 Industrial production: mass production, import, department stores
 Urbanization: industrial cities, commercials, posters, product labels
 National romanticism: nature, the middle ages (medieval churches and castles)
 Rustic (folk) tradition: form, material, function (handicraft skills, genuine materials and
functional form)
 Education & applied arts: central school of applied arts 1885-1949, the ateneum building 1887,
applied arts in focus of development from 1890s
From the end of 1890s to the beginning of 1910s building activity was extremely lively in
Finland, which was at that point a culturally and economically flourishing Autonomous Grand
Duchy of Russia. During this period 60 churches, several hundred schools, many cultural
buildings, most of the business and dwelling houses in city centres as well as luxurious villa
areas in cities like Helsinki and Tampere were built
The dominating style was jugend/art nouveau, which was inspired partly by national history,
especially medieval architecture and Karelian folk style, partly by European art nouveau
centres like Scotland (Charles Rennie Macintosh), England (The Studio magazine), Brussels
(Victor Horta, Henry van de Velde), Germany (The Pan magazine), Vienna (Wiener Secession)
In the cityscape jugend/art nouveau style formed the visible face of Finnish national identity
and growing wishes for national independency. Some of the most important examples of art
nouveau/jug end architecture can be found from cities of Tampered and Helsinki
(Katajanokka, Eira villa area, house of insurance company Pohjola, Railway Station, National
Theatre, National Museum, Kallio church)
 In this building architects Herman Gesellius (1874-1916), Armas Lindgren (1874-1929) and
Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950) launched the new architectural language. While still Grand Duchy
of Russia, Finland was granted permission to display its economical life and industry in an own
pavilion separate from the Russian exhibition buildings. After Finland was declared
independent in 1917, most of the European nations remembered Finland’s show in Paris
World Exhibition when they were asked for recognition to the new independent state
 Ceiling paintings by Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1865-1931). Interior design displayed in ‘Iris Room’
designed by Society for Friends of the Finnish Handcraft, which was founded in 1879 by artist
Fanny Churberg. Textile designs by Akseli Gallen-Kallela, furniture and ceramics by Iris-factory
(furniture/Louis Sparre and ceramics/Alfred William Finch)
Iris Factory (1897-1902)
 Louis Sparre (1863-1964), a Swedish baron, settled in Finland in 1889 after being invited by
his friend Akseli Gallen-Kallela. In the city of Porvoo Sparre founded Iris-factory, inspired by
John Ruskin, William Morris and The Studio magazine. Sparre himself designed furniture. His
Finnish wife Eva Mannerheim, who also was a designer, specialized in book binding.
 Alfred William Finch (1854-1930), an English-Belgian artist, settled in Finland 1897 after
meeting Louis Sparre in Belgium. Inspired by his friend Henry van de Velde Finch designed
ceramics for Iris Factory and started teaching of ceramic art in Finland in 1902.
 After the factory went bankrupt and was closed (1897-1902) Finch stayed in Finland. He
began teaching ceramics in Central School of Applied Arts With his paintings he introduced
pointillism and ‘rainbow colours’ in Finnish art of the early 20th Century
 Search for the original, untouched Finland followed the 1835 published Kalevala epic. For
example Akseli Gallen-Kallela and Louis Sparre travelled to eastern and north-eastern Karelia
and started to use natural elements and old Karelian folk art as a basis of their art and design.
