Root Words

AP Biology Prefix, Suffix and Root Word List
a-, an- No, lacking, none
andro- Masculine, man
ab- Away from, out from
anemo- Wind
abyss- Deep, bottomless
angio- Vessel
ac- To, toward
ante- Before, ahead of time
-aceus, -aceous Of or pertaining to
antero- Front
acou- Hearing
anth- Flower
acr-, acro- Extreme, peak
anthropo- Man
actin- A ray, spoke
anti- Against
ad- To, toward
ap- To, toward
adeno- Gland
apic- Tip, end
aero- The air
apo- Off, away
agri- Field, soil apsis Juncture
-al Having character of
aqu- Water
alb- White
arachn- A spider
-alexi To ward off
arch- Primitive, ancient
-algia Pain
arthro- Joint
allo- Other, different aster-,
astr- Stars
alto- High
atom- Vapor
ambi- On both sides
audi- Hear
ameb- Change, alteration
auto- Self
amphi-, ampho-, amb- Leading a double life, both
aux- Grow, enlarge
ana- Up
bactr- Stick, club
bio- Life, living
barb- Beard
-blast Sprout, germ
baro- Weight
brachi- Having arms
bath- Depth, height
branchi- Having fins
bene- Well, good
brev- Short
bentho- Depths
bronch- Windpipe
bi- Two, twice, double
bryo- Moss
cala- insert
clade- Branch
calor- Heat
cline- A slope
carb- Coal, carbon
cnido- A nettle
cardi- Heart
co- With, together
carn- Meat
cocc- Seed
carp- Fruit
-coel Hallow
carpal- Wrist
coel- Hollow
cata- Down
coeno- Common
caud- Tail
coit- A coming together
cell- Storeroom, chamber
coleo- A sheath
-cene New, recent
coll- Glue
-centesis A puncture
com- With, together
centi- Hundredth
con- With, together
centr- Center
coni- Cone
cephal- Head
contra- Against
ceric Neck
cope- An oar
chem- Chemical
corp- Body
chlor- Green
cortex- Shell
choano- Funnel
cosmo- World, order, form
chondro- Cartilage
cotyl- Cup
chord- A string
counter- Against
chrom- Color
crani- The skull
chym- Juice
crypt- Hidden, covered
-cide Killing
cili- Hair
circ- Around, about
circa- A circle
cirro- Hair like curls
dacty- Finger
de- Down, out
de- From, down, out
deca- Ten
deci- Tenth
-del Visible
deliquese- Become fluid
demi- Half
dendro- Tree
dent- Tooth
dentri- Tree
derm- Skin
detrit- Wear off
deutero- Second
ec- Out of, outside
ecdys- An escape
echin- Spiny, prickly
eco- House
ect- Outside, without
-ectomy Removal of
electro- Electric, electricity
-ell Small
-em Made
-emia Blood
en- In, into
encephal- Brain
enchyma- An infusion
end-, ent- Within, in
-fer Bear, carry, produce
ferro- Iron
fertil- Fruitful
fibr- Fiber, thread
-fid, fis- Divided, split
flagell- Whip
flect, flex Bend
galact-, galax- Milk, milky fluid
gamy- Marriage
gastro- Stomach
-gen; -gine Producer, farmer
-gene, -geny Origin
geo- Land, earth
-gest Carry, produce
glia- Glue
glob- All, round
glomer- A ball
glottis- Mouth of windpipe
glyco- Sweet
cumul- Heaped
cuti- Skin
-cycl Ring, circle
cyst- Bladder, pouch
cyt-, cyte- Cell, receptacle
di- Two, double
dia- Through, across
digit- Finger, toe
-dilat Expanded
din-, dino- Terrible
dis- Apart ,out
-diure Urinate
dorm- Sleep
dors- Back
du-, duo- Two
-duct - Lead
