The influence of Salinity towards The Protein Content and The

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The influence of Salinity towards The Protein
Content and The Growth of Pomfret Star
(Trachinotus blochii)
Hutami Tri Retnani, Nurlita Abdulgani
Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam,
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS)
Jl. Arief Rahman Hakim, Surabaya 60111 Indonesia e-mail: [email protected]
Abstract
The aim of this research is to find out protein content of Silver Pompano (Trachinotus blochii)
reared at different salinities in order to diversified species for brackish water aquaculture. This
research were conducted with rearing Silver Pompano in 70 L aquaria using four salinity
treatments (seawater salinity/34‰, 24‰, 14‰, and 4‰) for 28 days. The primary parameters
examined are protein content whereas the water quality parameter is salinity (‰), temperature
(oC), dissolved oxygen/DO (mg/L), and pH. The result showed that protein content does
significantly different (P<0,05) according to one-way ANOVA analysis between salinity
treatments. Protein content in seawater salinity (34‰) were 45,78%, salinity 24 ‰ were
54,43%, salinity 14‰ were 62,5%, dan salinity 4‰ were 55,86%. The highest protein content
were found on salinity 24‰. Specific Growth Rate were 10,59% per day and Total Length
Growth Rate were 1,84 mm per day.Water quality during the research is at save level,
temperature ranged from 28-30oC, DO ranged from 4-5 mg/L, and pH ranged from 7,7-8,2. The
conclusion showed that there are no different significancy between protein content and growth of
silver pompano at seawater salinity and brackish water.
Keyword : Silver Pompano (Trachinotus blochii), protein content, growth, salinity
I. INTRODUCTION
Pomfret Star (Trachinotus blochii) is a fish that belongs to the recently cultivated in
Indonesia (Ransangan et al., 2011). In 2007, seeding Pomfret Star have succeeded in Balai
Budidaya Laut first in Batam Indonesia (Minjoyo et al., 2008). Pomfret Star had rapid growth
and is an active swimmer. The market demand for fish is quite high, ranging from international
to local level, like in Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore (Ransangan et al., 2011). In
addition to its economic value high, Pomfret Star also had rapid growth, disease resistant, and
easy maintenance (Rahardjo et al., 2008).
Some effort the development of Pomfret Star has been done on the porch of Balai Budidaya Air
Laut in Indonesia (Juniyanto et al., 2008; Putro et al., 2008; Harjono, 2010). Diversified media
cultivation of seawater to brackish water is also one of the techniques that could potentially be
developed to increase the production of fish. Cultivation media diversification techniques never
done before on a fish Trachinotus carolinus and Trachinotus marginatus (Gothreaux, 2008; Costa
et al., 2008). Trachinotus carolinus has reportedly even be cultivated in ponds low in salinity (1912 ppt) and resistant to sudden changes of water in salinity media 32 ppt to 7 ppt (McMaster et
al., 2005; McMaster et al., 2006), so this Star Pomfret has the potential to be cultivated in low
salinity, fish used for fish test is juvenil. Juvenil is the phase where the morphology, Physiology,
and ecology have been similar to the adult but not yet reproductive phase (Bishop et al., 2006). A
closely related species, namely Pomfret Florida (Trachinotus carolinus), juvenil phase has a
tolerance range tend to be wider than the adult fish (Groat, 2002) so it will be easier in an
engineering of salinity, so in this study selected Pomfret Stars age juvenil to be kept in the
salinity is lower than sea water.
Growth of value added in terms of biomass of individual fish is one important component
to measure the success of fishing (Bone and More, 2008). Treatment of lower salinity than sea
water apart to give the profits on increased production also can potentially improve the efficiency
of the metabolism of the fish so that allegedly can increase the biomass of individuals. It is based
on the statement of Bone and More (2008) that to maintain system osmoregulasinya, fish require
at least 25 to 50% of the total energy. Fish feed that will convert biomass into dikonsumsinya if
there are excess nutrients once used for basic metabolism (such as osmoregulasi). As a source of
animal protein, to support the value of fish, in addition to the measurement of biomass of
individuals also needs to be done analyzing the content of nutrients including protein (cider,
Widiana Gems et al., 2008).