I.K. Inha photographed Karelian villages, people, architecture and interiors in 1895. Architects
Yrjö Blomstedt and Victor Sucksdorff published a book “Karelian buildings and decorative
forms from Central Russian Karelia” (pictures were published 1900, texts in Finnish 1901 and
in German 1902, cover was designed by artist Väinö Blomstedt)
 Apartment houses show architectural language based on Finnish architectural history,
especially medieval churches and castles, and decorative details based on Finnish nature, its
animals and vegetation
Herman Gesellius (1874-1916) - Armas Lindgren (1874-1929) - Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950)
* Tallberg House (1896-1897, Satamakatu - Luotsikatu, Katajanokka, Helsinki)
* Olofsborg (1901-1902, Kauppiaankatu 7 - Katajanokankatu 1, Katajanokka, Helsinki)
* Fabianinkatu 17, “The House of Doctors” (1901, Helsinki)
* House ”EOL” (1902-03, Luotsikatu 5, Katajanokka, Helsinki)
Gustaf Estlander
* Bulevardi 11, Helsinki (1904)
Onni Tarjanne (Törnqvist, 1864-1946) and Lars Sonck (1870-1956)
* Uudenmaankatu 17 – Fredrikinkatu 25, Helsinki (1900)
 In their first public buildings architects Herman Gesellius (1874-1916), Armas Lindgren
(1874-1929) and Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950) formed a national romantic style based on
Finnish history and materials like natural stone and wood. Materials were used according to
their own natural characteristics and ornaments were based on Finnish flora and fauna
* House of the Insurance Company Pohjola (1901, Aleksanterinkatu, Helsinki)
- Interior design by Gesellius – Lindgren- Saarinen
- Stone ornaments and sculptures in the facade by artist Hilda Flodin
* Finnish National Museum (1901-1906, Mannerheimintie, Helsinki)
- Bear statue by sculptor Emil Wikström
Eliel Saarinen (1873-1950)
 In his own building projects in the 1910’s Eliel Saarinen started to approach European art
nouveau style and growing wishes for more international, reasonable and functional
architecture which he realized in the spirit of German and American models, for example the
much admired Louis Sullivan’s urban architecture
* Helsinki Railway Station (1914/1919)
* Viipuri Railway Station (1913)
 Jugend architecture followed the ideal of architecture and interior design formed as a
inseparable whole, each part speaking the same language, each space designed as an artistic
unit serving its special purpose through minutely designed details to fit the function and
individual spirit of the room.
 Many of the architects designed furniture, and their close friends included artists and
designers who worked in different fields of art producing paintings, murals, painted glass,
metalwork, furniture, textiles and ceramics.
 Among the most impressive creations where this ideal is turned into reality are
* Tampere Dome Church (1907) by architect Lars Sonck (1870-1956), decorated with mural
paintings by Hugo Simberg (1873-1917) and Magnus Enckell (1870-1925)
* Suur-Merijoki manor, 1901-1904, Viborg county, for Max Othmar Neuscheller (1862-1919) the
building got destroyed during the II world war
 Architects Herman Gesellius, Armas Lindgren, Eliel Saarinen
 Mural paintings by Gabriel Engberg and Väinö Blomstedt
 Metalwork by Eric O.W. Ehrström
Textiles and glass paintings Olga Ehrström
Wooden sculptures by Felix Nylund
Designs for woodworks by Loja Gesellius-Saarinen
 Ceramic design based on traditional Finnish / Karelian ornaments
 Arabia porcelain factory 1902-1917, designed for export to USA, anonymous designer
 Lars Sonck, Eliel Saarinen, Louis Sparre, Yrjö Blomstedt, Birger Federley, Max Frelander, Valter
Jung, Karl Lindahl, Armas Lindgren, Hjalmar Nyström, Lars Sonck, Walter Thomé
Textiles and rugs
 Väinö Blomstedt, Eliel Saarinen, Akseli Gallen-Kallela, Gabriel Engberg, Eva MannerheimSparre, Emma Saltzman, Louis Sparre, Sigrid Wickström
Light Fittings
 Koru Oy, Jarl Eklund, Edvard Elenius, Armas Lindgren, Germund Paaer, Eino Schroderus, Lars
Sonck, Valter Thomé, Sigrid Wickström
Students and colleagues of Alfred William Finch who worked as ceramic artists before the
Arabia Factory Art Department was founded in 1932
 Ellen Borenius, Anni Brandt, Anna Dahlbäck, Aina Eklund, Sigrid Granfelt, Maija Grotell, Johan
ja Anna Grönroos, Robert Hancock, Siiri Hariola, Karl Hildén, Elin Juselius, Elsa KyanderElenius, Tamara Laurén, Fanny Alina Lindfors, Mirjam Stäuber, Gerda Thesleff, Aili Warén,
Sigrid Wickström, Sigrid Wiljomaa
Ville Vallgren (1855-1940)
 Miniature sculptures in bronze, 1890s- ca 1900 reflecting the continental, french art nouveau