dyan- Dark blue
dynam- Power
dys- Ill, bad
enter- Intestines
entom- Insect
-eous Nature of, like
epi- On, above
-err Wander, go astray
erythro- Red
estuar- The sea
ethno- Race, people
etho- Custom, habiti
eu- True
eury- Broad, wide
ex- Out of
extra- Beyond, outside of
flor- Flower
fluor- Fluorine
foli- Leaf
form- Shape
fract- Break
fusi- A spindle
gnatho- Jaw
-gon Angle, corner
-gony Offspring, generation
grade Step, division
-gram Writing, record
-graphy, graph Writing, record
-grav Heavy
gross - Thick
gry- Ring, circle, spiral
gymno- Naked
gyn Female
haem-, men- Blood
-hal, -hale Breathe, breath
halo- Sea, salt
haplo- Single
hecto- Hundred
helio Sun
-helminth - Worm
hemi- Half
hepat- Liver
herb- Grass
hermaphro- Both male and female
hetero- Different
hex- Six
hibern- Winter
-ia, iasis Disease of
ichthy- Fish
ign- Fire
im- Not
immuno- Safe, free
imuno- Safe, free
in- To, toward, into
in- Not, without
-ine Of, pertaining to
infra- Below, beneath
juxta- Near to
karyo- Nucleus
kilo- Thousand
lachry Tear
lact- Milk
lamin- Sheet, layer
lat- Side, flank
lepido- Scale
-less Without
leuc- White, bright, light
liga- Bound, tied
lign- Wood
limn- Lake
lin- Line
macro- Large
mal- Bad
malle- Hammer
mamm- Breast
marg- Border, edge
marsupi- A pouch or bag
mast- Breast
mechano- An instrument
med- Middle
meg- Great, million, large
meio- Less
mela-, melan- Black, dark
hipp- Horse
hist- Tissue
holo- Entire, whole
homin- Man
homo- Same
hort- Garden
hybrid - Mongrel
hydr- Water
hygr- Wet, moist
hyl- matter
hyper- Above, beyond, over
hypho- Weaving
hypno- Sleep
hypo- Beneath, under, less
inter- Between
intra- Within, inside
intro- Into, within
iodo- Violet
-ion Go, come
-ism A state or condition
iso- Equal, same
itero- To repeat
-itis Inflammation, disease
kine- Movement
lingu- Tongue
lip- Fat
liqu- Become fluid
lith-, -lite Stone, petrifying
littor- Sea shore
loc- Place
-logy Study
lopho- A
lut- Yellow
-lysis, -lyte, -lyst, lyso- Split
meteor- Lofty, high, in air
-meter, -metr- Measure
micro- Small
mis- Wrong, incorrect
-missi Send
mole- Mass
mono- One, single
mont- Mountain
morph- Shape, form
mort- Death
mov-, mot - Move
multi- Many
mell- Soft
menstru Month
-mer A part
mere- A part
mes- Middle, half
met-, meta- Between, along after
nas- Nose
nema- Thread
neo- New, recent
nephro- Kidney
-ner Moist, liquid
neur-, nerv- Nerve, tendon
neutr- Neither
neutro- Neutral
noci- Harm
ob- Against
oct- Eight
ocul- Eye
odent- Tooth
-oid Similar in form or shape
olf- Smell
oligio- Few, small
oligio- Small, scant
-oma Tumor
omma- The eye
omni - All
onco- Tumor
pachy- Thick
paedo- Child
paleo- Old, ancient
palm- Broad, flat
pan- All
par- Beside, near, equal
parous- Bearing
parsi- Few
partheno- A virgin
partur- Giving birth
passeri- A sparrow
path-, -pathy Disease, suffering
patri- Father
pedi- Beginning, child
pellecid- Transparent
per- Through, around
perag- The sea
peri- Around, on all sides
perman- Remaining
permea- Pass, go
