Change Through Time • Name: ________________________ Charles _____________ 1800’s British Naturalist Went on a voyage with a crew who was studying the South American coast Very interested in the natural world Ship called _____________________ Took many notes and species throughout the journey Especially interested in the species of _______ that he found on a group of islands called the _____________. • Darwin is most known for the birds that he found. He captured several birds and sent them back to England to figure out what type they were. • The types of birds had different colors, sizes, and __________________ Darwin was shocked when the ornithologist (bird scientist) told them that all were __________. Where did the finches come from? Islands, including the Galapagos, are formed by sediment from _______________ eruptions. When they form, there is ____________________ on them. Seeds drift from nearby, blown in by wind, and plants grow. This makes way for animals that feed on the plants, and then animals that feed on those animals. Darwin noticed that a certain species of finch regularly flew to the islands from South America, though these finches were ________________ from those which lived on the islands. • He hypothesized that the birds of the Galapagos were _________ of birds from South America. Why all of the different species? In all places on Earth, there is a _____________________________ The environment can only support a certain number of organisms. • ______________________________________ are limited. Darwin thought that the different __________ of the finches gave them an ________________ because it allowed them to take advantage of certain food sources available on the islands. • Principles of survival • Darwin put all of his observations together and came up with 4 principles of survival. 1. Organisms can ______________________________________________ 2. _______________________, or little differences, exist in individuals in a species 3. Variations are ___________________________ 4. Organisms with variations that make them _______________________________, will survive. • Natural Selection Based on these principles, Darwin published a book called “________________________” in which he came up with the phrase _____________________________ to describe them. Natural selection-organisms with traits best suited to the environment are more likely to _______________________________________ • They are then able to ___________ these beneficial traits on to their ____________. “______________________” those organisms best suited to the environment in which they live Variations and Adaptations A ________________ is an inherited trait that makes an individual different from other members of its species Can result from ____________________ (the beneficial types). These variations can be minor changes in height, color of fur, or a little larger of a beak. As these traits are passed on, they become _________________________in the species. An _________________ is a variation that helps organisms survive in the environment in which they live (A white bear in a snowy environment). _____________________________ is a key adaptation (RIP Mavis) • Speciation Recall that a ____________ is a group of organisms that can ___________ and produce ____________________________ _________ are the same species (Labradoodle) ______________ and ____________ are not (Dinner) Over time, the minor changes can __________________ that organisms are no longer able to breed with their parent population. (Poodles and wolves) Can result from geographic isolation (volcanic eruption), or from accumulations of minor changes. Once this happens, they are ________________________________ They have split into 2 different species. • • Called _________________________ Evolution Change in _____________________________________ Can be gradual (take a lot of time) Called _________________________ Can be more rapid with long breaks in between More scientific definition: Change in the frequency of _______________ over time. Called ___________________________________ Equilibrium=no change Punctuated=scattered throughout Both occur often. Dogs descending from wolves=gradualism Antibiotic resistance in bacteria=Punctuated equilibrium • Evolution today Evolution is considered the most ________________________ theory in all of biology Even more evidence than the Germ Theory of Disease or the Cell Theory Nothing in biology (life science) makes sense without evolution Why do all organisms have cells that are so similar? Why do Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance apply to pea plants, as well as all other organisms? • Why do all living things contain DNA? Evidence For Evolution The most apparent evidence for evolution is the fossil evidence A _______________ is a remnant of a past organism • ____________________-study of depelopment • _____________________ Structures • Homo=______________ Same bones, same place, different species. DNA Best evidence for evolution. All organisms, past and present ______________________ All humans have ___________ similar DNA Humans and chimpanzees share ________ of their DNA Humans and mice have ______ similar Humans and flies are ________similar Humans and bananas are _______ _______ with grass • ______ with bacteria What if a species does not adapt? Conditions often change. Ice ages, climate change, increase in predation, ____________ messing stuff up, etc. If a species is _____________________ to the changing conditions, they can ___________. If not, they die off. _______________ is the death of the last member of a species It is _________. The species cannot come back Sometimes, many species die at the same time. _________________=death of more than _________ of species in a short period. 5 great extinction in the past • 1 occurring right now • • Including dinosaurs Way to go us… Primate Evolution Humans belong to a group called ______________. Humans are _________ These include monkeys and apes Along with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans Humans did not “come from apes.” We are apes!