According to Pramono (2007) protein is the largest nutrient for the body of the fish. In
addition to human protein requirements are also a lot of fish. According to the Central Bureau of
statistics through national social economic survey (2009) protein derived from fish have a
contribution of over 65% in 2008 and 2009, compared with the results of protein consumption is
not a fish. This is a proof that the fish proteins contribute to suffice the protein needs of the
community. Referring to the background of the above research needs to be done, then the
influence of salinity towards the protein content and the growth of Pomfret Star (Trachinotus
blochii)
II. RESEARCH DESCRIPTION
A. Research On Place And Time.
The research was carried out in the laboratory of nutrition and Feed technology is brackish
water Aquaculture Situbondo Hall in May-June of 2012.
B. The Preparation of Fish and Aquaculture Media
Pomfret fish used was the juvenil approximately 35 days with a body length of
approximately 3.5 cm obtained from the porch of brackish water Aquaculture (BBAP)
Situbondo. A number of fish 420 tail then moved into a tube-shaped aklimasi-volume container
1000 L which already contains sea water and aeration.
The feed is given in the form of pellets that are adapted to the fish mouth openings and
given twice a day in ad libitum, i.e. continuous feed given to fish has not responded to feed given
again.
Penyiponan done every day to clean the media maintenance. Water quality parameters in
the form of salinity, DO (dissolved oxygen), and the temperature checked daily to ensure that
water quality is still within the safe levels for fish. Fish in a container of this aklimasi hereinafter
referred to as the fish stock.
C. Preliminary Test
A preliminary test (preliminary test) is conducted to find out how much salinity Pomfret
until the star was able to survive and with the rate of decline in what is the most efficient way to
reach the salinity. This test is carried out on the basis of a modification of the method of Lemarie
(2004). Aquarium numbered 4 fruit contains sea water 30 L and given a customized aeration
with the amount of fish, namely 1 liter of water for every 0.8 grams of fish based on APHA
standards (APHA, 1985). Removal of fish from the Aquarium to the aklimasi container is done
in the morning before giving a meal. The fish are fed ad libitum on a morning, afternoon, and
evening. Shortly after the fish are done given the feed in the morning, water in the Aquarium
disipon. Currently when there is a dead fish, the fish is taken, then discarded later recorded
mortality of fish in each Aquarium. After that is done the decrease in salinity by means of thin
sea water in an aquarium using fresh water. Dilution is carried out using the formula according to
Rusdi and Karim (2006) are:
S2 = (V x S1)/(n + V)
S2 is the desired salinity (‰), V is the volume of sea water will be diluted (L), S1 is the salinity
of sea water will be diluted (‰), n is the volume of fresh water to be added (L).
To convince the dilution, salinity checked with the hand refractometer. Dilution is done
on the four Aquarium each as much as 3 ‰/day ‰/day, 5, 7, and 9 ‰/day ‰/day, in other
words the next day also performed the same procedure only for each Aquarium has a rate of
decrease in salinity. Variations in the rate of decrease in salinity is based on a modification of the
method of Lemarie (2004). This is done to decrease the salinity of the salinity in the Aquarium
achieve 0 ‰ or until all the fish in the Aquarium has died. The data from this preliminary Test
SR. is then used to determine the MLS (median lethal salinity), the salinity level where fish
populations (n = 10) decreases up to 50%. Water quality parameters in the form of temperature,
salinity, pH and DO note every day. The temperature is measured using a thermometer Hg (oC),
the pH with a pH-meter, measured with a hand refractometer salinity (‰), and DO use DOmetre (mg/L).
D. The Actual Test (Definitive Test)
Based on the results of the preliminary test, salinity is lowest that can be achieved by
Pomfret with SR is still 100% salinity is 4 ‰. Because treatment can reach salinity 4 ‰/day ‰ 3
treatment only and 5 ‰/day then the addition rate of decrease in salinity and efficient IE 5
‰/day. So the salinity variations obtained are used in the actual test i.e., salinity 34 24 ‰ ‰ ‰,
14, and 4 ‰, where salinity 34 ‰ as control that represents the hiperosmotik salinity, salinity
brackish salinity represents 24 ‰ but still in taraf hiperosmotik, 14 ‰ salinity salinity represents
the most approaching isosmotik level, whereas salinity salinity which represents 4 ‰
hiposmotik.
