Foundations of Physics Major Scientists of Kinematics (the study of motion) Galileo Sir Isaac Newton Albert Einstein 1. Developed Scientific 1. Discovered concept of 1. Explained how gravity Method gravity worked through the 2. Discovered Concepts 2. Wrote 3 laws of Theory of Relativity of friction and inertia motion Distance Meter (m) Basic Units of Physics Mass Kilogram (kg) Speed Meters per second (m/s) Acceleration Meters per second squared (m/s2) Time Second (s) Force Newton = kilogram meters per second squared (N = kg m/s2) Wrong assumptions before the scientific method When Galileo demolished geocentrism(belief that planets orbited the earth instead of the sun), he also tore down several other cherished (but wrong) Aristotelian views. Aristotle explained motion by asserting that all matter had a proper place to which it tried to return, and that heavier objects should fall faster than lighter ones. But through meticulous experimentation, Galileo showed that objects falling or rolling downhill accelerate at the same constant rate, which we call acceleration due to gravity Aristotle had also argued that a moving object in its natural place, such as a ball rolling along the ground, would gradually stop because it was its nature to stay there. But as Galileo realized, and as Newton later formalized, the apparent slowing of moving objects was caused by friction; take that away, and a ball would roll on forever Along similar lines, the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic view of physics implied that a piece of shot dropped from a ship's crow's nest would land some distance behind the mast because the ship moved forward while the ball fell. But Galileo showed that the cannonball, which shares the ship's forward velocity, would actually fall straight to the base of the mast. In these ways, Galileo, one of the fathers of experimental science, prefigured Newton's laws of motion, as well as the concept of reference frames while also disproving some of the chief arguments against Earth's movement 1 What other assumptions were believed before the scientific method? Make sure to cite your source. 1 Gerbis, Nicholas. "10 Things We Thought Were True Before the Scientific Method" 17 July 2014. HowStuffWorks.com. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/scientific-experiments/10-things-we-thought-were-true-before-scientific-method.htm> 05 June 2015.