Hazardous Anthropods

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Hazardous Anthropods
Class Insecta
Order Hymenoptera
Species
Bees
Family
Apidae
Wasps
Family
Vespidae
Features
Envenomation
Types of venom
Treatment
1. Body
a. Round in shape
b. Full with fur
2. Possessed pollen
basket
3. Wings
a. Forewing
b. Hindwing
4. Eat nectar
5. Nest composed
of waxy materials
6. Only female can
sting, since male
doesn’t have
ovipositor
7. Gentle in
behavior
1. Body
a. Slender
b. Little or no fur
2. Aggressive in
behaviour
3. Meat eater
4. Only hornets
attracted to light,
the rest don’t
1. Venom apparatus
a. Stinger
i. Modified
ovipositor (use to
insert egg)
ii. Barbed,
therefore hard to
be pulled off
after stinging
iii. Once used, bee
dies, as it pulls
together its
internal organ
1. Chemical nature
a. Apitoxin
i. Neurotoxic
ii. Heamotoxic
2. Active ingredients
a. Bees
i. Histamine
ii. Hyaluronidase
b. Wasps
i. 5-hydroxytryptamine
3. Effects
a. Anaphylactic shock
and death to
sensitized patient
i. Type 1
Hypersensitivity
ii. 1 hr after stinging
b. Localized
i. Pain (resolved after
few days)
ii. Edema
iii. Pruritus
1. Removal of stinger to
avoid secondary
infection/ sepsis
2. Clean affected area
with soap and water
3. Refrain scratching to
avoid skin break down
4. Minor injury, enough with
soaking the affected
area in icy cold water
5. Therapeutic intervention
a. Antihistamine
i. Diphenhydramine
1. Cream
2. Pill
b. Corticosteroid
i. Cortisone
6. In case of anaphylactic
shock
a. Immidiate injection of
i. Epinephrine
ii. Diphenhydramine
1. Venom apparatus
a. Stinger
i. Smooth,
therefore can
sting multiple
times
Prevention and
Control
1. Nest handling
a. At night to
minimize danger
b. Conducted by
experts
c. Employ
insecticide dust
to kill bees or
wasps
2. Avoid working
with flowering
ornaments when
bees are
collecting nectars
3. Avoid drinking
sweet baverages
at park and
garden
4. Avoid wearing
bright color
clothes
Order Hymenoptera
Species
Features
Envenomation
Fire ants
1. Behaviour
a. Lively
b. Aggressive,
especially
being
disturbed near
the nest
2. Body
a. Dark reddish
brown in color
b. Darker
abdomen
1. Venom apparatus
a. Stinger
i. It doesn’t bite,
only grip and
then sting
multiple times in
a circling
manner
Solenopsis
spp.
Types of venom
1. Chemical nature
a. Solenopsin (class
piperidine)
i. Types of alkoloid
venom
2. Effects
a. Burning sensation
b. Can be fatal in
sensitized pts
c. Site of stinging will
form
i. Bump
ii. Swelling
Treatment
1. Therapeutic intervention
a. Hydrocortisone cream
b. Oral antihistamine
Prevention and
Control
1. Nest handling
a. Outside nest use
i. Bait treatment
ii. Insecticides
b. Cracks and
crevices should
be sealed off to
eliminate
passage to
home
c. Use detergent to
remove trail
pheromone at
entry points
Order Lepidoptera
Species
Caterpillars
Features
Envenomation
Types of venom
Treatment
1. Larval form of
a. Butterfly
b. Moth
2. Verocious
feeders
a. Considered pest
in agriculture
1. Venom apparatus
a. Urticating
bristles/hair
i. Associated with
venomous
glands
1. Chemical nature
a. Hemotoxic
i. The most potent
venom produces by
Lonomia spp.
