Water Pollution and Solutions KEY 1. How can water be scarce when there is so much of it on Earth’s surface? 97% of ALL water is salt water 3% is fresh water ¾ is FROZEN 2. Groundwater is the water stored in soil and rock beneath Earth’s surface. 3. Earth’s supply of fresh water is limited but RENEWABLE . (through the water cycle) 4. When do water shortages occur? When people or a population use water faster than the water cycle can replace it 5. Pollutants are substances that cau se pollution. 6. Since fresh water supplies are scarce, water pollution can be devastating. 7. Iron and Copper-pollutants that make water unpleasant to drink/bath in 8. Mercury and Benzene - pollutants that can cause sickness or death if exposed often 9. Most water pollution is the result of what? Human activities: sewage, waste run -off, carelessness, dumping 10. The 6 Sources of Water Pollution are Household sewage agriculture oil and gasoline spills Industry sediment heat 11. SEWAGE: What is it?any human waste washed down drains, sinks, toilets, and showers 12. AGRICULTURE : pesticides are chemicals that kill crop -destroying organisms 13. INDUSTRY: Some plants, mills, factories, and mines produce wastes that can pollute water14. SEDIMENTS: What are sediments and how can they be a pollutant? Particles of sand, clay and rock. They block sunlight and prevent plants from photosynthesizing 15. HEAT: How can it negatively affect a body of water? Kill organisms living in the water (plants and animals) 16. OIL AND GASOLINE: One of the most dramatic forms of water pollution. Why?? Oil is a pollutant that nature can handle in small amounts. The keys to keeping water clean: a. Treating sewage b. Reducing pollutants c. Cleaning oil/gasoline spills promptly 17. Instead of releasing wastes into the environment, industries can reduce the pollutants and reuse their wastes to recover useful materials. 18. Gasoline or oil that leaks from underground tanks is extremely harmful 19. What are some common household water pollut ants in your home? 20. How can YOU avoid causing water pollution?