Chapter 2 Notes

Name: _________________________________ Date: ____________________ Period: _______
Chapter 2.1 Earth: A Unique Planet
1) Earth
a) A ______________ planet in our solar system.
b) The only planet with ______________ water on its surface.
c) The only planet with an __________________ that contains a large amount
of _________________.
d) The only planet know to support ___________.
2) The Earth’s Shape: A Sphere?
a) The Earth appears to be a perfect _____________, however it is not.
i) The Earth is an ___________________ _______________________.
(1) The circumference around the ______________ is 40,007 km.
(2) circumference around the ____________________ is 40,074 km.
ii) This shape is caused by the __________________ of the earth on its axis.
(1) The ____________ is an imaginary line that runs from the _________
pole to the south pole.
3) Hydrosphere & Atmosphere
a) All of the earth’s _____________ makes up the _____________________.
i) The earth is ________% covered by water.
(1) ________% of that water is in the _______________.
(2) ____% of that water is in ________ , rivers, streams, and ____ sheets.
b) All of the _________ that surround the earth makes up the _____________.
i) The atmosphere is 78% ____________, 21% oxygen, and ___% other
gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and ______________.
4) The Earth’s Interior
a) The earth’s interior is made up of ____________ major zones: the _______,
_______________, and ____________.
b) The Earth’s Crust
i) The crust is the __________________ zone of the earth.
ii) It is _________ and ___________ and makes up only ___% of the
earth’s mass.
iii) ____________ crust is found beneath the oceans and is only 5 km to 10
km thick.
iv) _________________ crust makes up the continents and is 15 km to 80
km thick.
Name: _________________________________ Date: ____________________ Period: _______
c) The Earth’s Mantel
i) This zone of rock is _____________ km thick.
ii) Makes up 2/3 of the earth’s ____________.
iii) It is broken up into two sections: the _____________________ and the
(1) The lithosphere
(a) The _________, ___________, ___________, upper portion of
the earth’s crust.
(b) It is 15 km to 300 km thick.
(2) Asthenosphere
(a) An extremely _____ layer of the mantel that is under an enormous
amount of ________________.
(b) Due to the enormous amount of ___________ and pressure, the
solid rock of the asthenosphere has the ability to ___________.
This is called ____________________.
d) The Earth’s Core
i) This section is the _____________ of the earth and is made mostly of
ii) The core makes up 1/3 of the earth’s _____________.
iii) The core is also broke into two sections: the ___________ core and the
_____________ core.
(1) The outer core
(a) Scientists believe the outer core is a dense _____________ layer
about ____________ km thick.
(2) The inner core
(a) Scientists believe the inner core is a dense ____________ sphere
with a radius of ____________ km.
5) Seismic Waves
a) A form of a wave (____________) that scientists use to study the earth’s
b) There are _______ forms of waves that scientists use to study the earth’s
interior, they are P waves or ______________ waves and S waves or
__________________ waves.
c) P waves travel through ______________, ___________, and ___________
while S waves only travel through _______________.
Name: _________________________________ Date: ____________________ Period: _______
d) Primary waves travel ______________ than secondary waves.
e) Scientists can use these waves to study the earth’s interior because the _____
and _______________ of both types of waves are affected by the
_____________________ of the material they travel through. The more
______________ the material the faster the waves travel.
6) Andrija Mohorovicic
a) Performed a seismic wave study in 1909 that showed the _______________
of the ______________ in the earth’s interior.
b) Mohorovicic discovered that the ___________ of the seismic waves
_________________ at the boundary from the crust to the mantel.
i) This boundary is called the Mohorovicic discontinuity, or the _________.
ii) This also indicates the earth’s mantle is _____________ than the crust.
c) Changes in P wave and S wave ____________ occur at the boundary of each
__________ of the earth’s interior. The S-waves also appear to disappear at
the earth’s outer __________due to its ______________ like properties, and
the P-waves slow down for the outer core but speed up for the inner core.
d) ___________ zones are areas in the earth where P and S waves do not travel
or only P waves travel.
i) This absence of waves is caused by a change in _____________ rigidity.
Meaning its ability to resist __________________ is different throughout
the area of the earth.
ii) Shadow zones can be caused by the makeup of the __________________
and ____________________.
7) The Earth’s Magnetic Field
a) Along with the __________ and ___________ pole, the earth also has
_______________ poles.
i) The poles are called the north ___________________ pole and the south
geomagnetic pole.
b) The ________________________ is a region of space beyond the earth’s
__________________ that is affected by the earth’s ______________ field.
c) Scientists believe that the _____________ within the earth’s ____________
core creates our magnetic field because it is mostly _______ which is a good
conductor. However, scientists also know that the _______ and __________
have magnetic fields but the sun contains _________ iron and the moon
doesn’t have a ____________ core.
Name: _________________________________ Date: ____________________ Period: _______
d) The exact source of the earth’s magnetic field has yet to be proven.
8) The Earth’s Gravity
a) ___________ is the force of attraction that exists between all ____________
in the universe.
b) Originally studied and by Sir Isaac Newton who describe the effect of
gravity through his __________ ____ _____________________.
c) This law states that the _________ of attraction between any ______ objects
depends upon their _____________ and the ______________ between them.
i) The ____________ the mass and the ______________ the distance
between two objects the _____________ the gravitational attraction they
have between themselves.
d) Weight and mass are not the same.
i) __________ is the amount of ______________ in an object and is
measured in kilograms (kg).
ii) ____________ is the force of ________________ on that matter and is
measured in newton’s (N).
(1) The weight of an object depends on its ____________ and distance
from the earth’s ________________.
(2) The ____________ to earth’s center the ________________ the
object will become and the ____________ away from the earth’s
center the ______________ the object will become.
(3) At the earth’s _____________ a 1 kg mass weighs about 10 N, and
19,778 km from the earth’s _________ a 1 kg mass now weighs 1 N.
(4) Due to the ____________ spheroid shape of the earth, your ________
at the equator is about .3% less than your weight at the ____________