ii. Anticoagulant in
nature
2. Effects
a. Mostly cause
i. Mild irritation
ii. Urticaria dermatitis
b. If lodged to soft
tissue like eyes can
cause
i. Kerato-conjunctivitis
(Opthalmia nodosa)
c. May also cause
i. Atopic asthma
1. Immediate treatment
a. Wash the infected
area with running
water and soap
2. Therapeutic
intervention
a. Hydrocortisone
cream
Prevention and
Control
1. Control
a. Sprinkling of
Bacillus
thuringiensis (BTi) to
plant leafs
i. Once ingested by
caterpillars, it will
paralyze the
caterpillars
digestive tract and
lead to death
ii. Once dead, it will
release billion
other BTi, further
controling
caterpillar
population
Order Coleoptera
Species
Blister
beetles
Family
Meloidae
Rove
beetles
(Charlie)
Paederus
spp
Family
Staphilinidae
Features
1. Shape
a. Medium to large
in size
b. Elongated shape
c. Head is broad,
rectangular in
shape if seen at
above
d. Soft and leathery
body
e. Antennae
i. Filiform (thread
like)
ii. Moniliform
(beaded)
2. Often found on
a. Flowers
b. Foliage
1. Shape
a. Short elytra
b. Exposed
abdomen
c. Alternating color
of black-redblack-red-black
2. Carnivorous
a. Eats smaller
insects
b. Use as biological
control in paddy
fields
3. Live at
a. Paddy fields
b. School fields
c. Grassy area
Prevention and
Control
Envenomation
Types of venom
Treatment
1. Venom apparatus
a. Defensive
secretion
b. Possessed by the
male, then passes
down to female
during mating
c. Secreted by
female to protect
its eggs
1. Chemical nature
a. Blistering agent
i. Cantharidin
b. Poisonous chemical,
causing blistering to
human skin
2. Effects
a. Burning sensation
b. Blister formation
c. Lesion can be
i. Linear
ii. Reddish
iii. Blistering
iv. May turn black and
form fibrosis
1. Immediate treatment
a. Wash the infected
area with running
water and soap
2. Therapeutic intervention
a. Topical steroids
b. Antibiotics
1. Avoid contact
during night time
a. Switch off light as
it is attracted to
light
b. Use of insect
repellent
c. Netting of
windows
2. Chemical
application to
crop plant
1. Venom apparatus
a. Toxic hemolymph
b. Doesn’t secrete
the toxin, it is only
release when it is
being crushed or
slapped
2. Harbor symbiotic
gram negative
bacteria, often
cause secondary
infection
1. Chemical nature
a. Toxic hemolymph
i. Pederin
1. More potent than that
of cobra venom
2. Effects
a. Contact
dermatitis/paederus
dermatitis
i. Swollen
ii. Red
iii. Itchy
iv. Skin may peel of upon
scratching
b. Extensive painful periorbital swelling
c. Purulent conjunctivitis/
Nairobi eye
1. Immediate treatment
a. Wash the infected
area with running
water and soap
2. Therapeutic intervention
a. Topical steroids
b. Oral antihistamines
c. Antibiotic oral/topical
i. Secondary infection
always occurs
1. Prevention of contact
a. Mosquito netting
b. Aerosol insect spray
c. Glue traps
2. During epidemic
a. Switching off light
b. Close doors and
windows
c. Wet & dry vacuum
cleaner with
insecticide
d. Electric insect trap
e. Canister blow torch
3. Do not slap the beetle,
just blow it away
Class Arachnida
Order Araneae
Species
Spiders
Features
Envenomation
Types of venom
Treatment
1. Body
a. Head and
thorax
combined
(cephalothora
x)
b. 4 pairs of legs
attached to
each side of
cephalothorax
2. Carnivorous in
nature and
sometimes
cannibalistic
1. Venom apparatus
a. Fangs
2. Uses chelicerae to
tear apart its prey
1. Chemical nature
a. Most venomous
spiders
(Lactrodectus spp.)
produce neurotoxic
venom
i. Lactrotoxin
b. Loxosceles spp.
