For Converging Lenses

For Converging Lenses
There is a relationship between the object distance and object size and the image distance and image size. Starting from a large
value, as the object distance decreases (i.e., the object is moved closer to the lens), the image distance increases; meanwhile, the
image height increases. At the 2F point, the object distance equals the image distance and the object height equals the image
height. As the object distance approaches one focal length, the image distance and image height approaches infinity. Finally,
when the object distance is equal to exactly one focal length, there is no image. Then altering the object distance to values less
than one focal length produces images that are upright, virtual and located on the same side of the lens as the object. Finally, if
the object distance approaches 0, the image distance approaches 0 and the image height ultimately becomes equal to the object
height. These patterns are depicted in the diagram below. Eight different object locations are drawn in red and labeled with a
number; the corresponding image locations are drawn in blue and labeled with the identical number.
For Diverging Lenses
The image is always
 located on the object's side of the lens
 a virtual image
 an upright image
 reduced in size (i.e., smaller than the object)
Diverging lenses always produce images that share these characteristics. The location of the object does not affect the
characteristics of the image. As such, the characteristics of the images formed by diverging lenses are easily predictable.
Another characteristic of the images of objects formed by diverging lenses pertains to how a variation in object distance affects
the image distance and size. The diagram below shows five different object locations (drawn and labeled in red) and their
corresponding image locations (drawn and labeled in blue).
The diagram shows that as the object distance is decreased, the image distance is decreased and the image size is increased. So
as an object approaches the lens, its virtual image on the same side of the lens approaches the lens as well; and at the same time,
the image becomes larger.
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