phag- Eat
pheno- Show, appear
phil- Loving, fond of
-phobia Excessive fear of
phon-, phone Sound
-phore To carry
muta- Change
mutu- Reciprocal
mycel- Threadlike
mycet-, myco- Fungus
myo- Muscle
myria- Many
noct-, nox- Night
-node Knot
nom- Name
-nomy, -nome Distribute, arrange, law
non- Not
noto- Back
nuc- Center
nucleo- Nucleus
oo- Egg
opercul- A covering, lid
opt-, -opay - Circle, round, ring
opthal - Eye, vision
orb- Straight, correct, right
orth- Mouth
-osis Disease of
osmo- Pushing
osteo- Bone
ov- Sharp, acid, oxygen
ovum- / ovi- Egg
oxy- Sharp
phragmo- A partition
phyc- Seaweed, algae
-phyll Leaf
phylo- Tribe
physi- Nature, natural qualities
-phyte, phyt Plant
placo- A plate
plan- Roaming, wandering
plasm-, -plast Form, formed into
pleio- More
pleur- Rib, lung
pneumo- Lungs, air
pod- Foot
poly- Many, several
pom- Fruit
por- Opening
port- Carry
post- After, behind
pro- Before, favoring
proto- First, primary
pseud- False, deceptive
pter- Having wings or fins
pterido - Fern
pulmo- lung
puls- Drive, push
pyr- Heat, fire
photo- Light
quadr- Four
quiesc- Quiet, resting
radi- Ray, spoke of wheel
ratit- Flat bottome
re- Again, back
rect- Correct, right
ren- Kidney
ret- Net, made like a net
retro- Backward
sacc- A sack
sacchari- Sugar
salta- Leap
sapr- Rotten
sarco- Flesh
saur- Lizard
schizo- Split
sci- Know
scler- Hard
scope Look, observe
-scribe, script Write
semel- Once
semi- Half
sept- Partition, seven
septic- Infection
sex- Six
simi- Ape
-sis Condition, state of
socio- A companion
solv- Loosen, free
soma- Body
somn- Sleep
tachy- Quick, swift
tarso- Ankle
tax- Arrangement
tele- Far off, at a distance
telos- An end
terr- Earth
tetan- Rigid, tense
tetr- Four
thall- Young shoot
-theca A cup, case
therm- Heat
thigmo- A touch
thylaco- Sac or pouch
-tom Cut, slice
tono- Stretched
-ule Diminutive
ultra- Beyond
uro- The tail
quin- Five
-rhage Flow
-rhaphy Suture
-rhea Flow
rhin- Nose
rhiz- Root
rhodo- Red
rubr- Red
son- Sound
spasm- Tightening
spec-, spic- Look at
sperm- Seed
spher- Ball
-spire Breathe
spore- Seed
stalsis- A constriction
stat- Standing, placed
stell- Stars
steno- Narrow
stereo- Solid, in three dimensions
stern- Breast, chest
stom-, stome- Mouth
-stomy To make an opening into
strat- Layer
strict- Drawn tight
styl- Pillar
sub- Under, below
super-, supra- Over, above, on top
sur- Over, above, on top
sym-, syn- Together
top- Place
toti- All
toxic- Poison
trachei- Windpipe
trans- Across
tri- Three
trich- Hair
trocho- A wheel
trop- Turning, changing
troph- Food, nurishment
-tubul A little pipe
tunic- A covering
turg- Swollen
tympan- A drum
uni- One
ur- urine
utric- A leather bag
vacu- Empty
vas- Vessel
vect- Carry
ven-, vent- Come
ventr- Belly
vestigi- Trace
vice- In place of
xanth- Yellow
xero- Dry
-yl - Substance or matter
zea- A grain
zo-, zoa- Animal
zona - A belt
vig- Strong
vit-, viv- Life
vitre- Glass
vivi- Alive
volv- Roll, wander
vor- Devour, eat
xyl- Wood
zyg- Yolk
zym- Yeast