Time - vaughanam251


January 31, 2014

Liturgical Calendar and the Divine Office

Responsible for all info on the page, not the links.

We’re focusing on Time:

 In the Middle Ages, time is amorphous, didn’t have clocks back then o They didn’t keep time like we do now, to the minute.

Institutions were responsible for time keeping o Not individuals, but groups of people o Would recognize the passage time and would keep it using music.

Liturgical Calendar o Measured according to 2 propers:

 1. The proper of time

 2. The proper of saints o In the middle ages, the Liturgical year starts at Advent.

 The concept of a day, starts at vespers (dusk, 6pm)

 The day starts at dusk

When they say “… at the 22 nd hour…” they mean the 22 nd hour after dusk, so that would be 4 pm o The proper of time has 2 cycles

 1. The Christmas cycle

 2. The Easter cycle

 Timekeeping happens when two cycles overlap

 Christmas is a fixed feast

Will always be dec. 25 th

 Easter is a movable feast

Actually determined the date based in a pagan way, lunar cycles

All dates associated with Easter move

 The period of time between Christmas or Easter can be shorter or longer depending on when Easter comes o Both have the preparation, celebration, prolongation

 Christmas

 Preparation: Advent

Celebration: Christmastide o Dec 25-jan6 (epiphany)

 Prolongation: Epiphany

 Easter

Preparation: Lent

 Celebration: Eastertide and the 7 weeks that follow

Prolongation: Pentecost o It is the prolongation of both cycles that can be made longer or shorter depending on the placement of Easter

The proper of the Saints o Each saint has his/her own special day

Inevitably, there are conflicts between the two propers, o So the church came up with a way of ranking saints

 Triplex feasts are for the most important saints

 If two things happen to fall on the same day, the more important event being celebrated takes precedence for that day.

Divine Office

 Mass and Divine office o Mass is a celebration everyday

 Happens at noon o Divine office keeps track of time by week

 Purpose of divine office o Recitation of the psalter

 To present the psalms for singing each day

 In some monastic settings, the presentation of the psalter can take place every day

 That’s 150 songs all day

 Continuous solemnity o Someone in the monastic house will keep singing the psalter all day so in a 24 hour cycle all 150 songs will be sung

 Most monastic houses repeat the psalter every week

 Cycling through rituals helps keep time in the Middle Ages

Monastic rite o Divine office consists of hours

 Greater hours and lesser hours

Greater because they have more music in them

 Lesser has less music

 Divine office starts with vespers

Vespers is a greater hour

 Greater hours:

 vespers

Complice (bedtime)

 Matins (2-3 am)

Lauds (around dawn)

 Lesser hours

 Prime (around 6 am)

Terce (9am) o Vespers presents psalms

 5 psalms, reading responsery, hymn, and the canticle “magnificat” o Complice

 3 psalms, hymn, reading, short responsory, the canticle “nunc dimitis” o Matins

 Introduction

Recreationa chants “Donnie ladia crea

 Nocturn: look online for info o 31 psalms in one day

 = 5 days of the week being sung

Psalms o Poetic structure: paired versicles o Always begin with an antiphon

 Then the psalm

 Then the antiphon again

 Sometimes the antiphon is repeated between versicles

Will always begin and end with an antiphon

After concluding antiphon, you will always get the Gloria patri o Psalm tones are the pitches used to identify the psalm

 Each mode contains 8 psalm tones

Antiphon: o Choir sings the antiphon

 All antiphons close on the final of the mode,

Does not always begin in the same place

 It is easy to get from the end of the antiphon to the beginning of the psalm ,

But not as easy to get from the end of the psalms back to the antiphon

 How does the manuscript notation works: o Know where things are supposed to happen o Analysis:

 2. D= dorian mode

 Used for the Christmas period

Note, begins on f ends on d.

 Clef notates the f line

Intonation gets you from the final note of the antiphon up to the psalm tone

o Mediant cadence

 Cadence at the end of the first line

There is an asterisk o Matches asterisk in another place o There are italics that will indicate where you put the pitch

There is a dagger-like thing o That applies to the 4 th and 5 th verses

 Means that those versicles are comprised of 3 phrases, not 2 like the others.

Not added to then end, but get squeezed in the middle.