Each salinity treatment made replication as much as 3 times so in fact this test the
Aquarium used amounted to 12. The placement of each Aquarium for each treatment and
repetition is done randomly. Each of these contains 30 L aquarium water. Then as many as 420
tail Pomfret stars from aklimasi container is placed on each of the aquarium with the number of
35 tails each Aquarium. After that to the aquarium with low salinity treatment (other than
control) conducted a decrease in salinity in accordance with the rate of decrease in salinity in the
preliminary test, used as the basis for the actual test. The fish is then kept by the test procedure as
in the introduction to the entire Aquarium have the desired salinity.
The calculation of the protein is done on a day-to-day, 0-14, and the 28th day using three
repeats and repeats each using two fish-tail. The fish are then dioven to dry, then crushed using a
mortar and pestle. Sample weighed weighing 0.25 grams, plus 7.5 grams of K2SO4 and HgO of
0.35 grams, then put into pumpkin kjedhal and plus 15 ml of H2SO4. Pumpkins put into space,
heated and wait until the solution turns into nodes. The heater is turned off and allowed to cool
down. Then Zn, plus 100 ml of NaOH, and aquades 50 ml. Pumpkin fitted with distillation tools
immediately to. Kjedhal flask is heated slowly to 2 layers well mixed, then heated to a boil
quickly. Distillate in an Erlenmeyer flask that contains 75 ml HCl (0.1 N) and 5 drops of the
indicator of the red metal. Distillation is done until the cached distillate as much as 100 ml.
NaOH titrated with Distillate to yellow color. After NaOH titration volume is obtained, then the
results are included in the formula:
% 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛= 𝑚𝑙 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻 𝑏𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑘−𝑚𝑙 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻/ 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝑥 1000𝑥100𝑥1,4008𝑥6,25
The observed rate of growth is the specific growth rate (SGR (Specific Growth Rate))
and the rate of increase of the length of the daily.
Specific growth rate was measured using the formula:
𝑆𝐺𝑅=(ln 𝑊𝑡 −ln(𝑊0)) 𝑥 100𝑡
SGR (Specific growth rate) is the rate of growth of the specific unit (% of body weight
(BW)/day); WT weight – i.e. flattened at the end of the study (g); W0 is the weight average –
average in early research (g); t is the time (days).
Daily fish body added length is calculated by the formula:
𝑑𝐿= 𝐿𝑒𝑛𝑑−𝐿𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡/𝑡 𝑥 10
DL is the daily length of individual growth (mm/d), Lend long i.e. the fish at the end of the study
(cm), Lstart is the length of the fish at the beginning of the study (cm), t is the time (days).
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Preliminary Test.
A preliminary test using the Pomfret with sizes between 3-3.5 cm. main Parameters are
observed survival rate (SR) daily for 5-14 days depending on the maintenance treatment period
the rate of decrease of salinity. Water quality during the preliminary trials is still in the safe level,
according to Caroline (2009) i.e. the temperature between 29-30oC, DO between 3 – 5 mg/L,
and a pH between 7.99 – 8.5. Based on a preliminary test on the SR data, salinity is lowest that
can be achieved with the highest Star Pomfret SR 100% salinity 4 ‰. Treatment can reach the
salinity of 4 ‰/day ‰ 3 treatment only and 5 ‰/day then the rate of decline in salinity chosen is
the most efficient rate i.e. 5 ‰/day.
B. Protein Pomfret Star
Protein star-Pomfret (Trachinotus blochii) during the trial period actually measured three
times, i.e. on the day 0, day-to-day, and 14-28.
Figure 1. Protein content charts Pomfret star in different salinity on day 0, day 14 and day to 28.
Protein content Pomfret Star on sea salinity treatment lower than salinity underneath and
protein content Pomfret star in 14 ‰ salinity treatment has the highest value of 63,61% on the
28th day of research. Fish has different capabilities in harnessing nutrients feed. Based on results
of test of proksimat feeding Pomfret, a protein in the feed has the largest value i.e. 59,57%
whereas fat has a value of 9.96 percent. Carbohydrates can act as "sparring protein effect", which
means that most of the feed can be conserved while energy requirements for growth, supported
by carbohydrates (National Research Council 1983).
The average protein content of each Star Pomfret salinity treatment based on one-way
ANOVA test with a 95% confidence level can be seen in table 1.
Table 1
The average protein content of each Star Pomfret salinity treatment based on one-way ANOVA
test with a 95% confidence level.