produces
necrotoxic venom
2. Tarantula doesn’t
produce any venom, it
only bites and cause
localized pain
3. Effects
a. Molecular changes
i. Massive release of
neurotransmitter
ii. Changes in ion
channels
iii. Inhibits vesicle
recycling
b. Systemic symptoms
i. Intense pain
ii. Malaise
iii. Sweating
iv. Oliguria
v. Arrhythmias
vi. Insomnia
c. Death due to
pulmonary edema
1. Clean affected area
with soap and water
2. Refrain scratching to
avoid skin break down
3. Minor injury, enough with
soaking the affected
area in icy cold water
4. Therapeutic intervention
b. Antihistamine
i. Diphenhydramine
1. Cream
2. Pill
c. Corticosteroid
i. Cortisone
Prevention and
Control
1. Heavy infestation
may use aerosol
spray containing
pyrethroids
2. Eliminate bright
indoor and
outdoor lights
3. Seal openings
4. Install screens and
door sweeps to
prevent entry
5. Vacuum all spider
webs and its eggs
Order Scorpiones
Species
Scorpions
Features
1. Physical
appearance
a. 4 pairs of legs
attached to
each side of
cephalothorax
b. Abdomen
extended into a
tail
2. In Malaysia often
found black
scorpion
3. Found in
a. Forest
b. Farm
4. During the day,
hide under
a. Logs
b. Rocks
c. Vegetation
d. Inside home
Envenomation
1. Venom apparatus
a. Telson
Types of venom
Treatment
1. Chemical nature
1. Ice pack may
a. Neurotoxic
a. Relief pain
b. Heamotoxic
b. Slow venom spread
2. Effects
a. Molecular changes
i. Interfere ionic
balance
ii. Ionic channel activity
b. Symptoms
i. Intense pain the site
of infection
ii. Parasthesia
iii. Altered heart activity
3. More dangerous in
chidren and often
lethal
Prevention and
Control
1. Kill on sight
2. Clean all possible
hiding places
3. Breeding area
can be eliminated
using spray
Class Chilopoda
Species
Centipedes
Milipedes
Features
Envenomation
Types of venom
Treatment
Prevention and Control
1. Physical
appearance
a. Flattened
dorsoventrally
b. One pair of legs
attached to
each body
segment
2. Found under
a. Stones
b. Rocks
c. Logs
d. Leaves
e. Barks
3. Nocturnal
predator (active
during night)
a. Carnivorous
1. Venom apparatus
a. First pair of
claws (poison
claws)
b. Found
underneath the
head
2. Last pair of legs use
to
a. Hold prey
b. Fight predator
1. Effects
a. Often moderate
pain, similar to that
of bee sting
b. May cause
i. Intense pain at the
site of sting
ii. Localized edema
iii. Recover within few
days
1. Clean affected
area with soap
and water
1. Kill/capture on sight
2. Eliminate household pests
(source of foods)
3. Keep house dry, since
centipedes love damp
area
4. Use sticky pads
5. Close entrance points
6. Apply powdered residual
insecticide at places
where centipedes usually
hide
1. Physical
appearance
a. Cylindrical body
b. 2 pairs of legs at
each body
segment
c. Rounded head
d. Short antennae
e. Doesn’t have
poison claws
2. Often found in
damp area such as
a. Bathroom
b. Jungle
3. Not poisonous, just
irritating
1. Venom* apparatus
a. Repugnatorial
glands
1. Chemical nature
a. Irritating fluids
i. Hydrocyanide acid
ii. Alkaloids
iii. Benzoquines
b. Relatively harmless
2. Effects
a. Conjunctivitis when
the fluid is
accidently rubbed
at the eyes
b. Dermatitis
c. Blistering lesion
d. Localized pain
e. Periorbital edema
f. Keratitis
1. Clean affected
area with soap
and water
2. If in contact
with eyes, usual
opthalmic
therapy can be
ruled out
1. Eliminates
a. Rocks
b. Boards
c. Woodpiles
2. Keep house dry
3. Water plantations in the
morning, so that it would
be dried in the evening.
Milipedes active at night
4. Close all cracks and
crevices
5. Apply insecticides in the
event of huge infestation
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