Application Activity 2 Robin LeRosen University of Virginia EDIS 5500 Linguistics Christine Hardigree February 28, 2014 Application Activity #2, 1 This lesson is designed to build the mental lexicon of students for Economics concepts. In Virginia, the concept of types of resources in the Economics strand is first introduce in the Grade 2 History and Social Science Standards of Learning: 2.7 The student will describe natural resources (water, soil, wood, and coal), human resources (people at work), and capital resources (machines, tools, and buildings). This lesson will focus just on natural and human resources, and capital resource would be the focus of further lessons. Capital Resources are key to the understanding of resource types, but I think introducing all three resources types at once is unnecessarily taxing on the students’ growing lexicons. This lesson could be used for second grade and higher. The concept of human and natural resources is fundamental for Economic concepts in the higher grades, so it could be used for any Elementary or Middle School level students that needed a stronger mental lexicon for resources. It could be adapted for higher grades to study renewable and nonrenewable resources. This is designed to meet the needs of ELL students, through connection to the L1 and through repeated visual cues. However, this would be an effective lesson for all students. The lesson starts with building the mental lexicon around known words and concepts, human and nature, through meronymy, and then leads students to the concept of natural resources and human resources and building a semantic web of these resources based on hyponomy. Step 1: Brainstorming words related to HUMAN and NATURE The teacher will place 2 large chart papers in the room with HUMAN and NATURE written on them. Each chart will have an accompanying picture to cue ELL students to the meaning of the word. Students will brainstorm related words and write them, or draw pictures Application Activity #2, 2 on the chart paper. Bilingual dictionaries for each students’ home language would be accessible near the charts to students can look up the words, and write the words for HUMAN and NATURE in their L1 on the charts. This is an open-ended activity to generate prior knowledge. This would best be done prior to Steps 2 -8. Perhaps during a morning routine when students are unpacking, a few at a time could go to the charts and add words or pictures. Or this could be done as part of a center during literacy stations. Step 2: Build Understanding of HUMANS and NATURE by Meronymy Using the student-generated brainstorming charts as a starting point, the teacher will then guide the students through creating a semantic map of HUMAN based on the part-towhole relationship of the meronym. Human is the whole; the parts of the body are the parts. The teacher would say, “What are the parts that make up a human body?” As students volunteer words, and words are taken from the anchor charts, the following semantic map would be created: HUMAN hand feet brain eyes legs Application Activity #2, 3 As each word is added, the teacher should point to the body part on her own body, and have the students point to it on their body. She can then add a quick sketch or drawing as she writes it on the board. The word for HUMAN in the students’ L1’s should also be added to the chart. The same process would then be followed for NATURE. The word HUMAN would be done first because it is more concrete and real to the students. NATURE is more of an abstract concept, and all of the items listed may not be as familiar to students as body parts (such as forests and lakes). The term meronymy would not be used with students, but the teacher would say, “What are parts of nature?” NATURE sun grass ocean trees lake During centers or other time in the day, the teacher would have a few students add illustration to these charts. Step 3 would be continued later in the day, or the following day. Step 3: Define RESOURCE After reviewing the semantic map for NATURE and HUMAN, the teacher will introduce the word RESOURCE and provide a definition and a few examples in context. The Application Activity #2, 4 teacher should also include a photograph for each item, or draw a picture to match. The underlined words in these sentences should be accompanied with a picture cue. RESOURCE: A tool or item that is used to help do something or to help make something The books in our library are a resource to help us learn and read. The books help us to learn. The doctor is a resource to go to for medicine when you are sick. The doctor helps us to feel better. The carpenter uses wood to make the table. The wood is a resource for making furniture. Step 4: Connect the terms HUMANS, NATURE and RESOURCES. Build understanding of Natural Resource & Human Resource by Hyponomy The teacher would then have a large chart paper (or 2 chart papers connecting) with RESOURCE written on it, and NATURAL RESOURCE and HUMAN RESOURCE underneath. This semantic web is based on hyponomy. Natural Resources are a type of Resources. Sun, water, soil and plans are all types of natural resources. For NATURAL RESOURCES, add the brief definition: things that we use from nature. Ask students “What do we use from nature? How?” An example can be water, and the teacher explains that we use water for cooking and drinking. For HUMAN RESOURCES, write the brief definition: People at work. Say, “Humans do work with their bodies.” Relate this back to the first Human chart paper, and give an example, saying “Farmers use their hands to plant and harvest crops. The crops, or Application Activity #2, 5 plants such as corn or apples, are natural resources.” The add farmers to the Natural Resources map and apple trees and corn plants to natural resources.” Include a wide variety of human resources, to represent the different body parts that are used by human resources (scientist uses their brain and hands, soccer player uses their feet). The teacher can have the students kinesthetically involved in his vocabulary building by miming or acting out with their bodies a human resource using a natural resource (such as a farmer planting seeds). Step 5: Adding Visual Cues Students will add visual cues to semantic maps for Natural Resource and Human Resource. Students may use magazines to find and cut out pictures to match natural and human resources, or create their own illustrations. Visual cues and examples will help to add words and concepts to their mental lexicon, and therefore increase the priming process when they are activating words and knowledge. Step 6: Vocabulary building for Human Resources and Natural Resources Students will work in pairs to create a vocabulary Four Square for Human Resources or Natural Resources. Each pair will then join up with another pair who has the other type of RESOURCES Human Resources: People at work Natural Resources: things that we use from nature water doctor sunlight Apple tree painter farmer Application Activity #2, 6 resource to share. (i.e. Maria and Paul, who created a Four Square for Natural Resources, will then pair up with Tammy and Michel who did Human Resources). The Four Square Template will look like this: Word: ____Human Resource_________________________ Word in Another Language: Definition in your owns words: Examples with Pictures: Use in a Sentence: Being able to use a word in context in a sentence is key to semantic understanding. It is important for this work to be collaborative, so that ELL students can hear how their peers would use these new words in a sentence. The terms NATURAL, HUMAN and RESOURCE are collocates. Likely at the beginning of this lesson, students may not have made these connections before. As this vocabulary is learned and practiced through adding to the mental lexicon, these collocates will prime in the students’ brains. Mental lexicons grow over time. These semantic maps are just an introduction to concepts that will be continually taught and reviewed. Therefore, they should be kept accessible and visible in the classroom, so that students can add to them as they learn more about resources.