Salinity (‰)
The average Protein content Pomfret Star (%)
The salinity of the Sea (32-34)
45,783±8,109a
The salinity of 24
54,433±10,146a
The salinity of 14
62,497±2,887a
The salinity of 4
55,857±3,385a
Description: the same Letter in the same column indicates that the figure did not differ
significantly (P 0.05 >) based on one-way ANOVA test with a confidence level of 95%.
Protein content pomfret star does not differ significantly can be caused by several factors such as
the size and age of the fish, the density of the stock, quality protein, and environmental
conditions (Ahmad et al., 2004). The most influential factor in this research is the environmental
conditions (including salinity) considering the size, age, density, and stock feed provided on each
of the treatment is the same. Direct factors of salinity towards the Pomfret is a factor of changes
of Physiology osmoregulasi. At the time of higher salinity (control) Pomfret Star doing more
active transport for removing excess ions Na from gills so need a higher energy. On the gills,
cells that play a role in osmoregulasi chloride cells were located at the base of the sheets gills.
The cell is a receptor chloride sensitive to salinity level surroundings. Sea water when the fish
enters the euryhaline environments with different salinity cell then chloride will send signals to
the central nervous system. If the fish enters the environment with salinity higher then the
amount of chloride cells will grow, and if it enters the environment with salinity is lower then the
number of cells decreases chloride (Fujaya, 2008; Bone and Moore, 2008). Treatment of lower
salinity engineering of the salinity seawater will cause a decrease in energy due to decreased
activity of Gill chloride translocation of ions Na. This led to many more sources of energy used
fish to grow rather than doing the process osmoregulasi on the lower salinity than the salinity of
the sea.
C. The Growth Of Pomfret Star
The growth of the fish measured is SGR (Specific Growth Rate) and the increase of the
length of the fish daily. SGR Pomfret Stars each treatment is shown in table 2 and the long daily
growth in table 3.
Table 2
Specific Growth Rate Pomfret Stars each salinity treatment
Salinity (‰)
Wo (gr)
Wt (gr)
SGR
2,07
The salinity of the
18,66
10,359%
Sea (32-34)
The salinity of 24
2,1
19,94
10,594%
The salinity of 14
2,05
19,88
10,586%
The salinity of 4
2,07
17,12
10,051%
Table 3
The growth in length of the Daily Star Pomfret each salinity treatment
Salinity (‰)
Wo (gr)
Wt (gr)
The salinity of the
4,7714
9,54
Sea (32-34)
The salinity of 24
4,7524
9,92
The salinity of 14
4,7524
9,88
The salinity of 4
4,7667
9,56
SGR
1,703071
1,845571
1,831286
1,711893
The value of the highest Star Pomfret SGR there on 24 ‰ salinity i.e. 10,594%, then the
salinity of 2 ‰ followed with a value of SGR of 10,586%. While the salinity of the sea and the
salinity has the value 4 ‰ SGR lower. This means Pomfret Star has a specific weight of the
growth rate in the salinity of brackish water with a range of 14-24 ‰ ‰. The growth in length of
the Daily Star Pomfret has the greatest value in salinity 14-24 ‰. When viewed from the value
of the rate of growth, the rate of growth in length and weight specific daily have a tendency that
is not much different. So the protein in the body of the fish is used well to increase the length of
the fish's body weight or value.
The growth rate of the fish's body length is directly proportional to the specific weight of
fish growth rate despite the results of the ANOVA showed that the length and body weight of
fish in each treatment is no different. The results are not significant in this study can be caused
by several factors including the initial size of fish used (Duston et al., 2004), research (Boeuf and
Payan, 2001; Bernatzeder et al., 2010), and the adaptability of fish against salinity (Resley et al.,
2006; Wuenschel et al., 2004). Adaptability of fish against salinity is also influenced by the age
and the level of development where in general the ability of fish in different osmoregulasi at
different age levels.
Osmoregulasi ability of fishes has been around since the embryonic phase and then upon
reaching phase postembrionik, osmoregulasi ability of fishes most will increasingly grow in line
with increasing age and varies between species (Varsamos et al., 2005).
IV. CONCLUSIONS/SUMMARY
Based on the results of the research that has been done can be inferred that the protein
content and the growth of Pomfret star observed at different salinity for 28 days showed no
noticeable difference in the level of confidence of 95%. Fish is the highest protein content of
14% on the salinity 62,49 ‰ added value, while the length of the largest specific weight daily
and is 1.84 mm per day and 10,59% per day on the salinity of 24 ‰.
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