Science 7 Final Study Guide Chapter 3 the four characteristics of a

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Science 7 Final Study Guide
Chapter 3
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4
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the four characteristics of a mineral (Section 1)
the two major classification groups of minerals (Section 1)
the classification of minerals using common mineral identification techniques (Section 2)
special properties of minerals (Section 2)
the properties that make a mineral a gemstone (Section 3)
environments where minerals are formed (Section 3)
differences between surface mining and subsurface mining (Section 3)
Why are some gems more valuable than others?
How can you tell if an object is a mineral or not?
Why are some people opposed to mining?
Is there a way to get the minerals we need from the Earth without harming the environment?
Chapter 4
1
how rocks were used by early humans and how rocks are used today (Section 1)
2
what the rock cycle is (Section 1)
3
what characteristics of rocks help in classification (Section 1)
4
how the cooling rate of magma affects igneous rock (Section 2)
5
what the differences are between igneous rock that cools deep within the crust and igneous rock that
cools at the surface (Section 2)
6
how to identify igneous rock formations (Section 2)
7
how the three types of sedimentary rock form (Section 3)
8
how sedimentary rock records the Earth’s history (Section 3)
9
how a rock can undergo metamorphism (Section 4)
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how the mineral composition of rock changes during metamorphism (Section 4)
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how foliated rock and nonfoliated rock differ (Section 4)
12
What is the difference between magma and lava?
13
If you were to design a building using rock, what kind of rock would you choose? Why?
14
How could traces of pebbles and sand help in the solving of a crime?
15
What information about a rock can scientists learn by studying the minerals within it?
Chapter 6
1
uniformitarianism vs. catastrophism (Section 1)
2
the ways the role of catastrophism has changed in Earth science (Section 1)
3
the ways relative dating is used in geology (Section 2)
4
the principle of superposition (Section 2)
5
the geologic column (Section 2)
6
the events and features that disrupt rock sequences (Section 2)
7
the ways that physical features are used to determine relative ages (Section 2)
8
radioactive decay and radiometric dating (Section 3)
9
four types of radiometric dating (Section 3)
10
the best type of radiometric dating to use to date an object (Section 3)
11
index fossils and their uses (Section 4)
12
the way that the geologic time scale works (Section 5)
13
important dates on the geologic time scale (Section 5)
14
How can geologists find out how old something is?
15
Why did dinosaurs become extinct?
16
How do fossils form?
Chapter 7
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what the layers of the Earth are made of (Section 1)
what the physical properties of the layers of the Earth are (Section 1)
what the definition of tectonic plate is (Section 1)
how scientists know about the structure of Earth’s interior (Section 1)
what Wegener’s theory of continental drift is (Section 2)
how sea-floor spreading provides a way for continents to move (Section 2)
how new oceanic crust forms at mid-ocean ridges (Section 2)
how magnetic reversals provide evidence for sea-floor spreading (Section 2)
what three forces are thought to move tectonic plates (Section 3)
what convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries are (Section 3)
how scientists track the motion of tectonic plates (Section 3)
what the major types of folds in the Earth’s crust are (Section 4)
how the three types of faults differ (Section 4)
what folded, fault-block, and volcanic mountains are (Section 4)
how different types of mountains form (Section 4)
What is the Earth like on the inside?
Did our planet always look like it does now?
Where do mountains come from?
Chapter 8
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2
3
4
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6
what causes earthquakes (Section 1)
what the different types of earthquakes are (Section 1)
how earthquakes travel through the Earth (Section 1)
how earthquakes are detected (Section 2)
how to locate earthquakes (Section 2)
how the strength of an earthquake is measured (Section 2)
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