SPORTS HEART SYNDROME Abstract „Sports heart syndrome

„Sports heart syndrome” represents morphological, functional and electrophysiological changes that appear a
consequence of adaptation cardiovascular system onto physical training in maximum load zone. The role of
these changes is to provide sufficient amount of oxygen to active muscles over repeated labours of high
intensity. Sports heart is so called “gray area” between physiology and pathology, area that is still unknown and
susceptible to different interpretations. Referring to frequent examples of sudden heart death of sportsmen, it is
of an extreme value to dissimilitude changes onto the heart that arise as a consequence of adaptation to physical
activity, from the changes that are characteristical for different pathological states. Sports heart represents
syndrome which implies advent hypertrophy of heart muscle, bradycardia in stand by condition and advent of
superior aerobical capabilities. It is also defined as an assemblage of morphological and functional
characteristics of heart which are developing during time under influence of sport activity. Phenomena of
“sports heart”, in sport medicine and medicine in general represents an important question, because of
differentiation of this physiological hypertrophy from pathological, which occurs both in cardiological and noncardiological states. Also, an important question that is asked is the question of time that is necessary to develop
a sport heart, and type and intensity of sport activity which can cause such changes. Diagnoses of the syndrome
itself is set by different diagnostical procedures and changes on electrocardiography, echocardiography and
cardiopulmonary. Extremely important thing, both for doctors and trainers is the diference between symptoms
and results of sports heart comparing to pathological states that can be life threatening, because there is a crucial
difference between prohibition of active sports training and prohibition of sport activities in general. This
implicates that the evaluation of further active practicing of intensive physical activity includes whole team
which brings the final and best conclusion. Doubtlessly, practesing sport is important factor which contributes
improvement of life qualitz of every single person. There is a big attention paid to the training process, diet,
psychological preparation, all with a single goal to achieve top results. With regard to athletes exhibit
tremendous physical effort, the question when to do cardiac checkups and how often. It is important to clearly
delimit the adaptive of the pathological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of athletes, as we
unfortunately witnessed frequent instances of sudden cardiac death of athletes, where often unrecognized causes
of death are electrophysiological disorders. This is important in the planning of physical activity in both elite
athletes, and those who are just starting to play sports. Given the serious health and socio-economic importance
of sport and physical activity, we should know that on the other side there are consequences of the decision to
banning training are great, especially when it comes to professional sports, and our criteria for such decisions
must be strictly defined and make a consultation with a team of professionals, including doctors, coaches,
psychologies. Patients therefore always deserve special monitoring and evaluation because the athletes are the
ones who do not bring happiness and joy to themselves, but the thousands of people who love and respect.
Key words: sports heart, physical activity, hypertrophy