutman, A. (2004). Identity in Democracy,Princeton: Princeton University Press. Jacobsen, Elida, (2012). Unique Identification: Inclusion and surveillance in the Indian biometric assemblage, Security Dialogue, 43(5), 457-474. Luke, T. W. (2010. From “Am I an American?” to “I Am an American!” Cynthia Weber on Citizenship, Identity, and Security. International Political Sociology, 4 (1), 85–89. Pin-Fat, Véronique, (2000). (Im)possible Universalism: Reading Human Rights in World Politics, Review of International Studies 26(4), 663–674. Pin-Fat,Véronique& Maria Stern (2005). The Scripting of Private Jessica Lynch: Biopolitics, Gender and the “Feminisation” of the U.S. Military, Alternatives: Global,Local, Political 30(1): 25–53. Rowley, C. And J. Weldes, (2012). The evolution of international security studies and the everyday: Suggestions from the Buffyverse, Security Dialogue, 43 (6),513-530. Weldes, Jutta; Mark Laffey, Hugh Gusterson& Raymond Duvall, eds, (1999). Cultures of Insecurity: States, Communities, and the Production of Danger. Minneapolis, MN:University of Minnesota Press. Wendt, Alexander (1994). Collective Identity Formation and the International State. American Political Science Review, 88 (2), pp.384-396. Wæver, Ole, (1995) Securitization and Desecuritization, In: Ronny Lipschutz, ed., On Security. New York: Columbia University Press (46–86). 12 Lecture 8 Governmentality and Technologies of Security: Revisiting the liberty-security trade-off Jan Bachmann Learning from Foucault and other political philosophers, many critical security scholars have refocused their analysis on the questions of sovereignty and the governing of life. Even though practices of power have evolved from their brute force to operate in more indirect and empowering modes, mechanisms of security remain a central element in liberal ‘arts of governing’. In the literature on biopolitics, practices of security are understood as ways of ordering and sorting forms of life, as creating citizens (or subjects) or as separating friend from foe. This lecture provides an introduction to the question of how populations are regulated and governed through liberal rationalities. Under particular scrutiny is the relationship between liberty and security in liberal societies and beyond. Both the value added as well as potential limits of a governmentality perspective will be discussed. You might find these website of interest. http://www.libertysecurity.org/module www.historiesofviolence.com Core reading Bigo, Didier (2002). Security and Immigration. Toward a critique of the governmentality of the ‘unease’, Alternatives, 27 (special issue), 63-92. Bröckling, Ulrich; Susanne Krasmann; Thomas Lemke (2012). From Foucault’s lectures at the Collège de France to studies of governmentality. In: Ulrich Bröckling, Susanne Krasmann, Thomas Lemke (Eds). Governmentality. Current issues and future challenges London: Routledge: 1-33 (NB: concentrate on pages 1-20 as an overview). E-book via UB Neal, Andrew 2008. Good-bye war on terror? Foucault and Butler on discourses of law, war and exceptionalism. In: Michael Dillon & Andrew Neal (Eds). Foucault on Politics, security and war. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 43-64. E-book via UB Neumann, Iver B. & Ole Jacob Sending (2006). Governance to Governmentality. Analyzying NGOs, States and Power. International Studies Quarterly 50 (3), 651-672. Rose, Nikolas and Peter Miller (1992). Political Power Beyond the State. Problematics of Government. British Journal of Sociology 43 (2), 173-205. Additional reading: Agamben, G. (1998 ), Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, Stanford University Press. Butler, Judith (2004). Precarious life. The powers of mourning and violence. London: Verso. Dean, Mitchell (1999) Governmentality, Power and Rule in Modern Society. London: Sage Publications. (especially chapter 1). Evans, Brad 2010. Foucault’s Legacy: Security, war, violence in the 21st century. Security Dialogue, 41 (4), 413-433. 13 Foucault, Michel (2003) Society Must Be Defended’ Lectures at the Collège de France 19751976. Picador, New York, 2003 - pp243-245 (especially chapter 11). Foucault, Michel (1976) The Will to Knowledge: History of Sexuality I, Penguin Books. (especially part 5). Foucault, Michel, 1991 ‘Governmentality’ in (eds) Graham, Burchell, Gordon, Colin and Miller, Peter The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. The University of Chicago Press. Hindess, Barry (2001). The Liberal Government of Unfreedom, Alternatives 26 (2), 93-111. Joseph, Jonathan (2010). The Limits of Governmentality. Social Theory and the International. European Journal of International Relations, 16 (2), 223-246. Lemke, Thomas (2001) ‘The Birth of Biopolitics”: Michel Foucault’s Lecture at theCollège de France’, Economy and Society 30 (2), 190–209. O’Malley Pat (2010). Resilient subjects: Uncertainty, warfare and liberalism. Economy and Society 39(4): 488–509. Opitz, Sven 2012. Government unlimited. The security dispositif of illiberal governmentality. In: Ulrich Bröckling, Susanne Krasmann, Thomas Lemke (Eds). Governmentality. Current issues and future challenges. London: Routledge: 93-114. E-book via UB. Walters, Walter. 2012. Governmentality. Critical encounters, London: Routledge. Introduction.