Writing in Rhetoric and Composition I. General Purpose: Rhetoric and Composition helps students explore new ideas and become more effective communicators. Teachers emphasize process writing, a series of steps (invention, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) that recur throughout the writing experience. Teachers also emphasize product by helping students consider the writing situation and audience, creating quality drafts, and reflecting on their writing experiences in a final portfolio. Students examine language to communicate and analyze audience, tone, voice, and pointof-view, among other aspects of written communication. The discipline includes rhetorical and composition theory and practice, visual and digital rhetoric, graduate teaching assistant and professional preparation in Composition Studies, and issues in writing pedagogy and writing program administration. English 2001, Introduction to Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC), prepares students for writing in the university, often focusing on rhetorical analysis and argumentation. Audiences in Rhetoric and Composition include teachers, peers, administrators, and employers, among others. II. III. Types of Writing Research papers Ethnographies Argumentative essays Rhetorical analyses Causal analyses Reviews/ evaluations Reading responses Comparison/ Contrast essays Cover letters Portfolios Portfolio letters Reflective pieces Journals Blogs Writer’s notebooks Double-entry journals Types of Evidence Qualitative data Quantitative data Details Explanations Presentations Personal responses Emails/ memos Multimodal essays Digital media Digital rhetoric Brochures Annotated bibliographies Field research Interviews, observations, surveys Secondary research Summaries & paraphrases Documentation styles Proposals Narratives Reasons Examples Anecdotes Facts IV. Field research (interviews, observations, surveys) Charts and graphs Photographs and videos Writing Conventions Standard, written, grammatical English is emphasized. First person is often acceptable. Specific details and examples are important. A distinctive voice is valued. Active voice is usually preferred. Passive voice may be used if one writes in a major that uses passive voice (such as the sciences). Clarity and organization are crucial elements. Vocabulary/ Jargon/ Terms Process writing High-stakes writing Low-stakes writing Portfolios Journals Literacy sponsors Product Writing-to-learn Writing–to-communicate Text/ artifact Landmark text Discourse Community Rhetoric V. VI. Statistics Illustrations Secondary sources Rhetorical analysis Ethos, pathos, logos Collaborative writing Reflection Field research Secondary research Vertical Writing Model Summary & paraphrase Documentation Popular vs. scholarly sources In-text citations Citation Style The Modern Language Association (MLA) is the preferred style of documentation in Rhetoric and Composition, but some Writing Across the Curriculum classes introduce students to American Psychological Association (APA) and Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), among other styles relevant to the disciplines in which students write.